"You Province" was cited in some ancient sources as one of the nine or twelve original provinces of China around the 22nd century BC, but You Prefecture was used in actual administration from 106 BC to the 10th century. As is standard in Chinese, the same name "Youzhou" was also often used to describe the prefectural seat or provincial capital from which the area was administered.
You was first created in 106 BC as a province-sized prefecture during the Western Han Dynasty to administer a large swath of the dynasty's northern frontier that stretched from modern-day Shanxi Province in the west and Shandong Province in the south, through northeastern Hebei Province, southern Liaoning Province and southern Inner Mongolia to Korea. The prefectural capital was the City of Ji in modern Beijing. This prefecture continued to be centered in northern Hebei through the Three Kingdoms and Western Jin Dynasty.
In the Sixteen Kingdoms period, several of the kingdoms that ruled northern China used "You" to name commandery-sized prefectures in their domain. When northern China was unified under a single sovereign during the Northern Dynasties, You became a commandery-sized prefecture based in modern Beijing. During the Sui Dynasty, prefectures were not used as a level of administration, and You was renamed Zhuo Commandery (Zhuojun). You was revived during the Tang Dynasty as a smaller, commandery prefecture; its capital Youzhou was within present-day Beijing. In the Five Dynasties period, You was one of Sixteen Prefectures ceded to the Khitans of Manchuria. Thereafter, the name You Prefecture was no longer used.
|Literal meaning||Secluded Province or Prefecture|
According to several ancient texts from the Warring States period (475–221 BC), You was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China. Ancient Chinese histories use the Nine Provinces to describe the geographic division of China during the two earliest Chinese dynasties, the Xia (2070–1600 BC) and the Shang (1600–1046 BC). The "Book of Xia" in the Classic of History from the earlier Spring and Autumn period (771–476 BC) states that Yu the Great, founder of the Xia Dynasty, divided China into Nine Provinces—Jizhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou, Yuzhou, Liangzhou and Yongzhou—and does not mention Youzhou as one of the nine. But the Erya from about the 3rd Century BC includes Youzhou and Yingzhou instead of Qingzhou and Liangzhou; the Lü's Annals of the Spring and Autumn Annals, compiled in 239 BC, includes Youzhou instead of Liangzhou; and the Rites of Zhou from the middle of the 2nd Century BC includes Youzhou and Bingzhou in place of Xuzhou and Liangzhou.
Subsequent texts describe as Youzhou as one of the Twelve Provinces of Ancient China. Sima Qian in the Records of the Grand Historian, written from 109 to 91 BC explains that Shun, sovereign who relinquished power to Yu the Great, felt the domain in north was too vast and created three new prefectures including Youzhou from Yanzhou. The Book of Han, completed in AD 111, also lists Youzhou as one of the Twelve Ancient Provinces.
Youzhou was first instituted as an administrative unit in 106 BC during the Han Dynasty. In 106 BC, Emperor Wu of Han organized the Western Han Dynasty into 13 province-sized prefectures, each administered by a cishi (刺史) or inspector. You Prefecture comprised the Shanggu, Zhuo, Guangyang, Dai, Bohai, Yuyang, Right Beiping, Liaoxi, Liaodong, Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies. Altogether the eleven commanderies contained 173 counties. The prefectural seat was the City of Ji in Guangyang Commandery, which is part of modern Beijing Municipality. Youzhou was bordered by Bingzhou (present-day eastern and northern Shanxi) in the west, Jizhou (southern Hebei) and Qingzhou (northern Shandong) in the south, Korea in the east and the steppes in the north.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, You Prefecture had ten commanderies—Zhuo, Dai, Shangu, Yuyang, Right Beiping, Liaoxi, Liaoning, Xuantu, Lelang and Guangyang, as well as the Principality of Liaodong. Collectively, You Prefecture had 90 counties. The City of Ji in Yan Principality, continued to serve as prefectural capital.
Toward the end of the Han Dynasty, Yellow Turban Rebellion erupted in Hebei in AD 184 and briefly seized You Prefecture's administrative seat at Ji. The court relied on regional militaries to put down the rebellion and You Prefecture was controlled successively by warlords Liu Yu, Gongsun Zan, Yuan Shao, Yuan Xi and Cao Cao. In 192, Liu Yu was overthrown by his subordinate Gongsun Zan. Two years later, Gongsun Zan was driven out of Ji by Yuan Shao with the help of Wuhuan and Xianbei allies from the steppes. After Yuan Shao lost supremacy of North China to Cao Cao in the Battle of Guandu in AD 200, his son Yuan Xi held You Prefecture until 204 before fleeing to the Wuhuan. Cao Cao eventually defeated the Wuhuan in AD 207 and pacified North China.
During the Three Kingdoms, the Kingdom of Wei founded by Cao Cao's son, controlled ten of the Han Dynasty's prefectures including You Prefecture and its capital Ji. Within the jurisdiction of You Prefecture were eleven commanderies, Fanyang, Yan Principality, Beiping, Shanggu, Dai, Liaoxi, Liaodong, Xuantu, Lelang, Changli and Daifang, which collectively ruled 60 counties. In 238, Sima Yi's Liaodong campaign against Gongsun Yuan extended the eastern reach of You to Liaodong. In 244-45, Guanqiu Jian launched the Goguryeo–Wei Wars against Goguryeo from Xuantu Commandery (modern-day Shenyang).
The Wei court instituted offices in You Prefecture to manage relations with the Wuhuan and Xianbei. To help sustain the troops garrisoned in Youzhou, the governor in AD 250 built the Lilingyan, an irrigation system that greatly improved agricultural output in the plains around Ji.
In the Western Jin Dynasty (265–316), You Prefecture had seven commanderies and 34 counties. The capital was moved from the City of Ji to Fanyang Commandary in what is today Zhuozhou. The Western Jin expanded the number of counties from 19 in 265 to 31 in 291. Five commanderies and 26 counties in modern Liaoning that used to belong to You Prefecture were carved out to create Pingzhou.
You remained an important prefecture on the northern frontier. In AD 270, the imperial court appointed Wei Guan as the governor of the prefecture. Wei Guan was succeeded by Tang Bin (appointed 282) and Zhang Hua (appointed 291). By the time of the Rebellion of the Eight Princes, You Prefecture was controlled by Wang Jun, who secured alliances with nomadic tribes north of it by arranging marriages of his daughters to tribal chieftains of the Xianbei and Wuhuan.
Wang Jun's support for Emperor Sima Lun against other princes earned the enmity of Sima Ying, who in 304, arranged to appoint He Yan as the governor of You Prefecture and instructed He Yan to eliminate Wang Jun. He Yan then conspired with a Wuhuan chieftain, Shen Deng, to assassinate Wang Jun during a field trip to the Qingquan River just south of Ji. However, during their trip, the travelers encountered a rainstorm and their weapons rusted. Shen Deng believed the rain storm was divine intervention in favor of Wang Jun and disclosed the plot. Wang Jun then killed He Yan and regained control of You. He and his allies Sima Teng, Duan Wuwuchen of the Duan Xianbei clan, and the Wuhuan then attacked Sima Ying in southern Hebei. Sima Ying permitted Liu Yuan, an ethnic Xiongnu commander to leave Ye in southern Hebei and return to Shanxi to mobilize the Xiongnu folk for this war.
Back in Shanxi, Liu Yuan built a multi-ethnic army and broke free from the Jin Dynasty. In 308, he declared himself emperor of the Han, a kingdom later named Zhao and known to historians as the Former Zhao. In 316, Liu Yuan's adopted son Liu Yao captured Emperor Min of Jin in Luoyang, ending the Western Jin Dynasty. Sima Rui resurrected the dynasty in Jiankang (modern-day Nanjing), known as the Eastern Jin, which continued to rule southern China. Northern China was divided into a series of kingdoms, mostly founded by ethnic minorities.
Wang Jun in Youzhou remained loyal to the Eastern Jin regime in Jiankang and repelled several attacks by one of Liu Yuan's subordinates, Shi Le, an ethnic Jie. Shi Le then used wealth to buy off Wang Jun's ally, Duan Jilujuan and Duan Mopei. This angered Wang Jun, who arranged for the Tuoba Xianbei from the west to attack the Duan Xianbei, but the latter prevailed. In 314, Shi Le pretended to surrender to Wang Jun, who fell for the ruse and lowered his guard. Shi Le then captured and killed Wang Jun, but You Prefecture fell to the control of Duan Pidi, of the Xianbei Duan clan. In 319, Shi Le, founded his own kingdom, the Later Zhao, in Xiangguo (modern day Xingtai, Hebei Province), defeated Duan Pidi and captured You Prefecture.
In 349, the Later Zhao regime was subverted by Ran Min, which founded the Ran Wei regime in southern Hebei. During this turmoil, the Murong clan of the Xianbei from the Liaodong region launched a southern invasion. The Murong clan had founded the Kingdom of Yan (Former Yan) in 337 but remained a vassal of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In 350, Murong Jun, the Prince of Yan, at the suggestion of his half brother Murong Chui, attacked the Later Zhao and Ran Wei in the name of restoring northern China to Jin rule. They quickly captured You. In 352, Murong Jun declared himself emperor and moved the capital from Jicheng (棘城) in modern Liaoning to Jicheng (蓟城) in You Prefecture. Five years later the capital of this kingdom moved south to Ye.
In 370, the Former Yan Kingdom was conquered by the Former Qin Kingdom, led by Fu Jiān an ethnic Di and his general, Wang Meng. They were assisted by Murong Chui, who defected from the Former Yan due to court intrigue. In 383, after the Former Qin was defeated by the Eastern Jin in the Battle of Feishui, Murong Chui founded the Kingdom of Later Yan, which occupied much of the territories of the Former Yan, including You. To the west, the Tuoba Xianbei founded the Kingdom of Northern Wei in 386 and invaded the Northern Yan in 396, capturing Yuyang, Ji and other cities in You Prefecture. By 439, the Northern Wei extinguished the last of the Sixteen Kingdoms and unified northern China.
During the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304-439), in addition to the You Prefecture in northern Hebei, which was successively controlled by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Zhao and Northern Wei, several other kingdoms in other parts of China also named administrative divisions within their domain "Youzhou". When Liu Yuan ruled the kingdom of Former Zhao, the You Prefecture of Former Zhao was based in present-day Lishi, Shanxi. When Liu Yao ruled the kingdom, the You Prefecture of Later Zhao was moved to present-day Beidi, Yao County, Shaanxi. The You Prefecture of Southern Yan was based in present-day Liaocheng, Shandong, and the You Prefecture of Xia was based in present-day Hanggin Banner of Inner Mongolia. At one time in the 4th century, there were four You Prefectures in northern China, in Northern Yan, Southern Yan, Xia and Northern Wei.
In 497, You was one of about 41 prefectures of the Northern Wei Dynasty, which at the time ruled much of north and central China. You Prefecture's territories was largely confined to the southern part of modern-day Beijing Municipality. Its capital remained at Ji.
During the late Northern Wei, many groups rose in rebellion against the dynasty in and around Youzhou. Wang Huiding's rebellion of 494 lasted one month. In 514, Shramana Liu Shaozeng led a Buddhist rebellion in You Prefecture. In 524, Xianbei military families in the Six Frontier Towns rebelled against the Northern Wei and were crushed with the assistance of Rouran chieftain Yujiulü Anagui. The Northern Wei resettled 200,000 residents from the frontier towns to Hebei, where a local famine quickly prompted the migrants to rebel again under the leadership of Du Luozhou in 525. Du Luozhou led the rebels from Shanggu (modern-day Huailai) south through the Juyong Pass and defeated Wei troops north of Youzhou and eventually captured the city. In 528 Wei troops under Erzhu Rong's subordinate, Hou Yuan, retook the city from rebel leader Han Lou.
In 534, the Northern Wei split in half along the Yellow River into the Western Wei and Eastern Wei, which controlled You Prefecture. The Eastern Wei continued for 16 years before it was replaced by the Northern Qi. Though Northern Qi held only half the territory of the Northern Wei, it had 105 prefectures.
The Sui Dynasty united China in 589 and did not use prefecture as a unit of administration. All prefectures were converted to commanderies. You Prefecture was renamed Zhuo Commandery (Zhuojun), one of 190 commanderies in Sui China.
The Tang Dynasty re-adopted the prefecture but used it as replacement for commandery. Zhuojun reverted to You, which in 640 was one of 360 prefectures of the dynasty. The capital of You Prefecture remained in Ji. The Tang also instituted 10 frontier command garrisons called jiedushi. The Fanyang Jiedushi was based in Ji and became one of the "three revolting garrisons of Hebei" after the Anshi Rebellion
In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960), the warlord Liu Rengong established his base in Youzhou and declared himself "King of Yan" (燕王). His regime was ultimately toppled by the Later Tang (923–936). Shi Jingtang, founder of the Later Jin (936–947), submitted to the Khitans of the Liao Dynasty (907–1125) and ceded the Sixteen Prefectures (You was one of the sixteen) to them. In 938 the Khitans established a secondary capital in You Prefecture and named it Nanjing Youdu Prefecture (南京幽都府). In 1012 it was renamed Xijin Prefecture (析津府) and later renamed to Yanjing (燕京). The name "Youzhou" was never used again.
Emperor Muzong of Tang (July 26, 795 – February 25, 824), personal name Li Heng, né Li You (李宥) (name changed 812), was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China. He reigned from 820 to 824. Emperor Muzong was the son of Emperor Xianzong. He was created crown prince in 812 during the reign of Emperor Xianzong and, after Emperor Xianzong was allegedly assassinated by a eunuch, Li Heng was proclaimed emperor in 820.
After succeeding to the throne, Muzong spent his time feasting and heavily drinking, thereby neglecting his duties as emperor. Meanwhile, the temporarily subdued regional military governors (jiedushi) began to challenge the central Tang government, leading to the new de facto independence of three circuits north of the Yellow River, which Emperor Xianzong had subdued. Internally, corruption was rife.
Emperor Muzong's brief reign came to an end in 824, and was viewed as the start of the downward spiral of the Tang Dynasty.Empress Li (Liu Shouguang's wife)
Empress Li (李皇后, personal name unknown) (died February 12, 914) was one of the two wives of Liu Shouguang, the only emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan.
Very little is known about Empress Li, and it is not known whether she bore any of Liu Shouguang's children. (Indeed, it is not completely clear that she was given an empress title when he declared himself emperor in 911, although the modern Chinese historian Bo Yang asserted that she was, as was Liu's other wife Empress Zhu.) When Yan's capital You Prefecture (幽州, in modern Beijing) fell in late 913 under siege by Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, she, Liu Shouguang, Empress Zhu, and Liu Shouguang's three sons Liu Jixun (劉繼珣), Liu Jifang (劉繼方), and Liu Jizuo (劉繼祚) fled You Prefecture, but were eventually captured at Yanle (燕樂, in modern Beijing) and delivered to Li Cunxu. Li Cunxu took them on a victory tour through the lands of his allies Wang Chuzhi the military governor of Yiwu Circuit (義武, headquartered in modern Baoding, Hebei) and Wang Rong the Prince of Zhao, but eventually took them back to his capital Taiyuan and executed them there. As they were to be executed, Liu Shouguang was begging for his life, and Empresses Li and Zhu rebuked him for not acting bravely like an emperor should, while they accepted their own executions.Empress Zhu (Liu Shouguang's wife)
Empress Zhu (祝皇后, personal name unknown) (died February 12, 914) was one of the two wives of Liu Shouguang, the only emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan.
Very little is known about Empress Zhu, and it is not known whether she bore any of Liu Shouguang's children. (Indeed, it is not completely clear that she was given an empress title when he declared himself emperor in 911, although the modern Chinese historian Bo Yang asserted that she was, as was Liu's other wife Empress Li.) When Yan's capital You Prefecture (幽州, in modern Beijing) fell in late 913 under siege by Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, she, Liu Shouguang, Empress Li, and Liu Shouguang's three sons Liu Jixun (劉繼珣), Liu Jifang (劉繼方), and Liu Jizuo (劉繼祚) fled You Prefecture, but were eventually captured at Yanle (燕樂, in modern Beijing) and delivered to Li Cunxu. (They were captured after Liu Shouguang had sent Empress Zhu out of their hiding place to beg for food; the farmer Zhang Shizao (張師造) realized who she was and forced her to reveal where Liu Shouguang was; he then took them captive.) Li Cunxu took them on a victory tour through the lands of his allies Wang Chuzhi the military governor of Yiwu Circuit (義武, headquartered in modern Baoding, Hebei) and Wang Rong the Prince of Zhao, but eventually took them back to his capital Taiyuan and executed them there. As they were to be executed, Liu Shouguang was begging for his life, and Empresses Li and Zhu rebuked him for not acting bravely like an emperor should, while they accepted their own executions.Gao Kaidao
Gao Kaidao (高開道) (died 624), at one point known as Li Kaidao (李開道), was an agrarian rebel leader who rose against Sui Dynasty rule at the end of Emperor Yang's reign. He occupied the region centering Huairong (懷戎, in modern Zhangjiakou, Hebei) and claimed the title of Prince of Yan, in alliance with the Eastern Turkish Khaganate (Dong Tujue). In 620, he briefly submitted to Emperor Gaozu of Tang and was bestowed the imperial surname of Li, but in 621 he rebelled against Tang and reasserted independence. In 624, his general Zhang Jinshu (張金樹) started a coup and he, realizing that the coup was about to succeed, committed suicide.Hebei
Hebei (河北; formerly romanised as Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Zhili Province or Chihli Province. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled (by the Imperial Court)" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928.
Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei. The province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, and Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east. A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, and Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin.
A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào (燕趙), after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history.Liu Rengong
Liu Rengong (劉仁恭) (died 914) was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who controlled Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) from 895 (when his one-time lord Li Keyong conquered Lulong and left him in charge of it) to 907 (when he was overthrown by his son Liu Shouguang and put under house arrest). He was initially a Lulong officer, but later fled to Li Keyong's Hedong Circuit (河東, headquartered in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi). After Li conquered Lulong and left him in charge, he turned against Li and became an independent warlord, although at times he and Li would still act in concert. His domain later became the basis of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Yan that Liu Shouguang established. In 913, however, Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin conquered Yan and captured both Liu Shouguang and Liu Rengong; he put them to death the next year.Liu Shouguang
Liu Shouguang (劉守光) (died February 12, 914) was a warlord early in the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period who controlled Lulong (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) and Yichang (義昌, headquartered in modern Cangzhou, Hebei) Circuits, after seizing control from his father Liu Rengong and defeating his brother Liu Shouwen. He claimed the title of Emperor of Yan in 911, but was subsequently defeated and executed by Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin, who absorbed Yan into his Jin state.Liu Zong
Liú Zǒng (劉總) (died May 2, 821), dharma name Dàjué (大覺), formally Duke of Chǔ (楚公), was a general of the Táng Dynasty. He took over control of Lúlóng Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) in 810 after killing his father Liú Jì (劉濟) as well as his brother Liú Gǔn (劉緄), and thereafter ruled the circuit de facto independently from the imperial government. In 821, he submitted the circuit to imperial control and took tonsure to be a Buddhist monk. He died shortly after.Wang Rong (warlord)
Wang Rong (Chinese: 王鎔; 877?–921), was a warlord in the final years of the Tang dynasty who later became the only ruler of the state of Zhao during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Late in Tang, he initially tried to chart an independent course between the more powerful warlords Zhu Quanzhong and Li Keyong, but later was forced to become Zhu's vassal, although he continued to govern his domain without much interference from Zhu. After Zhu declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty of Later Liang (as Emperor Taizu), Wang continued to serve as a vassal and was created the Prince of Zhao. Later, though, when the Later Liang emperor tried to seize the Zhao domain by force, Wang broke away from Later Liang and realigned with Li Keyong's son and successor Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin instead. In 921, Wang was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his adoptive son Wang Deming, who subsequently took over his domain and changed back to the birth name of Zhang Wenli, before dying later in the year; Li Cunxu then defeated and killed Zhang's son and successor Zhang Chujin, incorporating Zhao into his Jin state.Xue Ne
Xue Ne (Chinese: 薛訥; pinyin: Xuē Nè, 649–720, courtesy name 慎言 Shènyán, formally Duke Zhaoding of Pingyang 平陽昭定公), was a general and official of the Tang dynasty and of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty, serving as a chancellor and major general during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong.Yan (Five Dynasties period)
Yan (燕), also called Jie Yan(桀燕), was a very short lived kingdom in the vicinity of present-day Beijing at the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which is traditionally dated as being from 907 to 960. Yan, established by Liu Shouguang in 911, only lasted for two years before destroyed by Li Cunxu the prominent leader of Later Tang.
As the only ruler of Yan, Liu was noted for his cruelty, so this Yan was also called Jie Yan, which compared the regime to a former one under the cruel king Jie in Xia Dynasty.You Prefecture (Inner Mongolia)
You Prefecture, also known by its Chinese name Youzhou, was a prefecture (zhou) of imperial China in what is now southern Inner Mongolia. It existed intermittently from 738 until the early 13th century.Zhang Hongjing
Zhang Hongjing (simplified Chinese: 张弘靖; traditional Chinese: 張弘靖; pinyin: Zhāng Hóngjìng) (760 – July 24, 824), courtesy name Yuanli (元理), formally the Marquess of Gaoping (高平侯), was an official of the Tang dynasty of China, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong. He was blamed in traditional histories for misruling Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing), leading to Lulong soldiers' subsequent rebellion against the imperial government under Zhu Kerong.Zhang Wenli
Zhang Wenli (張文禮) (d. September 15, 921?), known as Wang Deming (王德明) during the time that he was an adoptive son of Wang Rong, was an army officer who initially served under the late Tang Dynasty warlord Liu Rengong and Liu Rengong's son Liu Shouwen, and later Wang Rong, the only prince of the early Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Zhao (also known as Chengde Circuit (成德)). Wang Rong favored him for his talent and adopted him as a son. However, in 921, he encouraged Wang Rong's guards to mutiny and slaughter the Wang clan. He then took over the Zhao lands. When Wang Rong's ally Li Cunxu the Prince of Jin attacked in response, he died in shock.Zhang Zhongwu
Zhang Zhongwu (張仲武) (died 849), formally Prince Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊王) (per the Old Book of Tang) or Duke Zhuang of Lanling (蘭陵莊公) (per the New Book of Tang), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who governed Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) as its military governor (Jiedushi) in de facto independence from the imperial government, but who followed imperial orders in campaigns against Huigu Khanate remnants, as well as Khitan, Xi, and Shiwei tribes.Zhao Dejun
Zhao Dejun (趙德鈞) (died 937), né Zhao Xingshi (趙行實), known as Li Shaobin (李紹斌) during the reign of Li Cunxu, formally the Prince of Beiping (北平王), was a general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Tang (and Later Tang's predecessor state Jin). Toward the end of Later Tang, he was ordered by Later Tang's final emperor Li Congke to combat Li Congke's brother-in-law, Shi Jingtang, who had rebelled against Li Congke's reign and established his own Later Jin, as well as Shi's Khitan allies, led by Khitan's Emperor Taizong. However, after failed negotiations in which Zhao himself tried to get Emperor Taizong's support to overthrow Later Tang, the joint Khitan/Later Jin forces defeated him, forcing him to surrender to Khitan. He died in captivity.Zhou Dewei
Zhou Dewei (周德威) (died January 28, 919), courtesy name Zhenyuan (鎮遠), nickname Yangwu (陽五), was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Jin (predecessor state to Later Tang).Zhu Kerong
Zhu Kerong (朱克融) (died 826), formally the Prince of Wuxing (吳興王), was a military governor (Jiedushi) of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who ruled Lulong Circuit (盧龍, headquartered in modern Beijing) independent of the imperial authority during the reigns of Emperor Muzong and Emperor Jingzong, until he and his son Zhu Yanling (朱延齡) were killed by their own soldiers in 826.Zhu Tao
Zhu Tao (朱滔) (died 785), formally the Prince of Tongyi (通義王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who initially served imperial causes during the reigns of Emperor Daizong and Emperor Dezong, but later turned against imperial rule in alliance with Wang Wujun, Tian Yue, and Li Na. Eventually, when his brother Zhu Ci rebelled at the Tang capital Chang'an and claimed imperial title, Zhu Tao became his crown prince, but after Zhu Ci was defeated and killed in 784, Zhu Tao submitted to Emperor Dezong again.
Ancient Chinese provinces (until 221 BCE)
|Nine Provinces mentioned in Yu Gong or "Tribute of Yu", Classic of History (尚書·禹貢)|
|Nine Provinces mentioned in "Explaining Earth", Erya (爾雅·釋地)|
|Nine Provinces mentioned in "Clan Responsibilities", Rituals of Zhou (周禮·職方氏)|
|Nine Provinces mentioned in "Initial Survey", Lüshi Chunqiu (呂氏春秋·有始覽)|
|Twelve Provinces (十二州) in Yao and Shun's time|