Yunganglong

Yunganglong is an extinct genus of basal hadrosauroid dinosaur known from the early Late Cretaceous lower Zhumapu Formation of Zuoyun County, Shanxi Province of northeastern China. It contains a single species, Yunganglong datongensis.[1]

Yunganglong
Temporal range: early Late Cretaceous
Yunganglong
Skull elements
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Clade: Hadrosauromorpha
Genus: Yunganglong
Wang et al., 2013
Type species
Yunganglong datongensis
Wang et al., 2013

Discovery and naming

Yunganglong vertebrae
Partial dorsal and two caudal vertebrae

Yunganglong was first described and named by Run-Fu Wang, Hai-Lu You, Shi-Chao Xu, Suo-Zhu Wang, Jian Yi, Li-Juan Xie, Lei Jia and Ya-Xian Li in 2013 and the type species is Y. datongensis. The generic name honors Yungang Grottoes, a UNESCO World Heritage site built in the 5th and 6th centuries about 50 km east of the fossil locality, and derived from long meaning "dragon" in Chinese. The specific name refers to the city of Datong, located in northern Shanxi province, where the holotype was found.[1]

Cervical vertebra of Yunganglong
Cervical vertebra

Yunganglong is known solely from the holotype SXMG V 00001, field number ZY007, an associated but disarticulated partial skeleton housed at the Shanxi Museum of Geology. The holotype came from a single individual, and includes the caudodorsal part of the skull, ZY007-37 and ZY007-38, separated along the floor of the braincase; two cervical vertebrae ZY007-40 and ZY007-41; partial dorsal neural arch and neural processes ZY007-36; two caudal vertebrae, including the proximal ZY007-27 and the middle ZY007-19; distal portions of both ischia (left ZY007-11 and right ZY007-12, distal end of left femur ZY007-32, proximal portion of right tibia ZY007-1, and distal portion of left tibia with astragalus ZY007-2. The remains were collected in 2011 from Locality 7 of the Zhumapu Formation, as a part of a project to find dinosaurs for the Shanxi Museum of Geology, initiated by the Department of Land and Resources of Shanxi Province. SXMG V 00001 was found in the vicinity of Zuoyun County, from the lower part of Zhumapu Formation, dating to the early Late Cretaceous based on biostratigraphic correlations, overlying the late Early Cretaceous Zuoyun Formation. Other than SXMG V 00001, ankylosaur and ceratopsian remains were found from the newly discovered localities. The first dinosaur record in Shanxi Province was reported by Young (1958), from two localities in Zuoyun County. He assigned hadrosauroid material recovered from the Xinyaogou locality of the Zuoyun area to Bactrosaurus johnsoni, including two isolated teeth, some vertebrae including a series of 25 caudal vertebrae, one rib, one right humerus and several manual and pedal bones. Although no overlapping material exists, based on the more basal phylogenetic position and lower stratigraphic horizon of Yunganglong compared to Bactrosaurus, Young's material more probably pertains to Yunganglong.[1]

Description

Yunganglong femur
Distal end of left femur

Wang et al. (2013) diagnosed Yunganglong datongensis using a unique combination of four characters. The caudal surface of the supraoccipital in Yunganglong and more advanced hadrosauroids is inclined steeply forward at approximately 45°, while nearly vertical in Jintasaurus and less derived Hadrosauriformes. The horizontal portion of the paroccipital process is caudolaterally extended and accompanied by the squamosal, but laterally extended in Jintasaurus and less derived Hadrosauriformes. As observed in Yunganglong and Jintasaurus, but not in Bactrosaurus and more advanced taxa, the pendent portion of the paroccipital process does not curve cranially. Finally, Yunganglong and less derived Hadrosauriformes possess a deep, U-shaped, intercondylar extensor groove on the femur, partially enclosed by expansion of medial and lateral condyles, while in more advanced taxa (e.g. Nanyangosaurus) it is fully enclosed.[1]

Yunganglong cannot be directly compared with three other non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids. These include Shuangmiaosaurus from the early Late Cretaceous of Liaoning Province of northeastern China, and two other early Late Cretaceous taxa from North America: the Cenomanian Protohadros and the Turonian Jeyawati. Like other hadrosauroids, Yunganglong was a ground-dwelling herbivore that could walk bipedally, and could stand on all four legs. The skull of Yunganglong is relatively wide and low.[1]

Phylogeny

Based on its morphology Wang et al. (2013) showed that Yunganglong was more derived than the basal hadrosauriform Iguanodon but more primitive than the hadrosaurids, such as the well known Edmontosaurus and Corythosaurus. To further explore the phylogenetic position of Y. datongensis among hadrosauriforms, Wang et al. (2013) used a modified version of the data matrix first presented by Sues and Averianov (2009). Nanyangosaurus, Shuangmiaosaurus, and Yunganglong were added to the matrix, and two character codings were modified. In the strict consensus tree, Yunganglong was recovered as more advanced than Probactrosaurus, in an unresolved polytomy with Jintasaurus, Protohadros, Nanyangosaurus, Shuangmiaosaurus, Levnesovia, Bactrosaurus, Tanius, Telmatosaurus and the clade formed by Aralosaurus and Hadrosauridae. The 50% majority rule tree resolved its phylogenetic position further, as shown in the cladogram below.[1]

Yunganglong ischia
Portions of ischia
Yunganglong tibia and astragalus
Tibia and astragalus
Hadrosauriformes 

Altirhinus kurzanovi

Iguanodon bernissartensis

Ouranosaurus nigeriensis

 Hadrosauroidea

Equijubus normani

Eolambia caroljonesa

Fukuisaurus tetoriensis

Probactrosaurus gobiensis

Jintasaurus meniscus

Nanyangosaurus zhugeii

Protohadros byrdi

Shuangmiaosaurus gilmorei

Yunganglong datongensis

Tanius sinensis

Bactrosaurus johnsoni

Levnesovia transoxiana

Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus

Aralosaurus tuberiferus

Hadrosauridae

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Wang, R. F.; You, H. L.; Xu, S. C.; Wang, S. Z.; Yi, J.; Xie, L. J.; Jia, L.; Li, Y. X. (2013). Evans, David C (ed.). "A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China". PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e77058. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077058. PMC 3800054. PMID 24204734.
Aquilarhinus

Aquilarhinus (meaning "eagle snout" after the unusual beak morphology) is a genus of hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur from the Aguja Formation from Texas in the United States. The type and only species is Aquilarhinus palimentus. Due to its unusual dentary, it has been inferred to have had shovel-like beak morphology, different from the beaks of other hadrosaurs. It was originally classified as a Kritosaurus sp. before being reclassified as a new genus in 2019.

Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Canardia

Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Hadrosauroidea

Hadrosauroidea is a clade or superfamily of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the "duck-billed" dinosaurs, or hadrosaurids, and all dinosaurs more closely related to them than to Iguanodon.They are from Asia, Europe and Africa. Many primitive hadrosauroids, such as the Asian Probactrosaurus and Altirhinus, have traditionally been included in a paraphyletic (unnatural grouping) "Iguanodontidae". With cladistic analysis, the traditional Iguanodontidae has been largely disbanded, and probably includes only Iguanodon and perhaps its closest relatives.

Hadrosauromorpha

Hadrosauromorpha is a cohort of iguanodontian ornithopods, defined in 2014 by David B. Norman to divide Hadrosauroidea into the basal taxa with compressed manual bones and a pollex, and the derived taxa that lack them. The clade is defined as all the taxa closer to Edmontosaurus regalis than Probactrosaurus gobiensis. This results in different taxon inclusion depending on the analysis.

Huxleysaurus

Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.

Iguanodontia

Iguanodontia (the iguanodonts) is a clade of herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Some members include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Iguanodon, Tenontosaurus, and the hadrosaurids or "duck-billed dinosaurs". Iguanodontians were one of the first groups of dinosaurs to be found. They are among the best known of the dinosaurs, and were among the most diverse and widespread herbivorous dinosaur groups of the Cretaceous period.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Jeyawati

Jeyawati is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur which lived during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous. The type species, J. rugoculus, was described in 2010, based on fossils recovered in the U.S. state of New Mexico.The holotype, MSM P4166, was discovered in the Moreno Hill Formation. A cladistic analysis indicates that Jeyawati was more plesiomorphic (ancestral) than Shuangmiaosaurus, Telmatosaurus, and Bactrosaurus, but more derived (less like the common ancestor) than Eolambia, Probactrosaurus, and Protohadros.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Lapampasaurus

Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.

Osmakasaurus

Osmakasaurus is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It is a basal iguanodontian which lived during the lower Cretaceous period (Valanginian age) in what is now Buffalo Gap of South Dakota, United States. It is known from the Chilson Member of the Lakota Formation. This genus was named by Andrew T. McDonald in 2011 and the type species is Osmakasaurus depressus. O. depressus was previously referred to as Camptosaurus depressus, and was first described in 1909 by Charles W. Gilmore.

Pareisactus

Pareisactus (from the Greek "pareisaktos", meaning "intruder", referring to being represented as a single element among hundreds of hadrosaurid bones) is a genus of rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Conquès Member of the Tremp Formation in the Southern Pyrenees of Spain. The type and only species is P. evrostos, known only from a single scapula.

Plesiohadros

Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Sahaliyania

Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.

Tsintaosaurini

Tsintaosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs native to Eurasia. It currently contains only Tsintaosaurus (from China) and Pararhabdodon (from Spain ).Koutalisaurus, also known from late Cretaceous Spain and formerly referred to Pararhabdodon

, may also be a tsintaosaurin because of its association with the latter genus; some recent work also suggests it may indeed be referrable to Pararhabdodon.

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

Zhumapu Formation

The Zhumapu Formation is an early Late Cretaceous geologic formation in Shanxi Province, China. The hadrosauroids Yunganglong and Zuoyunlong have been recovered from this unit.

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