Yorke Peninsula

The Yorke Peninsula is a peninsula located north-west and west of Adelaide in South Australia, between Spencer Gulf on the west and Gulf St Vincent on the east. The peninsula is separated from Kangaroo Island to the south by Investigator Strait. The most populous town in the region is Kadina.

Yorke Peninsula
South Australia
Ardrossan
The town of Ardrossan, located in Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula is located in South Australia
Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
Coordinates34°21′0″S 137°37′0″E / 34.35000°S 137.61667°ECoordinates: 34°21′0″S 137°37′0″E / 34.35000°S 137.61667°E
Population25,143 (2005)[1]
Established1840s
LGA(s)
State electorate(s)Frome[2]
Goyder[3]
Federal Division(s)Grey[4]
Yorke Peninsula, South Australia
WebsiteYorke Peninsula

Overview and history

Australia.A2010283.0435.250m
Yorke Peninsula is the central, boot-shaped peninsula above the island and between the two inlets

Prior to European settlement, which commenced around 1840, Yorke Peninsula was the home to the Narungga people. Today the descendants of these people still live on Yorke Peninsula, supported by the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association in Maitland, and in the community at Point Pearce. Yorke Peninsula was named by Captain Matthew Flinders, R.N., after the Right Honourable Charles Philip Yorke (1764–1834) (later Lord Hardwicke), narrowly beating French navigator Captain Nicolas Baudin (who preferred the name 'Cambaceres Peninsula').

Principal towns include the Copper Coast towns of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo; farming centres of Maitland, Minlaton and Yorketown; and the port of Ardrossan. A number of smaller coastal towns are popular destinations for fishing and holidays, particularly for people from Adelaide. The south-western tip is occupied by Innes National Park.

Agriculture

Yorke Peninsula is a major producer of grain, particularly barley and the Peninsula's grain crops are worth more than $290 million annually. Historically this has been sent out by sea because there are no rail services. Most coastal towns on the peninsula have substantial jetties. In the past these were used by ketches, schooners, and later steamships, to collect the grain in bags, and deliver fertiliser and other supplies. As roads in the region improved, and freight-handling techniques changed from bags to bulk, this became obsolete. A deep-water port was opened in 1970 near the south-eastern tip at Port Giles to export grain in bulk, and almost all the other ports ceased to be used for freight in the 1950s and 1960s. The only other ports with bulk-handling facilities are Wallaroo at the north-western side, and Ardrossan at the top of Gulf St Vincent, also used to ship dolomite from a nearby mine for OneSteel. Maitland has a grain-receiving depot operated by AWB, serviced only by road.

Wine production commenced on the Peninsula during the 1990s taking advantage of the rich grey, limestone-based soil.[5]

Yorke Peninsula Field Days

Acknowledged as Australia's oldest Field Days, the Yorke Peninsula Field Days have been held since 1894. The Field Days site just outside Paskeville is a hive of agricultural activity every 2 years, at the end of September.[6]

Physiography

Central-and-southern-Yorke-Peninsula-aerial-view-1228
Aerial view of Yorke Peninsula, looking south from around Ardrossan. Gulf St Vincent is in the foreground, Spencer Gulf in the background. The "foot" of the "boot" can be discerned near the horizon

The area is also known as the Yorke Horst, which is distinct physiographic section of the larger South Australian Shatter Belt province, which in turn is part of the larger West Australian Shield physiographic division. Along with Cape Eyre the peninsula is also part of the Eyre Yorke Block bioregion.

Geography and Climate

Most of Yorke Peninsula is prime agricultural land, with mostly small rolling hills and flat plains. The southern end of the Hummocks Range partially extends down the top of the Peninsula, flattening out near Clinton. The highest point on the Peninsula is 5km north-east of Maitland, although there is some debate as to where the Peninsula borders the Mid North, part of the steep Hummocks terrain may be considered part of the Peninsula. A series of shallow valleys line the interior of the Peninsula, with the main one called the Yorke Valley extending roughly from Sunnyvale, south of Paskeville through to Ramsey, between Minlaton and Stansbury. The predominant Yorke Valley area lies roughly in the area between Arthurton, Maitland, Ardrossan and Curramulka.

Typical of the southern coastal areas of the state and influenced by the surrounding bodies of water, Yorke Peninsula has a Mediterranean climate, (Koppen: borderline Csa/Csb) with some areas bordering a Semi Arid Climate, with hot, dry summer and cool, wet winter seasons. Maximum temperatures in summer average around 30 degrees and in winter average around 12-15. Due to surrounding bodies of water, winter temperatures are moderated and milder than most of the state, with overnight temperatures rarely falling below 0, making frost relatively uncommon in the region but not unheard of. Northerly winds from the desert can bring temperatures well upwards of 40 degrees in summer and occasionally bring very warm winter days well into the 20's. Average precipitation is 4-600mm, most of which falls from mid April through to September, though total and seasonal rainfall can vary greatly from year to year. Along with most of southern Australia, monsoonal lows from the north occasionally bring heavy storm events during spring and summer, rainfall is otherwise light and unreliable due to high pressure systems dominating the area.

Transport

As of 2015, a daily ferry service operates between Wallaroo and Lucky Bay, near Cowell on Eyre Peninsula.[7] This does not exist now. [8]

Notable residents

Politics
Sports
Other

Protected areas

Statutory reserves

The following reserves are located within the peninsula or immediately adjoin its coastline:

Non-statutory arrangements

Yorke Peninsula hosts two Important Bird Areas (IBA): the Gulf St Vincent Important Bird Area and the Southern Yorke Peninsula Important Bird Area. The Gulf St Vincent IBA covers a strip of intertidal land from Ardrossan to the head of Gulf St Vincent and onto the east coast of the gulf. The Southern Yorke Peninsula IBA covers most of the southern western tip of the Peninsula and overlaps Innes National Park and Warrenben Conservation Park.[13][14]

Gallery

Stenhouse Bay jetty

Stenhouse Bay Jetty

Moonta historic copper mines 2

Moonta Mines

MoontaSchoolOfMines

School of Mines, Moonta

Wattle Point windmill

Wattle Point Wind Farm, near Edithburgh

ArdrossanJetty2

Ardrossan Jetty

Night photograph of the beach at Black Point, Yorke Peninsula, Australia

Black Point beach at dusk

See also

Copper Coast

Since the discovery of Copper on Yorke Peninsula over 150 years ago, the towns of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo have been collectively known as the Copper Coast.

Kernewek Lowender

The world's largest Cornish Festival takes place every 2 years (in odd-numbered years) in the Copper Coast towns of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo.

References

  1. ^ "Population health profile of the Yorke Peninsula" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  2. ^ "District of Frome Background Profile". ELECTORAL COMMISSION SA. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  3. ^ "District of Goyder Background Profile". ELECTORAL COMMISSION SA. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Federal electoral division of Grey" (PDF). Australian Electoral Commission. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  5. ^ "Barley Stacks Wines". Barley Stacks Wines. Archived from the original on 30 November 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  6. ^ Yorke Peninsula Field Days website, The Yorke Peninsula Field Days are acknowledged as the oldest in Australia with the first trial held near Bute, SA, on 31 July 1895.
  7. ^ "About Us". Sea SA Pty Lty. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  8. ^ https://southaustralia.com/products/yorke-peninsula/transport/sea-sa-car--passenger-ferry
  9. ^ a b Sonny Coombs (23 February 2016). "Brothers make AFL debut". Yorke Peninsula Country Times. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Parks Guide 2013 - Yorke Peninsula and Clare Valley" (PDF). Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. 2013. pp. 73–74. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  11. ^ "National Parks and Wildlife (Thidna Conservation Park) Proclamation 2017", The South Australian Government Gazette: 5132, 19 December 2017, retrieved 31 December 2017
  12. ^ Primary Industries and Regions South Australia (PIRSA) (2007), Aquatic Reserve: Coobowie (PDF), Primary Industries and Regions South Australia, archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2015, retrieved 31 October 2014
  13. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Gulf St Vincent". BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  14. ^ "Important Bird Areas factsheet: Southern Yorke Peninsula". BirdLife International. 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.

External links

Bird Islands Conservation Park

Bird Islands Conservation Park is a 3.69-square-kilometre (1.42 sq mi) protected area in eastern Spencer Gulf, South Australia. It is located at Warburto Point on Yorke Peninsula, about 10 km (6.2 mi) south of the town of Wallaroo. In 1991, land additions were made to the park to include the intertidal zone of both islands. In 1999, a larger, mainland section was added to support mangroves, samphire and coastal fringe vegetation.

District Council of Central Yorke Peninsula

The District Council of Central Yorke Peninsula was a local government area in South Australia from 1969 to 1997. The council seat was at Maitland.

District Council of Northern Yorke Peninsula

The District Council of Northern Yorke Peninsula was a local government area in South Australia from 1984 to 1997. The council seat was at Kadina.

District Council of Yorke Peninsula (1888–1969)

The District Council of Yorke Peninsula was a local government area on the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia from 1888 to 1969.

Electoral district of Yorke Peninsula

Yorke Peninsula was an electoral district of the House of Assembly in the Australian state (colony until 1901) of South Australia from 1884 to 1902 and from 1915 to 1970.The Yorke Peninsula area formed the newly created seat of Goyder at the 1970 election.

Investigator Strait

Investigator Strait is a body of water in South Australia lying between the Yorke Peninsula, on the Australian mainland, and Kangaroo Island. It was named by Matthew Flinders after his ship, HMS Investigator, on his voyage of 1801–1802. It is bordered by the Gulf St Vincent in the northeast.

Leven Beach Conservation Park

Leven Beach Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia, located on the north coast of the lower part of Yorke Peninsula within the boundaries of the gazetted localities of Point Souttar and The Pines about 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) west north-west of Point Turton.The conservation park was proclaimed in 1988 for the purpose of conserving ‘sheoak woodland and potentially provides habitat for a nationally endangered species of butterfly, the Yellowish Sedge-skipper Butterfly’.The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.

Maitland, South Australia

Maitland is a town in South Australia located 168 km west of Adelaide by road, 164 km south of Port Pirie and 46 km north of Minlaton known as the "heart of Yorke Peninsula" due to being near the centre of the region. At the 2016 census, Maitland had a population of 1,029.Maitland is within a short driving distance of coastal towns on either side, with Port Victoria to the west and Ardrossan to the east, each within 25 km. It has a grain receiving depot operated by AWB Limited, serviced only by road. Maitland is also the home base of the Narungga Aboriginal Progress Association.

Minlacowie Conservation Park

Minlacowie Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia about 13 kilometres (8.1 miles) west of Stansbury. The conservation park was proclaimed under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 in 2008. The following statement of significance appears in the park's management plan:

Minlacowie Conservation Park (28.5 hectares; proclaimed in 2008) is located about 13 kilometres west of Stansbury. The park comprises a small patch of remnant mallee/broombush vegetation in very good condition, and conserves a number of significant plant species including the nationally and state vulnerable Winter Spider-orchid (Caladenia brumalis).

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Narangga language

Narangga (also Narungga) is an extinct Australian Aboriginal language formerly spoken by the Narungga people in Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. As a result of the colonisation of Australia, the Narangga language fell into disuse within several generations. Nevertheless, Narangga continued to be documented into the 20th century and the 1980s saw a community reclamation of the Narangga language by the Aboriginal community. As a result of revival efforts, the language along with Narangga culture is now being taught around the Yorke Peninsula, from Moonta and Maitland Area Schools to Point Pearce.

Point Davenport Conservation Park

Point Davenport Conservation Park is a protected area occupying Point Davenpoint, a headland between Foul Bay and Sturt Bay on the south coast of Yorke Peninsula in South Australia about 19.8 kilometres (12.3 miles) south of Warooka. The park was proclaimed in 1987. The conservation park is considered to be ‘an area of high biodiversity with a range of habitats including beaches and foredunes, and an estuary that is listed as a nationally important wetland.’ It is classified as an IUCN Category III protected area.

Point Pearce, South Australia

Point Pearce is a town in the Australian state of South Australia. The town is located in the Yorke Peninsula Council local government area, 194 kilometres (121 mi) north west of the state capital, Adelaide. At the 2016 census, Point Pearce had a population of 91. Point Pearce is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north along the coast from Port Victoria, and along with Wardang Island, provides shelter for the port.

Soon after the establishment of Adelaide in 1836, settlers began moving into Yorke Peninsula. The British concepts of property ownership were incompatible with the Narunggas' nomadic lifestyle, resulting in the gradual displacement of the indigenous population. In 1868, the Point Pearce Aboriginal Mission was established by the Moravian missionary Reverend W. Julius Kuhn. After ten years, the mission was largely self-sufficient. Many of the buildings remain today.Gladys Elphick grew up in Point Pearce.

Ramsay Conservation Park

Ramsay Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the Yorke Peninsula in the locality of Ramsay about 6.5 kilometres (4.0 miles) west-northwest of the town of Port Vincent.The conservation park consists of crown land in "Allotment 10 of Deposited Plan 72948" of the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Ramsay. It came into existence on 14 February 2008 by proclamation under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. On the same day, a separate proclamation ensured that “certain existing and future rights of entry, prospecting, exploration or mining” permitted under the state's Mining Act 1971 and Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 would apply to the extent of the conservation park. As of 2018, it covered an area of 1.45 square kilometres (0.56 sq mi).

The following statement of significance appears in its management plan:Ramsay Conservation Park (147.2 hectares; proclaimed in 2008) is a small park in the Minlaton-Curramulka Threatened Habitat Area. Its dominant vegetation is sheoak and mallee, with very low woodlands and a grassy understorey. It occurs in a high priority bioregion and conserves some species of conservation significance, including the nationally and state endangered Jumping-jack Wattle (Acacia enterocarpa), which has not been recorded thus far in any other National Parks and Wildlife Act reserves on Yorke Peninsula.

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Thidna Conservation Park

Thidna Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia on the Yorke Peninsula in the locality of Corny Point about 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 60 kilometres (37 mi) south-west of the municipal seat of Maitland.The conservation park occupies land in Allotment 102 in Deposited Plan 95664 within the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Carribie. It was proclaimed on 19 December 2017 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. On the same day, a separate proclamation ensured that “certain existing and future rights of entry, prospecting, exploration or mining” permitted under the state's Mining Act 1971 and Petroleum and Geothermal Energy Act 2000 would apply to the extent of the conservation park. As of 2018, it covered an area of 8.57 square kilometres (3.31 sq mi).Its name is derived from an Aboriginal name meaning ‘foot’ which is considered as an ‘appropriate’ name based on the location of the conservation park on the southern end of the Yorke Peninsula. The meaning of ‘Thidna’ was supplied by the Point Pearce Aboriginal Community and was subsequently approved by the Geographical Names Advisory Committee in 1993.

An announcement made on 30 December 2017 by Ian Hunter, the then Minister for Sustainability, Environment and Conservation in the South Australian government described the conservation park as follows:The new Thidna Conservation Park, between Corny Point and Daly Head on southern Yorke Peninsula, protects 857 ha of remnant native vegetation in a landscape that has been heavily cleared for agriculture.

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Warrenben Conservation Park

Warrenben Conservation Park (formerly Warrenben National Park) is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia on the Yorke Peninsula of about 12 kilometres (7.5 miles) north-east of Marion Bay.

The conservation park consists of land in section 97 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Warrenben. The land first received protected area status as the Warrenben National Park proclaimed on 9 January 1969 under the National Parks Act 1966. On 27 April 1972, the national park was reconstituted as the Warrenben Conservation Park under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. As of 2018, it covered an area of 40.58 square kilometres (15.67 sq mi).

The following statement of significance appears in the conservation park's management plan:Together with nearby Innes National Park, it conserves a substantial proportion of the natural habitat remaining on southern Yorke Peninsula. The park comprises an area of undulating limestone plains and low, stabilised dunes that remain well vegetated with mallee and tea-tree scrub and some sheoak woodlands. It provides habitat for a number of threatened species including the nationally and state vulnerable Annual Candles, state rare Goldsack’s Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum goldsackii), and the nationally and state vulnerable Malleefowl and Western Whipbird (Psophodes nigrogularis leucogaster).

The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.

Wills Creek Conservation Park

Wills Creek Conservation Park is a protected area located on the Yorke Peninsula adjoining the north west coast of Gulf St Vincent in South Australia immediately east of Price. The conservation park which was proclaimed in 2006 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, is considered to be ‘a significant coastal wetland/estuary area supporting mangroves and intertidal habitats’ and that two creeks located within its boundaries, Wills and Shag Creeks, are ‘known fish nursery areas’ and ‘an important habitat for seabirds’. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category VI protected area.

Yorke Peninsula Council

The Yorke Peninsula Council is a local government area in South Australia. Its boundaries include most of the Yorke Peninsula. The council seat is at Maitland; the council also maintains branch offices at Minlaton, Warooka and Yorketown.

Yorke Peninsula Field Days

The Yorke Peninsula Field Days is a biennial, three-day field days event, held on a permanent site outside Paskeville on Yorke Peninsula, South Australia. The event has a major focus on agriculture. The event is the oldest field days event in Australia and one of the biggest, exhibiting millions of dollars' worth of farm machinery.

Yorketown, South Australia

Yorketown is a town and a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located in the southern Yorke Peninsula about 91 kilometres (57 mi) west of the state capital of Adelaide and about 70 kilometres (43 mi) south of the municipal seat of Maitland. At the 2016 census, the locality had a population of 969 of which 642 lived in its town centre.

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