Yukon

Yukon[7] (/ˈjuːkɒn/ (listen); French: [jykɔ̃]; also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut). It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories.[8] Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukon's only city.

Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was originally named the Yukon Territory. The federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name,[7] though Yukon Territory is also still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT.[9] Though officially bilingual (English and French), the Yukon government also recognizes First Nations languages.

At 5,959 m (19,551 ft), Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent (after Denali in the U.S. state of Alaska). Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate.

Notable rivers include the Yukon River (after which the territory was named), as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White, and Tatshenshini rivers.

Yukon
Motto(s): 
(No official motto)[1]
YT
Canadian Provinces and Territories
CountryCanada
ConfederationJune 13, 1898 (9th)
CapitalWhitehorse
Largest cityWhitehorse
Largest metroWhitehorse
Government
 • CommissionerAngélique Bernard
 • PremierSandy Silver (Liberal)
LegislatureYukon Legislative Assembly
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats1 of 338 (0.3%)
Senate seats1 of 105 (1%)
Area
 • Total482,443 km2 (186,272 sq mi)
 • Land474,391 km2 (183,163 sq mi)
 • Water8,052 km2 (3,109 sq mi)  1.7%
Area rankRanked 9th
 4.8% of Canada
Population
(2016)
 • Total35,874 [2]
 • Estimate 
(2019 Q1)
40,369 [3]
 • RankRanked 13th
 • Density0.08/km2 (0.2/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Yukoner
FR: Yukonnais(e)
Official languages
  • English
  • French[4]
(ambiguous status)
GDP
 • Rank12th
 • Total (2011)C$2.660 billion[5]
 • Per capitaC$75,141 (3rd)
Time zoneUTC-8
Postal abbr.
YT
Postal code prefixY
ISO 3166 codeCA-YT
FlowerFireweed
TreeSubalpine fir[6]
BirdCommon raven
Websiteyukon.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories
Yukon River at Whitehorse -b
Downtown Whitehorse along the Yukon River

Etymology

The territory is named after the Yukon River, the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River.[10][11]

History

Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, and the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America.[12] The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations of the Yukon.[12]

The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U.S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, and which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada.

Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898.

Geography

Yukonwikimap
Map of Yukon

The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U.S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km (752 mi) mostly along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south.[13] Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains.

Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River. The southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon.

Canada's highest point, Mount Logan (5,959 m or 19,551 ft), is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north.

Mount Logan
Mount Logan from the southeast
Air North flight from Whithorse to Kelowna - the Whitehorse environs - Chadburn Lake and the Yukon River (14468759762)
Aerial photograph of Yukon

Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the AlsekTatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast.

Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the short growing season and severe climate.[14]

The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population; the second largest is Dawson City (pop. 2,016), which was the capital until 1952.

Adjacent territory/province/state

Climate

Yukon Köppen
Köppen climate types in Yukon

While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C (−76 °F) three times, 1947, 1954, and 1968. The most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F).[15]

Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July, August, and even September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and even May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C (97 °F) three times. The first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C (97 °F). 14 years later this record was almost beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C (97 °F) in May 1983. The old record was finally broken 21 years later in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C (97.7 °F).[16]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yukon[16]
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Whitehorse 21/8 70/46 −11/−19 12/−2
Dawson City 23/8 73/46 −22/−30 −8/−22
Old Crow 20/9 68/48 −25/−34 −13/−29

Demographics

Yukon municipalities
Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type

The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011.[2] With a land area of 474,712.64 km2 (183,287.57 sq mi), it had a population density of 0.1/km2 (0.2/sq mi) in 2011.[17]

Municipalities by population

Name Status[18] Official name Incorporation date[19] 2016 Census of Population[20]
Population (2016) Population (2011) Change Land area (km²) Population density
Carmacks Town Village of Carmacks November 1, 1984 493 503 −2.0% 36.95 13.3/km2
Dawson Town City of Dawson January 9, 1902 1,375 1,319 +4.2% 32.45 42.4/km2
Faro Town Town of Faro June 13, 1969 348 344 +1.2% 203.57 1.7/km2
Haines Junction Town Village of Haines Junction October 1, 1984 613 593 +3.4% 34.49 17.8/km2
Mayo Town Village of Mayo June 1, 1984 200 226 −11.5% 1.06 188.7/km2
Teslin Town Village of Teslin August 1, 1984 124 122 +1.6% 1.92 64.6/km2
Watson Lake Town Town of Watson Lake April 1, 1984 790 802 −1.5% 6.11 129.3/km2
Whitehorse City City of Whitehorse June 1, 1950 25,085 23,276 +7.8% 416.54 60.2/km2
Total municipalities 29,028 27,185 +6.8% 733.09 39.6/km2
Territory of Yukon 35,874 33,897 +5.8% 474,712.68 0.08/km2

Ethnicity

According to the 2006 Canada Census the majority of the territory's population was of European descent, although it has a significant population of First Nations communities across the territory.

The top ten ancestries were:[21]

Ranking Ethnic group Population
1. English 8,795
2. North American First Nations 7,705
3. Scottish 7,000
4. Canadian 6,075
5. Irish 5,735
6. German 4,835
7. French 4,330
8. Ukrainian 1,620
9. Dutch (Netherlands) 1,475
10. Norwegian 1,340

The 2011 National Household Survey examined Yukon's ethnocultural diversity and immigration. At that time, 87.7% of residents were Canadian-born and 24.2% were of Aboriginal origin. The most common countries of birth for immigrants were the United Kingdom (15.9%), the Philippines (15.0%), and the United States (13.2%). Among very recent immigrants (between 2006 and 2011) living in Yukon, 63.5% were born in Asia.[22]

Language

First Nations linguistic groups by tribes/clans[23]
Linguistic group Tribe/clan
Gwich'in Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation, Old Crow
Hän Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in First Nation, Dawson City
Upper Tanana White River First Nation, Beaver Creek
  • Small communities near Tok (Alaska)
Northern Tutchone Selkirk First Nation
Southern Tutchone Champagne and Aishihik First Nations, Haines Junction
Kaska Ross River Dena Council, Ross River
Inland Tlingit Teslin Tlingit Council
Tagish Carcross/Tagish First Nation
Mother tongue, 2011 census[24]
Rank Language Population Percent
1. English 28,065 82.9%
2. French 1,455 4.3%
3. German 805 2.4%
4. Tagalog 425 1.3%
5. Kaska 265 0.8%
6. Northern Tutchone 200 0.6%
7. Spanish 180 0.5%
8. Southern Tutchone 140 0.4%
8. Dutch 130 0.4%
10. Chinese 130 0.4%

The most commonly reported mother tongue among the 33,145 single responses to the 2011 Canadian census was English at 28,065 (85%).[24] The second-most common was 1,455 (4%) for French.[24] Among 510 multiple respondents, 140 of them (27%) reported a mother tongue of both English and French, while 335 (66%) reported English and a "non-official language" and 20 (4%) reported French and a "non-official language".[24]

The Yukon Language Act "recognises the significance" of aboriginal languages in Yukon; however, only English and French are available for laws, court proceedings, and legislative assembly proceedings.[25]

Religion

Iglesia católica de Santa María, Dawson City, Yukón, Canadá, 2017-08-27, DD 33
St. Mary Catholic Church in Dawson City, Yukon

The 2011 National Household Survey reported that 49.9% of Yukoners reported having no religious affiliation, the highest percentage in Canada. The most frequently reported religious affiliation was Christianity, reported by 46.2% of residents. Of these, the most common denominations were the Catholic Church (39.6%), the Anglican Church of Canada (17.8%) and the United Church of Canada (9.6%).[26]

Economy

Yukon's historical major industry was mining (lead, zinc, silver, gold, asbestos and copper). The government acquired the land from the Hudson's Bay Company in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush.

Thousands of these prospectors moved to the territory, ushering a period of Yukon history recorded by authors such as Robert W. Service and Jack London. The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as the territory's scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities, makes tourism the second most important industry.

Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity. The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined. Today, the government sector is by far the biggest employer in the territory, directly employing approximately 5,000 out of a labour force of 12,500, on a population of 36,500.[27]

On May 1, 2015, Yukon modified its Business Corporations Act,[28][29][30] in an effort to attract more benefits and participants to its economy. One amendment to the BCA lets a proxy be given for voting purposes. Another change will allow directors to pursue business opportunities declined by the corporation, a practice off-limits in most other jurisdictions due to the inherent potential for conflicts of interest.[27] One of the changes will allow a corporation to serve as a director of a subsidiary registered in Yukon.[31] The legislation also allows companies to add provisions in their articles of incorporation giving directors blanket approval to sell of all of the company's assets without requiring a shareholder vote.[31] If provided for by a unanimous shareholders agreement, a corporation is not required to have directors at all.[32] There is increased flexibility regarding the location of corporate records offices, including the ability to maintain a records office outside of Yukon so long as it is accessible by electronic means.[32]

Tourism

Packrafts on the Wheaton River (9603092959)
Packrafting the Wheaton River

Yukon's tourism motto is "Larger than life".[33] Yukon's tourism relies heavily on its natural environment, and there are many organized outfitters and guides available for activities such as but not limited to hunting, angling, canoeing/kayaking, hiking, skiing, snowboarding, ice climbing and dog sledding. These activities are offered both in an organized setting or in the backcountry, which is accessible by air or snowmobile. Yukon's festivals and sporting events include the Adäka Cultural Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival, and the Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous.

There are many opportunities to experience pre-colonial lifestyles by learning about Yukon's First Nations.[34] Wildlife and nature observation of large mammals, birds, and fish is accessible through Yukon's territorial[35] parks (Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park,[36] Tombstone Territorial Park,[37] Fishing Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park,[38] Coal River Springs Territorial Park)[39] and national parks (Kluane National Park and Reserve, Vuntut National Park, Ivvavik National Park) and reserves, or nearby Liard River Hot Springs Provincial Park in British Columbia.

Yukon's latitude enables the view of aurora borealis.

Culture

Ethnic groups

As noted above, the "aboriginal identity population" makes up a substantial minority, accounting for about 26 percent. Notwithstanding, the aboriginal culture is strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports, as in the Yukon Quest sled dog race. The modern comic-book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona.

Languages

Although English is the main language used in the territory, as evidenced by the census, the Government of Yukon recognizes several aboriginal languages as part of the cultural heritage of the territory: the Tlingit, and the less common Tahltan, as well as seven Athapaskan languages, Upper Tanana, Gwitchin, Hän, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Kaska and Tagish, some of which are rare.[40]

Music

With the Klondike Gold Rush, a number of folk songs from Yukon became popular, including "Rush to the Klondike" (1897, written by W. T. Diefenbaker), "The Klondike Gold Rush", "I've Got the Klondike Fever" (1898) and "La Chanson du Klondyke".

Popular culture

By far the strongest cultural and tourism aspect of Yukon is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush (1897–1899), which inspired such contemporary writers of the time as Jack London, Robert W. Service, and Jules Verne, and which continues to inspire films and games, such as Mae West's Klondike Annie and The Yukon Trail (see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush).

Notable residents

Notable residents have included Leslie Nielsen, Erik Nielsen, and Pierre Berton.

Events and festivals

Yukon also has a wide array of cultural and sporting events and infrastructures that attract artists, participants and tourists from all parts of the world; Yukon International Storytelling Festival, Dawson City Music Festival,[41] Yukon Quest, Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous, the Adäka Cultural Festival, the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre,[42] Northern Lights Centre,[43] Klondike Gold Rush memorials and activities, Takhini Hot Springs, and the Whitehorse fish ladder.[44]

Government

Chief Isaac of Han
Chief Isaac of the Hän, Yukon Territory, 1898

In the 19th century, Yukon was a segment of North-Western Territory that was administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, and then of the Northwest Territories administered by the federal Canadian government. It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories.[45] In 1898, it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and an appointed Territorial Council.[46]

Prior to 1979, the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The commissioner had a role in appointing the territory's Executive Council, served as chair, and had a day-to-day role in governing the territory. The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role. In 1979, a significant degree of power was devolved from the commissioner and the federal government to the territorial legislature which, in that year, adopted a party system of responsible government. This change was accomplished through a letter from Jake Epp, the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, rather than through formal legislation.

In preparation for responsible government, political parties were organized and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1978. The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon in January 1979. The Yukon New Democratic Party (NDP) formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000. The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party. The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002, with Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party forming the government as premier.

The Yukon Act, passed on April 1, 2003, formalized the powers of the Yukon government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government (e.g., control over land and natural resources). As of 2003, other than criminal prosecutions, the Yukon government has much of the same powers as provincial governments, and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same powers. Today the role of commissioner is analogous to that of a provincial lieutenant governor; however, unlike lieutenant-governors, commissioners are not formal representatives of the Queen but are employees of the federal government.

Although there has been discussion in the past about Yukon becoming Canada's 11th province, it is generally felt that its population base is too sparse for this to occur at present.

At the federal level, the territory is represented in the Parliament of Canada by a single Member of Parliament and one senator. Members of Parliament from Canadian territories are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens. One Yukon Member of Parliament, Erik Nielsen, was the Deputy Prime Minister under the government of Brian Mulroney, while another, Audrey McLaughlin, was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party from 1989 to 1995.

Federal representation

The entire territory is one riding (electoral district) in the House of Commons of Canada, also called Yukon. The current holder of the seat is Liberal Member of Parliament Larry Bagnell following his victory in the 2015 federal election.

Yukon is allocated one seat in the Senate of Canada and has been represented by three Senators since the position was created in 1975. The Senate position is held by Conservative senator Daniel Lang, who was appointed on the advice of then-Prime Minister Stephen Harper on December 22, 2008.[47][48] It was previously filled by Ione Christensen, of the Liberal Party. Appointed to the Senate in 1999 by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Christensen resigned in December 2006 to help her ailing husband. From 1975 to 1999, Paul Lucier (Liberal) served as Senator for Yukon. Lucier was appointed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

First Nations

Much of the population of the territory is First Nations. An umbrella land claim agreement representing 7,432 members of 14 different First Nations was signed with the federal government in 1993. Eleven of the 14 Yukon First Nations have negotiated and signed comprehensive land claim and self-government agreements. The 14 First Nations speak eight different languages.

The territory once had an Inuit settlement, located on Herschel Island off the Arctic coast. This settlement was dismantled in 1987 and its inhabitants relocated to the neighbouring Northwest Territories. As a result of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, the island is now a territorial park and is known officially as Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, Qikiqtaruk being the name of the island in Inuvialuktun.

Government Seat Chief
Carcross/Tagish First Nation Carcross Khà Shâde Héni Andy Carvill[49]
Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Haines Junction Steve Smith[50]
First Nation of Na-cho Nyak Dun Mayo Simon Mervyn[51]
Kluane First Nation Burwash Landing Mathieya Alatini[52]
Kwanlin Dün First Nation Whitehorse Doris Bill[53]
Liard River First Nation Watson Lake Daniel Morris[54]
Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation Carmacks Eric Fairclough[55]
Ross River Dena Council Ross River Jack Caesar[56]
Selkirk First Nation Pelly Crossing Kevin McGinty[57]
Ta'an Kwach'an Council Whitehorse Kristina Kane[58]
Teslin Tlingit Council Teslin Richard Sidney[59]
Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in Dawson City Roberta Joseph[60]
Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Old Crow Bruce Charlie[61]
White River First Nation Beaver Creek Angela Demit[62]

Transportation

High winds and snow
Road sign on Dempster Highway, Eagle Plains

Before modern forms of transportation, the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass and Dalton Trail, as well as the first Europeans.

Waterways

From the Gold Rush until the 1950s, riverboats plied the Yukon River, mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, with some making their way further to Alaska and over to the Bering Sea, and other tributaries of the Yukon River such as the Stewart River. Most of the riverboats were owned by the British-Yukon Navigation Company, an arm of the White Pass and Yukon Route, which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse.

Rail

The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine. It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season, with operations as far as Carcross.

Roads

Today, major land routes include the Alaska Highway, the Klondike Highway (between Skagway and Dawson City), the Haines Highway (between Haines, Alaska, and Haines Junction), and the Dempster Highway (linking Inuvik, Northwest Territories to the Klondike Highway, and the only road access route to the Arctic Ocean, in Canada), all paved except for the Dempster. Other highways with less traffic include the "Robert Campbell Highway" linking Carmacks (on the Klondike Highway) to Watson Lake (Alaska Highway) via Faro and Ross River, and the "Silver Trail" linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo, Elsa and Keno City to the Klondike Highway at the Stewart River bridge. Air travel is the only way to reach the far-north community of Old Crow.

Air

Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub, with scheduled direct flights to Vancouver, Kelowna, Calgary, Edmonton, Yellowknife, Inuvik, Ottawa, Dawson City, Old Crow and Frankfurt.[63] Whitehorse International Airport is also the headquarters and primary hub for Air North, Yukon's Airline. Every Yukon community is served by an airport or community aerodrome. The communities of Dawson City and Old Crow have regular scheduled service through Air North. Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries.

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada. February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
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  40. ^ Yukon Territory History and Culture, Pinnacle Travel
  41. ^ "Dawson Music Festival". Dcmf.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  42. ^ "Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre". Beringia.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  43. ^ "Northern Lights Centre". Northernlightscentre.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  44. ^ "Whitehorse fish ladder". Yukonenergy.ca. February 1, 2011. Archived from the original on September 3, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  45. ^ Coates and Morrison, p.74
  46. ^ Coates and Morrison, p.103
  47. ^ "Senators – Detailed Information". Parliament of Canada. Archived from the original on February 5, 2009. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
  48. ^ "Former Yukon MLA named to Senate seat". Cbc.ca. December 22, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
  49. ^ "Executive Council". Ctfn.ca. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  50. ^ "Dän nätthe dä̀tthʼi (Chief and Council)". Champagne and Aishihik First Nations. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  51. ^ "Governance and Administration". First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  52. ^ "Chief and Council". Kluane First Nation. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  53. ^ "Doris Bill elected Kwanlin Dun chief". CBC News. March 20, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  54. ^ "Liard First Nation". Kaska Dena Council. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  55. ^ "Chief & Council". Little Salmon Carmacks First Nation. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  56. ^ "Ross River Dena Council elects Jack Caesar as chief". CBC News. December 12, 2015. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  57. ^ Selkirk First Nation. "The Council". Selkirk First Nation. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  58. ^ "Chief and Council". Government of the Ta'an Kwäch'än Council. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  59. ^ "Richard Sidney elected chief of Teslin Tlingit Council". CBC News. July 15, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  60. ^ "Roberta Joseph new chief of Dawson's Tr'ondek Hwech'in". CBC News. October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  61. ^ "Bruce Charlie elected new chief of Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation". CBC News. May 3, 2016. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  62. ^ "Chief & Council". White River First Nation. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
  63. ^ "Timetable, Summer 2017" (PDF). Condor Airlines. August 6, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2017.

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 64°N 135°W / 64°N 135°W

Alaska Highway

The Alaska Highway (also known as the Alaskan Highway, Alaska-Canadian Highway, or ALCAN Highway) was constructed during World War II to connect the contiguous United States to Alaska across Canada. It begins at the junction with several Canadian highways in Dawson Creek, British Columbia, and runs to Delta Junction, Alaska, via Whitehorse, Yukon. When it was completed in 1942 it was about 2,700 kilometres (1,700 mi); but in 2012 it was only 2,232 km (1,387 mi). This is due to constant reconstruction of the highway, which has rerouted and straightened many sections. The highway opened to the public in 1948. Once legendary for being a rough, challenging drive, the highway is now paved over its entire length. Its component highways are British Columbia Highway 97, Yukon Highway 1 and Alaska Route 2.

An informal system of historic mileposts developed over the years to denote major stopping points; Delta Junction, at the end of the highway, makes reference to its location at "Historic Milepost 1422." It is at this point that the Alaska Highway meets the Richardson Highway, which continues 155 km (96 mi) to the city of Fairbanks. This is often regarded, though unofficially, as the northern portion of the Alaska Highway, with Fairbanks at Historic Milepost 1520. Mileposts on this stretch of highway are measured from Valdez, rather than the Alaska Highway. The Alaska Highway is popularly (but unofficially) considered part of the Pan-American Highway, which extends south (despite its discontinuity in Panama) to Argentina.

Alaska Time Zone

The Alaska Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting nine hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−09:00). During daylight saving time its time offset is eight hours (UTC−08:00). The clock time in this zone is based on mean solar time at the 135th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

The zone includes nearly all of the U.S. state of Alaska and is one hour behind the Pacific Time Zone.

standard time: Alaska Standard Time (AKST)

daylight saving time: Alaska Daylight Time (AKDT)The western Aleutian Islands observe Hawaii–Aleutian Time, one hour behind the remainder of the state.

Effective from 2007, the local time changes from AKST to AKDT at 02:00 LST to 03:00 LDT on the second Sunday in March and returns at 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the first Sunday in November.

Chevrolet Suburban

The Chevrolet Suburban is a full-size SUV from Chevrolet. It is the longest continuous use automobile nameplate in production, starting in 1935 for the 1935 U.S. model year, and has traditionally been one of General Motors' most profitable vehicles. The 1935 first generation Carryall Suburban was one of the first production all-metal bodied station wagons.In addition to the Chevrolet brand, the Suburban was produced under the GMC marque until its version was rebranded Yukon XL, and also briefly as a Holden. For most of its recent history, the Suburban has been a station wagon-bodied version of the Chevrolet pickup truck, including the Chevrolet C/K and Silverado series of truck-based vehicles. Cadillac offers a version called the Escalade ESV.

The Suburban is sold in the United States (including the insular territories), Canada, Central America, Chile, Myanmar, Laos, Angola, the Philippines, and the Middle East (except Israel) while the Yukon XL is sold only in North America (United States and Canada) and the Middle East territories (except Israel).

Chevrolet Tahoe

The Chevrolet Tahoe (and its rebadged version the GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors. Chevrolet and GMC sold two different-sized SUVs under their Blazer/Jimmy model names through the early 1990s. This situation changed when GMC rebadged the full-size Jimmy as the Yukon in 1991. Chevrolet waited until 1994 to rebadge the redesigned mid-size S-10 Blazer as the Blazer, renaming the full-size Blazer as the Tahoe. The name Tahoe refers to the rugged and scenic area surrounding Lake Tahoe in the western United States. The name Yukon refers to the Yukon territory of northern Canada. For the 1995 model year, the Tahoe and Yukon gained a new 4-door model slotting in size between the 2-door models and the longer wheelbase and higher passenger capacity to up to nine passengers like the Chevrolet Suburban and newly named Yukon XL.

The Tahoe is sold in North America, Central America, the Middle East (excluding Israel), Chile, Ecuador, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Angola and Russia as a left-hand drive vehicle.

The Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon currently serve as a part of General Motors' full-size SUV family. Lengthened wheelbase models are available for both as the Suburban for Chevrolet and Yukon XL for GMC. A luxury Denali model joined the Yukon lineup in 1998. As of 2002, a Denali version of the Yukon XL has also been available as the Yukon XL Denali. The Cadillac Escalade is closely related to the Denali models of the Yukon. As of February 2014, the 2014 Tahoe was the top-ranked Affordable Large SUV in U.S. News & World Report's rankings.The Tahoe has regularly been the best selling full-size SUV in the United States, often times outselling its competition by 2 to 1.

Dawson City

Dawson City, officially the Town of the City of Dawson, is a town in the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is inseparably linked to the Klondike Gold Rush (1896–99). Its population was 1,375 as of the 2016 census., making it the second largest town of Yukon.

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport

Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport (IATA: YXY, ICAO: CYXY) is an international airport located in Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada. It is part of the National Airports System, and is owned and operated by the Government of Yukon. The airport was renamed in honour of longtime Yukon Member of Parliament Erik Nielsen on December 15, 2008. The terminal handled 294,000 passengers in 2012, representing a 94% increase in passenger traffic since 2002. By 2017, this number had risen to 366,000. Air North is based in Whitehorse.

History of Yukon

Yukon (formerly the Yukon Territory) is one of Canada's three territories in the country's extreme northwest. Its history of human habitation dates back to the Ice Age, and the original inhabitants are believed to have arrived over 20,000 years ago by migrating over the land bridge from Asia. In the 18th century, Russian explorers began trade with the First Nations people along the Alaskan coast, beginning the establishment of trade relations throughout the region. The famous Klondike Gold Rush began after gold was discovered near Dawson City in 1896. As a result of the influx of people looking for gold, it was made a separate territory in 1898, split off from the Northwest Territories. The second major event in the Yukon's history is the construction of the Alaska Highway during the Second World War, for the transportation of war supplies. Eventually Whitehorse became the largest city in the Yukon, and then the capital in 1953.

Klondike Gold Rush

The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899. Gold was discovered there by local miners on August 16, 1896, and, when news reached Seattle and San Francisco the following year, it triggered a stampede of prospectors. Some became wealthy, but the majority went in vain. It has been immortalized in photographs, books, films, and artifacts.

To reach the gold fields, most took the route through the ports of Dyea and Skagway in Southeast Alaska. Here, the Klondikers could follow either the Chilkoot or the White Pass trails to the Yukon River and sail down to the Klondike. Each of them was required to bring a year's supply of food by the Canadian authorities in order to prevent starvation. In all, their equipment weighed close to a ton, which for most had to be carried in stages by themselves. Together with mountainous terrain and cold climate, this meant that those who persisted did not arrive until summer 1898. Once there, they found few opportunities, and many left disappointed.

Mining was challenging as the ore was distributed in an uneven manner and digging was made slow by permafrost. As a result, some miners chose to buy and sell claims, building up huge investments and letting others do the work. To accommodate the prospectors, boom towns sprang up along the routes and at their end Dawson City was founded at the confluence of the Klondike and the Yukon River. From a population of 500 in 1896, the town grew to house around 30,000 people by summer 1898. Built of wood, isolated and unsanitary, Dawson suffered from fires, high prices, and epidemics. Despite this, the wealthiest prospectors spent extravagantly gambling and drinking in the saloons. The Native Hän people, on the other hand, suffered from the rush, being moved into a reserve to make way for the stampeders, and many died.

From 1898, the newspapers that had encouraged so many to travel to the Klondike lost interest in it. In the summer of 1899, gold was discovered around Nome in west Alaska, and many prospectors left the Klondike for the new goldfields, marking the end of the rush. The boom towns declined and the population of Dawson City fell. Gold mining activity lasted until 1903 when production peaked after heavier equipment was brought in. Since then the Klondike has been mined on and off, and today the legacy draws tourists to the region and contributes to its prosperity.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Yukon

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the territory of Yukon. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in Yukon, five of which are in the national park system, administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Several National Historic Events also occurred in Yukon, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of airports in Yukon

This is a complete list of airports, water aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian territory of Yukon.

List of regions of Canada

The list of regions of Canada is a summary of geographical areas on a hierarchy that ranges from national (groups of provinces and territories) at the top to local regions and sub-regions of provinces at the bottom. Administrative regions that rank below a province and above a municipality are also included if they have a comprehensive range of functions compared to the limited functions of specialized government agencies. Some provinces and groups of provinces are also quasi-administrative regions at the federal level for purposes such as representation in the Senate of Canada. However regional municipalities (or regional districts in British Columbia) are included with local municipalities in the article List of municipalities in Canada.

White Pass and Yukon Route

The White Pass and Yukon Route (WP&Y, WP&YR) (reporting mark WPY) is a Canadian and U.S. Class II 3 ft (914 mm) narrow-gauge railroad linking the port of Skagway, Alaska, with Whitehorse, the capital of Yukon. An isolated system, it has no direct connection to any other railroad. Equipment, freight and passengers are ferried by ship through the Port of Skagway, and via road through a few of the stops along its route.

The railroad began construction in 1898 during the Klondike Gold Rush as a means of reaching the goldfields. With its completion in 1900, it became the primary route to the interior of the Yukon, supplanting the Chilkoot Trail and other routes. The route continued operation until 1982, and in 1988 was partially revived as a heritage railway. In 2018, it was announced that the railway would be bought by Carnival Cruise Lines for $290 million (USD). The purchase is to be finalized at the end of July.

Today, the railroad is a subsidiary of Clublink and operated by the Pacific and Arctic Railway and Navigation Company (in Alaska), the British Columbia Yukon Railway Company (in British Columbia) and the British Yukon Railway Company, originally known as the British Yukon Mining, Trading and Transportation Company (in Yukon), which use the trade name White Pass and Yukon Route.

Whitehorse, Yukon

Whitehorse (French pronunciation: ​[wajtɔʁs]) is the capital and only city of Yukon, and the largest city in northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska. The city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed.

Because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have up to about 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse, as reported by Guinness World Records, is the city with the least air pollution in the world.As of the 2016 census, the population was 25,085. This represents approximately 70 percent of the entire population of Yukon territory.

Yukon, Oklahoma

Yukon is a city in Canadian County, Oklahoma, United States. It is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area. The population was 22,709 at the 2010 census. Founded in the 1890s, the town was named in reference to a gold rush in Yukon Territory, Canada, at the time. Historically, Yukon served as an urban center for area farmers and the site of a large milling operation. It is now considered primarily a bedroom community for people who work in Oklahoma City.

Yukon Legislative Assembly

The Yukon Legislative Assembly (French: Assemblée législative du Yukon) is the legislative assembly for Yukon, Canada. The Yukon Legislative Assembly is the only legislature in Canada's three federal territories which is organized along political party lines. In Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, the legislative assemblies are instead elected on a non-partisan consensus government model.

Yukon River

The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. The river's source is in British Columbia, Canada, from which it flows through the Canadian Yukon Territory (itself named after the river). The lower half of the river lies in the U.S. state of Alaska. The river is 3,190 kilometres (1,980 mi) long and empties into the Bering Sea at the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. The average flow is 6,430 m3/s (227,000 ft3/s). The total drainage area is 832,700 km2 (321,500 mi2), of which 323,800 km2 (126,300 mi2) is in Canada. The total area is more than 25% larger than Texas or Alberta.

The longest river in Alaska and Yukon, it was one of the principal means of transportation during the 1896–1903 Klondike Gold Rush. A portion of the river in Yukon—"The Thirty Mile" section, from Lake Laberge to the Teslin River—is a national heritage river and a unit of Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park. Paddle-wheel riverboats continued to ply the river until the 1950s, when the Klondike Highway was completed. After the purchase of Alaska by the United States in 1867, the Alaska Commercial Company acquired the assets of the Russian-American Company and constructed several posts at various locations on the Yukon River.

The Yukon River has had a history of pollution from military installations, dumps, wastewater, and other sources. However, the Environmental Protection Agency does not list the Yukon River among its impaired watersheds, and water quality data from the U.S. Geological Survey shows relatively good levels of turbidity, metals, and dissolved oxygen. The Yukon and Mackenzie rivers have much higher suspended sediment concentrations than the great Siberian Arctic rivers.The Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council, a cooperative effort of 70 First Nations and tribes in Alaska and Canada, has the goal of making the river and its tributaries safe to drink from again by supplementing and scrutinizing government data.

Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area, Alaska

Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area is a census area in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,588. It has the largest area of any county or county-equivalent in the United States. It is part of the unorganized borough of Alaska and therefore has no borough seat. Its largest communities are the cities of Galena, in the west, and Fort Yukon, in the northeast.

Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta

The Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta is a river delta located where the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers empty into the Bering Sea on the west coast of the U.S. state of Alaska. At approximately 129,500 square kilometers (50,000 sq mi) in size, it is one of the largest deltas in the world. It is larger than the Mississippi River Delta (which varies between 32,400 and 122,000 square kilometers (12,500 and 47,100 sq mi)), and comparable in size to the entire U.S. state of Louisiana (135,700 square kilometers (52,400 sq mi)). The delta, which consists mostly of tundra, is protected as part of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge.

The delta has approximately 25,000 residents. 85% of these are Alaska Natives: Yupik Eskimos and Athabaskan Indians. The main population center and service hub is the city of Bethel, with an estimated population of around 6,219 (as of 2011). Bethel is surrounded by 49 smaller villages, with the largest villages consisting of over 1,000 people. Most residents live a traditional subsistence lifestyle of hunting, fishing, and gathering. More than 30 percent have cash incomes well below the federal poverty threshold.

The area has virtually no roads; travel is by Bush plane, or by river boats in summer and snowmachines in winter.

Bethel is the location of the Yukon Kuskokwim Correctional Center.

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