Yumuktepe (or Yümüktepe) is a tell (ruin mound) at within the city borders of Mersin, Turkey. In 1936, the mound was on the outskirts of Mersin, but after a rapid increase of population, the mound was surrounded by the Toroslar municipality of Mersin.
Shown within Turkey
|Periods||Neolithic Age to Byzantine Empire|
Excavations during 1936-1938 period by British archaeologist John Garstang (1876–1956) who is the founder of the British Institute in Ankara, have revealed a neolithic settlement which continued up to medieval ages. However, the excavations halted during World War II and some documents in the Liverpool University have been lost after an air raid. After the war, John Garstang as well as Veli Sevin of İstanbul University and Isabella Caneva  of Sapienza University of Rome continued the excavations.
There are 23 levels of occupation dating from ca 6300 BC. In his book, Prehistoric Mersin, Garstang lists the tools unearthed in the excavations. The earliest tools are made of either stone or ceramic. Both agriculture and animal husbandry (sheep, cattle, goats and pigs) were among the economic activities in Yumuktepe. In the layer which corresponds to roughly 4500 BC, one of the earliest fortifications in human history exists. According to Isabella Caneva, during the chalcolithic age an early copper blast furnace was in use in Yumuktepe. Yumuktepe was probably a coastal settlement, but because of the alluvion carried by the nearby river Müftü, the mound is now 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) north of the Mediterranean shore.
Yumuktepe was a part of Kizuwatna a vassal kingdom of Hittite Empire. In a document of 1440 BC, a city named Pitura was mentioned. Pitura might be the ancient name of the settlement. But a recent research suggests Elipru as the original name of the settlement. It seems, like most Hittite lands, sea people from Europe plundered Yumuktepe in 13th century BC. A second blow was from Assyrian Empire from Upper Mesopotamia. During Roman Empire, a small city named Zephyrium was established to the south of Yumuktepe. But Emperor Hadrian (reigned 117-138) renamed the city as Hadrianapolis. During the early Byzantine Empire, the nearby settlement of Soli (10 kilometres (6.2 mi) at the west) flourished and Yumuktepe further lost its former status.
Anchiale (Ancient Greek: Ἀγχιάλη) or Anchialeia was a historic city of ancient Cilicia near modern Mersin, Turkey. It was inhabited during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras.Atatürk Monument (Mersin)
Atatürk Monument is a statue depicting Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, in Mersin, Turkey.Cilician Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Armenian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m.The Cilician Gates have been a major commercial and military artery for millennia. In the early 20th century, a narrow-gauge railway was built through them, and today, the Tarsus-Ankara Highway (E90, O-21) passes through them.
The southern end of the Cilician gates is about 44 km north of Tarsus and the northern end leads to Cappadocia.Dalisandus (Isauria)
Dalisandus or Dalisandos (Greek: Δαλισανδός) was a city in Isauria, near the river Cydnus. It is considered to have been near Sınabiç, 6 km north of Claudiopolis (present-day Mut, Mersin), Turkey.Dark faced burnished ware
Dark Faced Burnished Ware or DFBW is the earliest form of pottery developed in the western world.It was produced after the earliest examples from the independent phenomenon of the Jōmon culture in Japan and is predominantly found at archaeological sites in Lebanon, Israel southwest Syria and Cyprus. Some notable examples of Dark Faced Burnished Ware were found at Tell Judaidah (and nearby Tell Dhahab) in Amuq by Robert Braidwood as well as at Ras Shamra and Tell Boueid. Other finds have been made at Yumuktepe in Mersin, Turkey where comparative studies were made defining different categories of ware that have been generally grouped as DFBW. It is thought to have come as a development of White Ware and takes its name from the often dark coloured choice of clays from which it is made. Vessels are often coarse, tempered with grit or sand, burnished to a shiny finish and made with a variety of clays in different areas. The grit or sand is thought to have made the vessels easier to fire and the burnishing made them less permeable and suitable for heated liquid substances. Later examples are usually finer and more carefully burnished and decorated. Designs included rounded, inverted or straight sided bowls with plain rims, some with basic handles under the rims along with ring bases in the later pieces. Decorations included incised or impressed chevrons or motifs with pattern burnishing appearing in later periods. Other types of pottery were produced around the same time including coarse impressed ware, dark faced unburnished ware and washed impressed ware but these were less prevalent.DFBW has long been considered the forebear of the more polished examples such as Ancient Greek pottery.Dikilitaş, Mersin
Dikilitaş is the name of a rock monument and a neighbourhood of Mersin, Turkey named after the monument.Gözlükule
Gözlükule is a tumulus within the borders of Tarsus city, Mersin Province, Turkey. It is now a park with an altitude of 22 metres (72 ft) with respect to surrounding area.Karboğazı
Karboğazı is a mountain pass in Mersin Province, Turkey.
The pass at 37°18′N 34°43′E is in the rural area of Tarsus ilçe (district). It is to the north of Gülek and 6 km (3.7 mi) north west of the Turkish state highway D.750. Its distance to Tarsus is 60 km (37 mi) and to Mersin is 87 km (54 mi).Karboğazı means literally "snow-pass". It is situated in a high valley around a tributary of Berdan River in the Taurus Mountains. The upper reaches of the valley are usually snow-covered. The location was officially included in the Tourism centers of Mersin Province. With a peak at 3,524 m (11,562 ft), the area will be developed as a ski resort. Just to the south of the snow covered pass, there is a plateau, which is a popular picnic area encircled by pine forests.
However, Karboğazı is more than a touristic center. This pass was the scene of one of the critical fights during the Turkish War of Independence on 27–28 May 1920, called the Karboğazı ambush. A memorial was erected in the picnic area to commemorate the event.List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Mausoleum of Danyal
The Mousoleum of Danyal (Turkish: Danyal Makamı) is a small complex in Tarsus, Turkey, consisting of a mosque and a tomb, which is believed to be that of the biblical figure Daniel. Two arches of a Roman bridge were found in the basement of the mosque-tomb complex during a renovation project.Mersin Archaeological Museum
Mersin Archaeological Museum is a museum in Mersin, TurkeyMersin Interfaith Cemetery
Mersin Interfaith Cemetery (Turkish: Mersin Şehir Mezarlığı, also called Mersin Asri Cemetery and Akbelen Cemetery), is a burial ground in Mersin, Turkey. It is notable for being a common cemetery of all religions and includes graves of Muslims, Christians, and Jews.Mersin Museum
Mersin Museum is the main museum of Mersin, Turkey. It is operated by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.Mersin Province
The Mersin Province (Turkish: Mersin ili) is a province in southern Turkey, on the Mediterranean coast between Antalya and Adana. The provincial capital is the city of Mersin and the other major town is Tarsus, birthplace of St Paul. The province is part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region, that covers the provinces of Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay.Mersin State Art and Sculpture Museum
Mersin State Art and Sculpture Museum (Turkish: Mersin Devlet Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) is a museum in Mersin, Turkey. The museum is in the centrum at 36°47′56″N 34°37′47″E. It is in a neighborhood known for galleries and Art Club of İçel.
The construction date of the building is not known. Probably it was an inn for the villagers in the early days of Mersin. There were stables in the ground floor. Later it was converted to a hotel and was purchased by a family from Gülnar ilçe (district) . They named the hotel Gülnar Oteli ("Hotel Gülnar"). During the age of modern hotels, Hotel Gülnar was closed and was left alone for about twenty years.
With the support of İstemihan Talay , the minister of Culture between 1997-1999, the building was acquired by the government. Following a restoration project, in 2002, it was opened as a state art and sculpture museum. The ground floor is the gallery and the upper floor is reserved for the office and the meeting room.The construction material of the two storey building is cut stone. Corbels were made by lath and plaster method.Mersin Urban History Museum
Mersin Urban History Museum (Turkish: Mersin Kent Tarihi Müzesi) is a private museum in Mersin, Turkey.Soli (Cilicia)
Soli (Ancient Greek: Σόλοι, Sóloi), often rendered Soli/Pompeiopolis (Ancient Greek: Πομπηϊούπολις), was an ancient city and port in Cilicia, 11 km west of Mersin in present-day Turkey.Toroslar
Toroslar is a municipality and district governorate in Greater Mersin, Turkey. Mersin is one of 30 metropolitan centers in Turkey with more than one municipality within city borders. Now in Mersin there are four second-level municipalities in addition to Greater Mersin (büyükşehir) municipality. The mayor of Toroslar is Hamit Tuna (member of MHP, elected in 2009)).Tırmıl
Tırmıl (also Tırmıl Höyük) is a tumulus (Turkish: höyük) in Mersin, Turkey.