Yonge Street

Yonge Street (/jʌŋ/; "young") is a major arterial route in the Canadian province of Ontario connecting the shores of Lake Ontario in Toronto to Lake Simcoe, a gateway to the Upper Great Lakes. Until 1999, the Guinness Book of World Records repeated the popular misconception it was 1,896 km (1,178 mi)[4] long, and thus the longest street in the world; this was due to a conflation of Yonge Street with the rest of Ontario's Highway 11. Yonge Street (including the Bradford-to-Barrie extension) is actually 56 kilometres (35 mi) long.[2] The construction of Yonge Street is designated an Event of National Historic Significance in Canada.[5] Yonge Street was fundamental in the original planning and settlement of western Upper Canada in the 1790s, forming the basis of the concession roads in Ontario today. Once the southernmost leg of Highway 11, linking the capital with northern Ontario, Yonge Street has been referred to as "Main Street Ontario". Today, no section of Yonge Street is a provincial highway.

The street was named by Ontario's first colonial administrator, John Graves Simcoe, for his friend Sir George Yonge, an expert on ancient Roman roads. Yonge Street is a commercial main thoroughfare rather than a ceremonial one, with landmarks such as the Eaton Centre, Yonge-Dundas Square and the Hockey Hall of Fame along its length—and lends its name to the Downtown Yonge shopping and entertainment district.

In Toronto and York Region, Yonge Street is the north-south baseline from which street numbering is reckoned east and west. The eastern branch of Line 1 Yonge–University serves nearly the entire length of the street in Toronto and acts as the spine of the Toronto subway system, linking to suburban commuter systems such as the Viva Blue BRT. See the 'Public Transit' section below.

Town of North Toronto Sign

YRR1.pngYork Regional Road 51.svg

Yonge Street
York Regional Roads 1 / 51
Yonge Street Map
Yonge Street (not including Simcoe section)
Route information
Maintained by
City of Toronto
York Region
Town of East Gwillimbury
Length56 km[2] (35 mi)
Major junctions
South endQueens Quay in Toronto
 King Street
Queen Street
Dundas Street
Bloor Street
St. Clair Avenue
Eglinton Avenue
Lawrence Avenue
Wilson Avenue / York Mills Road
 Highway 401
Sheppard Avenue
Finch Avenue
Steeles Avenue
 Highway 407
York Regional Road 7.svg Highway 7
York Regional Road 25.svg Major Mackenzie Drive
York Regional Road 11.svg King Road
York Regional Road 31.svg Davis Drive
York Regional Road 1.svg Former Highway 11 (bypass)
York Regional Road 83.svg Holland Landing Road
North endHolland River
Major citiesToronto
TownsRichmond Hill
East Gwillimbury
Highway system
Roads in Ontario
Nearby arterial roads
← Bay Street;
Avenue Road;
Bathurst Street
Yonge Street Jarvis Street;
Bayview Avenue →

Simcoe Road 4 sign.png


Yonge Street (Extension)
Simcoe County Road 4
Yonge Street Extension Map
Yonge Street (Simcoe section)
Route information
Maintained by Simcoe County
City of Barrie
Length30 km[3] (20 mi)
Major junctions
South end8th Line in Bradford (continues south as Barrie Street)
 Simcoe Road 89 sign.pngSimcoe Road 3 sign.png Simcoe County Road 89 / Shore Acres Drive
Simcoe Road 21 sign.png Innisfil Beach Road
North endFormer Canadian National rail spur in Barrie (Continues as Burton Avenue)
Major citiesBarrie
TownsBradford-West Gwillimbury
Highway system
Roads in Ontario
Nearby arterial roads
← Highway 400 Yonge Street 20th Sideroad →
Yonge Street at North York Centre

Route description

Yonge Street originates on the northern shore of Toronto Bay at Queens Quay as a four-lane arterial road (speed limit 40 km/h) proceeding north by north-west. Toronto's Harbourfront is built on landfill extended into the bay, with the former industrial area now converted from port, rail and industrial uses to a dense residential high-rise community. The street passes under the elevated Gardiner Expressway and the congested rail lines of the Toronto viaduct on their approach to Union Station. The road rises slightly near Front Street, marking the pre-landfill shoreline. Here, at the southern edge of the central business district, is the Dominion Public Building, the Sony Centre for the Performing Arts and the Hockey Hall of Fame, the latter housed in an imposing former Bank of Montreal office, once Canada's largest bank branch. Beyond Front Street the road passes through the east side of the Financial District, within sight of many of Canada's tallest buildings, fronting an entrance to the Allen Lambert Galleria.

Between Front Street and Queen Street, Yonge Street is bounded by historic and commercial buildings, many serving the large weekday workforce concentrated here. Yonge Street's entire west side, from Queen Street to Dundas Street, is occupied by the Eaton Centre, an indoor mall featuring shops along its Yonge Street frontage and a Nordstrom anchor store at the corner of Dundas Street. The east side has two historic performance venues, the Ed Mirvish Theatre (formerly the Canon Theatre and before that, the Pantages) and the Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres. In addition, Massey Hall is just to the east on Shuter Street.

Opposite the Eaton Centre lies Yonge-Dundas Square. The area now comprising the square was cleared of several small commercial buildings and redeveloped in the late 1990s and early 2000s, with large video screens, retail shopping arcades, fountains and seating in a bid to become "Toronto's Times Square". It is used for numerous public events.

Another stretch of busy retail lines both sides of Yonge Street north of Dundas Street, including Sam the Record Man until its closure on June 30, 2007. The density of businesses diminishes north of Gerrard Street; residential towers flank this section. The Art Deco College Park building, a former shopping complex of the T. Eaton Company, occupies most of the west side of Yonge Street from Gerrard Street north to College Street. It was converted into a residential and commercial complex after the building of the Eaton Centre.

College ParkYonge
College Park, located at Yonge and College

From College Street north to Bloor Street, Yonge Street serves smaller street-level retail, mostly in two- to three-storey buildings of a hundred years' vintage. The businesses here, unlike the large chains which dominate south of Gerrard Street, are mostly small independent shops and serve a dense residential community on either side of Yonge Street with amenities such as convenience stores.

The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is a major crossroads of Toronto, informally considered the northern edge of the downtown core. Subway Line 2 Bloor–Danforth intersects the Yonge line here, with the resulting transfers between lines making Bloor-Yonge Station the busiest in the city. The Hudson's Bay Centre and Two Bloor West office towers dominate the corner, visible both from downtown and beyond, with the south-east corner earmarked for a major condominium development. The Mink Mile's borders extend from Yonge to Avenue Road along Bloor. The intersection of Yonge and Bloor Streets is itself a "scramble"-type intersection allowing pedestrians to cross from any corner to any other corner.

Immediately north of Bloor, the street is part of the old town of Yorkville, today a major shopping district extending west of Yonge Street along Cumberland and Bloor Streets. North of Yorkville, densities and traffic decrease somewhat and the speed limit increases slightly (to 50 km/h, which it remains for most of its urban length) as Yonge Street forms the main street of Summerhill, which together with Rosedale to the east is noted for its opulent residences. The area is marked by the historic North Toronto railway station, formerly served by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The CPR route parallels the foot of the Iroquois shoreline escarpment, which Yonge Street ascends here toward Midtown.

From approximately St. Clair Avenue to Yonge Boulevard, Yonge Street is central to the former suburb of North Toronto and features mixed low-scale residential, retail and commercial buildings. Major intersections in Midtown, served by some of the city's busiest TTC stations, dot the skyline with dense clusters of high-rises in an otherwise leafy residential setting. The intersection at Eglinton Avenue has become a focal point, serving as a high-density residential, commercial and transit hub. The site of Montgomery's Tavern is nearby,[6] scene of a significant clash in the Upper Canada Rebellion and a National Historic Site.

North of Yonge Boulevard, Yonge Street traverses the deep forested ravine of the West Don Valley at Hoggs Hollow, a formidable obstacle in pioneer days and the site of one of the last of the former toll gates. The lower-density residential community and park-like setting here represent an interlude between North Toronto and the newer high-rise district beyond, towering over the valley. Canada's busiest section of highway (Highway 401) spans the valley via the Hogg's Hollow Bridge (exit 369). Leaving the valley, densities and traffic both significantly increase on entering the downtown core of the former suburban city of North York. The street widens to a six-lane urban arterial road through North York, passing inner-suburb transit hubs at Sheppard and Finch Avenues.

From Finch Avenue to Stouffville Road (acquiring the York Regional Road 1 designation north of the Toronto city limits at Steeles Avenue in York Region), Yonge Street is a suburban commercial strip, passing Highway 407 (exit 77) two kilometres north of Steeles. This 16.5 km (10.3 mi) segment is a busy suburban arterial, interrupted by the original town centres of suburban communities such as Thornhill (where the route crosses the East Don Valley in the upper part of its watershed) and Richmond Hill. Continuous urbanization ends just south of Stouffville Road, and the street passes through brief semi-rural exurban stretches between Richmond Hill, Aurora, Newmarket, and Holland Landing, passing a number of kettle lakes and traversing the crest of the Oak Ridges Moraine, thence leaving the Lake Ontario basin. Yonge passes through the core of Aurora, and in the regional seat of Newmarket, Yonge serves as the town's main suburban artery, passing through low-density residential and commercial areas, bypassing its core to the west. North of Green Lane, Regional Road 1 deviates from the original baseline 56 km (35 mi) north of Lake Ontario, bypassing the centre of Holland Landing with a northwest heading and thereby circumnavigating Cook's Bay and the lower Holland Marsh, through exurban areas en route to Bradford. The bypass was constructed in 1959.

York Regional Road 51

Regional Road 51, is the original route of the main section. Yonge Street branches off Regional Road 1 at the foot of the bypass to continue north through Holland Landing. This short section, known locally as the Yonge Street Extension, is co-signed with Regional Road 13. Past Queensville Side Road, the road breaks. The road resumes again for 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) before it for 2.2 kilometres (1.4 mi). After that it begins for another 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) before it ends in the upper Holland Marsh.

Simcoe Road 4

To the west of Holland Landing the main route crosses the Holland River and its polders in the town of Bradford, where the name changes to Bridge Street and again to Holland Street. Resuming its northward heading with a right turn at an intersection in the centre of Bradford, where the road briefly becomes Barrie Street before the name Yonge resumes, Yonge Street roughly parallels Lake Simcoe's western shore, finally entering true rural countryside, traversing the rolling hills of southeast Simcoe County, and is signed Simcoe Road 4. The street officially ends in Barrie at a rail spur, where its name changes to Burton Avenue, which itself ends less than a kilometre from Kempenfelt Bay, at a T-intersection with Essa Road.

Public transit

In Toronto, Yonge St. is served by the eastern half of the Line 1 Yonge–University subway, which runs north from Union Station at Front Street to Finch Avenue. There is also a supplementary bus route running along the street, as well as an overnight Blue Night route which operates after the subway closes. In York Region, it is served by Viva Blue, a bus rapid transit route which connects with Finch station at the northern terminus of the subway. The subway is proposed to be extended north to Highway 7 in Richmond Hill, and the construction of dedicated bus lanes called rapidways for the Viva buses is underway as of 2017 from Highway 7 to Major Mackenzie Drive. Viva Blue is also supplemented by two local-service routes. In Holland Landing, there are transit services as well. In Simcoe County, GO Transit runs a bus route along Yonge from Newmarket to Barrie. Barrie Transit operates a circular route with directional branches that serve Yonge for a portion of their respective routes.

The trunk routes serving the street are:

Looking south to Rosedale station
Open cut section of the Yonge subway near Rosedale station
YRT 812
A Route 99 Yonge South YRT bus.

Toronto (TTC):

Route Direction and Termini
Yonge-University subway SB To Union Station (Front Street)
Line continues northwest to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre station
NB To Finch Avenue
Yonge SB To Davisville station NB To York Mills station
Yonge SB To Queens Quay NB To York Mills station
Yonge SB To Davisville station NB To Steeles Avenue
(Blue Night)
SB To Queens Quay NB To Steeles Avenue

York Region (YRT):

Route Direction and Termini
Viva Blue SB To Finch GO Bus Terminal NB To Newmarket Terminal (Davis Drive)
Yonge South[7] SB To Finch GO Bus Terminal NB To Bernard Terminal (north of Elgin Mills Road)
Yonge North SB To Bernard Terminal NB To Green Lane
Holland Landing[8] SB To Newmarket Terminal NB To Queensville Sideroad
Loops back south via other streets in Holland Landing to terminate back at the Newmarket Terminal

Simcoe County (GO Transit):

Route Direction and Termini
Barrie[9] SB To Newmarket Terminal NB To Barrie Transit Terminal via Toll Gate Road

Barrie (Barrie Transit):

Route Direction and Termini
RVH/Yonge[10] SB To Mapleview Drive Clockwise branch serves Yonge between Essa Rd. and Mapleview Dr. NB To Royal Victoria Hospital via off-Yonge St. routing
Crosstown/Essa SB To Mapleview Drive via off-Yonge St. routing NB To Royal Victoria Hospital Counterclockwise branch serves Yonge between Mapleview Dr. and Essa Rd.


Establishment of the route

Notice to settlers on Yonge Street 1798
A notice to settlers of Yonge Street from 1798, indicating their duties once they settled land granted to them

With the outbreak of hostilities between France and Great Britain in 1793, part of the War of the First Coalition, the Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada (now Ontario), John Graves Simcoe, was concerned about the possibility of the United States entering British North America in support of their French allies. In particular, the location of Newark (now Niagara-on-the-Lake), the first and former capital of Upper Canada, was in danger of being attacked by the Americans from the nearby border. Additionally, US forces could easily sever British access to the upper lakes at Lake St. Clair or the Detroit River, cutting the colony off from the important trading post at Michilimackinac.

Simcoe planned to move the capital to a better-protected location and build overland routes to the upper lakes as soon as possible. Simcoe established York, as Toronto was originally called, with its naturally enclosed harbour, as a defensible site for a new capital. To provide communications between the site and the upper lakes, he planned two connected roads, the first running north from York to Lake Simcoe, (then named Lake aux Claies), the second joining Lake Simcoe with Georgian Bay. This would allow overland transport to the upper lakes, bypassing U.S. strongholds. The route from Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe is still known as Yonge Street, and the second leg to Georgian Bay was long known as the Penetanguishene Road.

Before the construction of Yonge Street, a portage route, the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, had already linked Lakes Ontario and Simcoe. On September 25, 1793, Simcoe and a small party of soldiers and native guides started northward along the trail, establishing the Pine Fort on the western branch of the Holland River, near the modern location of Bradford. Stopping only to rename Lake aux Claies to "Lake Simcoe" in memory of his father, the party continued north to Lake Couchiching, and then down the Severn River to Georgian Bay. Here he selected the site of Penetanguishene as the location for a new naval base and port.

On his return, he met with an Ojibway named 'Old Sail' and was shown a new route along another arm of the trail, this one starting on the eastern branch of the Holland River and thereby avoiding the marshes of the western branch (today's Holland Marsh). They left Pine Fort on October 11 and reached York on the 15th. Simcoe selected this eastern route for his new road, moving the southern end from the Rouge River to the western outskirts of the settled area in York, and the northern end to a proposed new town on the Holland River, St. Albans.[11]

Bears were known to wander onto Yonge Street in the early days of Toronto. In 1809 Lieutenant Fawcett, of the 100th Regiment, came across a large bear on Yonge Street and cut its head open with his sword.[12]

The road was actually called Concession 1 at first with Concessions 2 etc. on either side. For instance Concession 1 Whitchurch Township faces Yonge St. and goes east to Concession 2, which starts at Bayview Ave. Concession 1 King Township faces Yonge St. and goes west to Concession 2, which starts at Bathurst St. There are 10 concessions in York County going east and west from Concession 1, Yonge St. The east side ending at then Ontario County, now Durham Region, and the west side ending at Peel County (now Peel Region).

Construction of Yonge Street

The following spring, Simcoe instructed Deputy Surveyor General Augustus Jones to blaze a small trail marking the route.[13] Simcoe initiated construction of the road by granting land to settlers, who in exchange were required to clear 33 feet of frontage on the road passing their lot. Certain seasons saw the muddy sidewalks of York in deplorable condition, and Yonge Street was renowned as being particularly bad, making it difficult to transport loads along it. The first Toronto resident known to have introduced sidewalks was Jesse Ketchum, who used tanned bark.[14]

In the summer of 1794, William Berczy was the first to take up the offer, leading a group of 64 families north-east of Toronto to found the town of German Mills, in modern Markham. By the end of 1794, Berczy's settlers had cleared the route around Thornhill. However, the settlement was hit by a series of setbacks and road construction stalled.

The foot of Yonge Street at Toronto Bay, Lake Ontario

Work on the road started again in 1795 when the Queen's Rangers took over. They began their work at Eglinton Avenue and proceeded north, reaching the site of St. Albans on 16 February 1796. Expansion of the trail into a road was a condition of settlement for farmers along the route, who were required to spend 12 days a year to clear the road of logs, subsequently removed by convicted drunks as part of their sentence. The southern end of the road was in use in the first decade of the 19th century, and became passable all the way to the northern end in 1816.[15]

The road was extended south from Eglinton to Bloor Street in 1796 by Berczy, who needed a route to his warehouse on the Toronto lakeshore. The area south of Bloor Street proved too swampy for a major road. A path did exist between Queen and Bloor Streets, but was called the "road to Yonge Street", rather than being considered part of the street itself due to its poor condition. Over time the creeks were rerouted and the swamps drained. In 1812 the route was extended from Queen Street to the harbour, and in 1828 the entire southern portion was solidified with gravel.[16]

St. Albans never developed as Simcoe had hoped, but the town of Holland Landing eventually grew up on the site, a somewhat more descriptive name. Holland Landing was settled by Quakers who moved into the area after having left the United States in the aftermath of the American Revolution. The settlers were branching out from their initial town of "Upper Yonge Street", which later became Newmarket.

The road almost served its original military purpose during the War of 1812, when construction of a new fleet of first-rate ships began on the Lakes, necessitating the shipment of a large anchor from England for use on a frigate under construction on Lake Huron. The war ended while the anchor was still being moved, and now lies just outside Holland Landing in a park named in its honour.

Evolution of Yonge Street

In 1824, work began to extend Yonge Street to Kempenfelt Bay near Barrie. A north-western extension was branched off the original Yonge Street in Holland Landing and ran into the new settlement of Bradford before turning north towards Barrie. Work was completed by 1827, making connections with the Penetanguishene Road.

The decision was made to withdraw the military garrison in Penetanguishene in 1852. A year later, the Northern Railway of Canada was built along this established route, between Toronto and Kempenfelt Bay and extended to Collingwood by 1855. Settlement along the Penetanguishene Road pre-dated the road itself. Subsequent extensions of Yonge Street (though never named as such) which later became the more northerly parts of Highway 11, built in the 1830s (some with military strategy in mind), pushed settlement northeast along the shores of Lake Simcoe. By 1860 the Muskoka Road penetrated the southern skirts of the Canadian Shield, advancing towards Lake Nipissing.

1926 Toronto NW YongeandDundas
Northwest corner of Yonge and Dundas, 1926

A horse-drawn streetcar line was completed on Yonge Street in Toronto in September 1861 and operated by the Toronto Street Railway.[17] The line went from Scollard Street to King Street.[18] Streetcar service would be electrified in Toronto by 1892.

Confederation and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway further diminished the importance of Yonge Street, as the new Dominion of Canada heralded the construction of east-west trade routes spanning the continent. By the 1870s, Dr. Scadding, historian of Toronto of Old, declared that Penetanguishene did not have the importance to need an approach such as the "extension of the Yonge Street Road".

During the late 1800s, the Toronto and York Radial Railway used the Yonge Street right-of-way, originally to the town of North Toronto, but expanding over the years all the way to Sutton, on southern Lake Simcoe.[19] The Radial Railway ran along the eastern side of the street, allowing the prevailing westerly winds to remove snow from the slightly raised rails. The arrival of the Canadian Northern Railway in 1906 lessened traffic on the Radial, but it was not until Yonge became a major route for automobiles that the Radial truly fell into disuse. The last TYRR train north from Toronto ran on March 16, 1930. The line was then purchased by the townships north of the city and re-incorporated as North Yonge Railways, running service for another eighteen years before operations ended, along with service on numerous other portions of the Radial lines, in 1948. The space it formerly occupied was used to expand the road between Aurora and Newmarket.

Yonge Street as the "longest street in the world"

Yonge and Hwy 11 map
(Click to enlarge) Route of Yonge St. compared to Hwy. 11
(Above) The "longest street in the world" inscription at Yonge and Dundas in front of the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2013; and after its removal, in 2017 (Below)
Y&D Inlay removed
Looking south along Yonge Street, near the intersection with Wellesley Street

Yonge Street was formerly a part of Highway 11, which led to claims that Yonge Street was the longest street in the world. Running (mostly) concurrent with Yonge as far north as Barrie, then continuing beyond through central and northern Ontario to the Ontario-Minnesota border at Rainy River, the highway was over 1,896 kilometres (1,178 mi) long. But Yonge Street could only be called the longest street in the world if were fully synonymous with Highway 11, which has never been the case.

The original Yonge Street continues along its original alignment, ending in Holland Landing. This alignment was extended over the years, and today ends just south of Lake Simcoe. The original extension running from Holland Landing to Bradford was named for the towns, known as Bradford Street in Holland Landing, and Holland Landing Road in Bradford. The latter was later extended as a bypass was added, curving off the original alignment. A second bypass was later constructed, bypassing the entirety of Holland Landing Road and joining Bradford at Bridge Street. Likewise, the road between Bradford and Barrie is known as Barrie Street in Bradford and Bradford Street (along with Yonge St.) in Barrie, although Bradford St. is a physically distinct street today. The entire route of Highway 11 has incorrectly become synonymous with Yonge Street. No segment of the highway anywhere north of Barrie ever actually bore the name. However, the Guinness Book of World Records recognized this claim as late as 1999.

Provincial downloading separated Yonge Street from Highway 11 during the 1990s. As a result, Highway 11 does not start until Crown Hill just outside Barrie, several kilometres north of where the name "Yonge Street" ends. The Guinness Book of World Records no longer lists Yonge Street as the longest street in the world and has not chosen a replacement street, but cites the Pan-American Highway as the world's longest "motorable road".

Although current tourist campaigns do not make much of Yonge Street's length, its status as an urban myth was bolstered by an art installation at the foot of Yonge Street and a map of its purported length laid out into the sidewalk in bronze at the southwest corner of Yonge and Dundas Streets. However, possibly due to wider recognition of the street's actual length, the map inlay has now been removed.

2018 van attack

On April 23, 2018, the driver of a rented Ryder van intentionally struck numerous pedestrians, killing 10 and injuring 16 others on Yonge Street between Finch and Sheppard Avenues.[20]

Cultural significance

Yonge is Toronto's main street, hosting parades, street performances and demonstrations.

Gatherings occurred during the Winter Olympics in 2002 and 2010, when the Canadian men's hockey team defeated the United States for the gold medal. During lesser celebrations motorists drive up and down the street honking their horns and flying flags.

Sections of the street are often closed for other events, such as an annual street festival. In 1999 Ricky Martin held an autograph session at Sunrise Records and had a large section of Yonge Street closed for the day.[21] The intersection of Yonge and Dundas Streets, centred on the plaza at Yonge-Dundas Square, has been closed on occasion to host free concerts, including performances by R.E.M. on 17 May 2001, by Beyoncé on 15 September 2006 and by John Mayer on 16 September of the same year.

In 2008, Toronto's first pedestrian scramble was opened at the intersection of Yonge and Dundas Streets.

Five-pin bowling was invented and first played at the Toronto Bowling Club at Yonge and Temperance Streets.

Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner are credited with introducing ultimate and other disc sports (Frisbee) to Canada. They did nightly Frisbee shows on the Yonge Street Mall between Gerrard and Dundas 1971-1974.[22][23]

Toronto's annual LGBTQ Pride, Orange Order,[24] and Santa Claus parades also use Yonge Street for a significant portion of their routes.

The early works of Canadian singer-songwriters such as Joni Mitchell and Gordon Lightfoot were featured at the Yonge Street location of Sam the Record Man, just north of Dundas Street, at a time when records by Canadian musicians were not widely available. Lightfoot has a song about Yonge Street, titled "On Yonge Street", on his album A Painter Passing Through.

Yonge Street was also the subject or setting for an SCTV comedy sketch featuring John Candy. The sketch, Garth & Gord & Fiona & Alice, was a parody of the Canadian film Goin' Down the Road, about young men from the provinces discovering the bright lights of Yonge Street.

The Canadian singer-songwriter Bruce Cockburn makes this reference in his song "Coldest Night of the Year," from his album Inner City Front: "I took in Yonge Street at a glance / Heard the punkers playing / Watched the bikers dance / Everybody wishing they could go to the south of France / And you're not here / On the coldest night of the year."

Singer and rapper K-os also references the street in the lyrics to his 2004 single "Crabbuckit": "Walking down Yonge Street on a Friday / Can't follow them, gotta do it my way / No fast lane, still on a highway".



A Yonge/Downtown pylon on Yonge Street.

Northbound Yonge Christmas

Christmas lights span Yonge Street near Gerrard Street, Toronto

2008 Yonge Street at Temperance Toronto

Looking north from Temperance Street in 2008


A historical plaque commemorating the Joseph Shepard House at Yonge Street and Sheppard Avenue

2008 Toronto NW YongeandDundas

The northwest corner of the intersection of Yonge Street and Dundas Street in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

WikiSam the Record Man

The now-defunct and demolished Sam the Record Man, formerly located at Yonge and Gould Streets


Looking south on Yonge from north of Dundas

See also


  1. ^ the Historical Committee (1984). "Main Street, Ontario". From Footpaths to Freeways. Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. p. 23. ISBN 0-7743-9388-2.
  2. ^ a b http://www.boldts.net/Tor7.shtml
  3. ^ Google (March 21, 2018). "Yonge Street route Simcoe County & Barrie" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  4. ^ Young, Mark C. (1999). Guinness Book of World Records. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-58075-2. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
  5. ^ Construction of Yonge Street National Historic Event - Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada
  6. ^ http://wholemap.com/map/area.php?area=NorthToronto&pin=RHPL-1
  7. ^ "98/99 Yonge" (PDF). Route Navigator. York Region Transit. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  8. ^ "52 Holland Landing" (PDF). Route Navigator. York Region Transit. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  9. ^ "Barrie corridor" (PDF). Maps. GO Transit. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  10. ^ "Route 8 map (both branches)" (PDF). Maps. Barrie Transit. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  11. ^ The Road through Richmond Hill, Governor Simcoe Plans the Road
  12. ^ Peppiatt, Liam. "Chapter 19: A Sketch of the Grange". Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto Revisited.
  13. ^ The Road through Richmond Hill
  14. ^ Peppiatt, Liam. "Chapter 16: The Children's Friend". Robertson's Landmarks of Toronto Revisited.
  15. ^ Yonge Street's History
  16. ^ McHugh, Patricia. Toronto Architecture. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1989 pg. 60
  17. ^ Filey, Mike (2001). A Toronto Album: Glimpses of the City that Was. Toronto: Anthony Hawke (The Dundurn Group). p. 9. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  18. ^ "Toronto History FAQs". City of Toronto Archives. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  19. ^ The Road through Richmond Hill, The Radial Railway Arrives
  20. ^ Austen, Ian; Stack, Liam (April 23, 2018). "Toronto Van Plows Along Sidewalk, Killing 10 in 'Pure Carnage'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  21. ^ Ricky Martin mania shuts down T.O.
  22. ^ "History of the TUC". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  23. ^ "Ken Westerfield Frisbee Pioneer". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  24. ^ 186th Year for Orange Parade
  • Berchem, F. R. (1977). The Yonge Street Story (1793–1860). Toronto, ON: Natural Heritage Books.
  • Magel, Ralph (1998). 200 years Yonge; a history. Toronto, ON: Natural Heritage Books.

References to old Toronto

(a) Berczy's Draft letter in the Public Archives of Canada. Among the William Berczy Papers (M.G.23, H ii, Vol.2, p. 419 and Vol. 3, p. 527). As well as agreement of the German Company reproduced in The Simcoe correspondence, I, p. 191, 192

(b) Baby collection, University of Montreal. Salso Berczy Papers National Archive.

(c) John Andre the Berczy Study Infant Toronto as Simcoe's Folly p. 137. Also see Table II that shows comparison by yearly averaged growth from 1802 to 1825 p. 138

(d) Firth, p. 10 p. 10 P.Russell to Elizabeth Russell, Sep. 1, 1793 Also in Eric ArthurToronto No Mean City" Toronto, 1964 p. 138

External links

Battle of Montgomery's Tavern

The Battle of Montgomery's Tavern was an incident in the Upper Canada Rebellion. The abortive revolutionary insurrection inspired by William Lyon Mackenzie was crushed by British authorities and Canadian volunteer units near a tavern on Yonge Street, Toronto.

The site of Montgomery's Tavern was designated a National Historic Site in 1925.

College station (Toronto)

College is a subway station on Line 1 Yonge–University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is located at Yonge Street and College Street/Carlton Street. Wi-Fi service is available at this station.

Deer Park, Toronto

Deer Park is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, centred on the intersection of Yonge Street and St. Clair Avenue; its boundaries are the Vale of Avoca section of Rosedale ravine in the east, Farnham Avenue and Jackes Avenue in the south, Avenue Road and Oriole Parkway in the west, the Belt Line trail in the north on the west side of Yonge Street, and Glen Elm Avenue in the north on the east side of Yonge Street. For the purposes of social policy analysis & research, the City of Toronto’s Social Development & Administration division includes Deer Park within the City of Toronto's official "Rosedale-Moore Park" and "Yonge-St.Clair" neighbourhood profiles. The neighbourhood is in Ward 22, represented by Councillor Josh Matlow at Toronto city council.

The commercial area along the main streets is known simply as Yonge and St. Clair. Marked by a cluster of office buildings, the area also includes a number of restaurants, shops and services, and the St. Clair subway station, the terminus for the 512 St. Clair street car.

Eglinton (electoral district)

Eglinton was a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that was represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1935 to 1979. This riding was created in 1933 from parts of Toronto Northeast riding.

It initially consisted of Ward Nine of the city of Toronto.

In 1966, it was redefined to consist of the part of Metropolitan Toronto bounded as follows: from the intersection of the Canadian National Railway line and Yonge Street, north along Yonge Street, west along Cameron Avenue, north along Easton Street, west along Sheppard Avenue West, south along Bathurst Street, southwest along Highway 401, south along the Spadina Expressway, Beechmount Avenue and Benner Avenue, east along Briar Hill Avenue, south along Castlewood Road, east along Eglinton Avenue, south along Elmsthorpe Avenue, and southeast along the C.N.R. line to Yonge Street.

The electoral district was abolished in 1976 when it was redistributed between Eglinton—Lawrence, St. Paul's and Willowdale ridings.

Eglinton station

Eglinton is a subway station on Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway. It is located at the southwest corner of Yonge Street and Eglinton Avenue. Eglinton station is the seventh busiest station of the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC).Line 5 Eglinton will serve Eglinton station upon completion of the line, which is scheduled for 2021. Eglinton will then become an interchange station for the two lines.

Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres

The Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres are a pair of stacked theatres in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Winter Garden Theatre is seven storeys above the Elgin Theatre. They are the last surviving Edwardian stacked theatres in the world.

King station (Toronto)

King is a subway station on Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway system. The station is located at the intersection of King Street and Yonge Street in Toronto's Financial District. Wi-Fi service is available at this station.

List of east–west roads in Toronto

The following is a list of the east–west arterial thoroughfares in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The city is organized in a grid pattern dating back to the plan laid out by Augustus Jones between 1793 and 1797. Most streets are aligned in the north-south or east-west direction, based on the shoreline of Lake Ontario. In other words, major north–south roads are generally perpendicular to the Lake Ontario shoreline and major east–west roads are generally parallel to the lake's shoreline. The Toronto road system is also influenced by its topography as some roads are aligned with the old Lake Iroquois shoreline, or the deep valleys. Minor streets with documented history or etymology are listed in a separate section.

Roads are listed south to north.

List of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto

This is a list of oldest buildings and structures in Toronto, Ontario, that were constructed before 1920. The history of Toronto dates back to indigenous settlements in the region approximately 12,000 years ago. However, the oldest standing structures in Toronto were built by European settlers. Remains of a Seneca settlement may be found at the Bead Hill archaeological site, in eastern Toronto.

The first European structure built in Toronto was Magasin Royal, a French trading post established in 1720. In the 1750s, the French built several structures in the area (including Fort Rouillé), although the French would later destroy them in 1759, following the French defeat at the Battle of Fort Niagara. Toronto remained unsettled for another 34 years, until the British administration in Upper Canada arranged for the purchase of Toronto from the Mississaugas; in order to settle newly landed loyalist. Many of Toronto's oldest structures dates back to this early British settlement, known as York. The town of York was formally incorporated as the City of Toronto in 1834, with the passage of the Incorporation of the City of Toronto Act.

List of shopping malls in Toronto

The following is a list of shopping malls in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The first enclosed shopping mall in Toronto was the Toronto Arcade in the downtown core. The first shopping mall of the enclosed, automobile-centred design type was Yorkdale Shopping Centre, opened in 1964. For shopping malls surrounding the city of Toronto, please see the template at the bottom of this article.

North York City Centre

North York City Centre is a central business district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in the district of North York. It is centred along Yonge Street, between Sheppard and Finch Avenues around the Mel Lastman Square civic square. The district is a high-density district of condominium and office towers around the wide six lanes of Yonge Street.

The district was developed following the extension of the Yonge subway north to Finch Station. The former City of North York encouraged the development of the area as a downtown, locating its civic offices, a public square, a central library, an arts centre and an aquatic centre on the west side of Yonge, north of Sheppard. The area's growth increased following the opening of the North York Centre subway station and the Sheppard subway line. A shopping mall and cinemas were developed on the east side of Yonge Street and the sidewalks were built wide and landscaped.

It is located in the official neighbourhood of Willowdale, part of the former city of North York, and a former municipality of its own. Following the amalgamation of North York with the rest of Metropolitan Toronto by the City of Toronto Act amendment in 1997, North York City Centre became the largest of four central business districts in the new city outside Downtown Toronto. All of the civic facilities were retained by the new City of Toronto.

One Yonge Street

One Yonge Street (also known as the Toronto Star Building) is a 25-storey office building that serves as the headquarters of Torstar and its flagship newspaper, the Toronto Star. It is 100 metres tall, and is built in the International style. It was built as a replacement to the Old Toronto Star Building, which was located at 80 King Street West. That building was torn down to make room for First Canadian Place.

It is located at 1 Yonge Street at Queens Quay, and marks the foot of what was Highway 11, known informally as "the longest street in the world".

The building also housed the printing presses for the Toronto Star newspaper, until 1992 when a new press centre was opened in Vaughan, Ontario. The finished newspaper content is sent electronically to the plant where the plates are burnt and the paper gets printed and distributed. Editorial content of the newspaper is produced by employees working on the fifth floor. It also has the headquarters of Torstar.The office space at One Yonge Street is also leased out to a variety of other companies, including Pinnacle International, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Ontario Cannabis Retail Corporation, RL Solutions, Starbucks, Luminus Financial, a dental office, and the downtown Toronto campus of Collège Boréal.The property is owned by Pinnacle International.

Thornhill, Ontario

Thornhill (2011 population 110,430) is a suburban community in the Regional Municipality of York in Ontario, Canada. It is split between the cities of Vaughan and Markham, lying along the north border of Toronto, centred on Yonge Street. Once a police village, Thornhill is now a community and postal designation. According to the 2001 Census, Thornhill-Vaughan's population was 56,361, and the population of Thornhill-Markham was 47,333. It is immediately south and south-west of Richmond Hill.

Toronto Eaton Centre

The Toronto Eaton Centre (corporately styled as the CF Toronto Eaton Centre since September 2015, and commonly referred to simply as the Eaton Centre) is a shopping mall and office complex in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is owned and managed by Cadillac Fairview (CF). It was named after the Eaton's department store chain that once anchored it before the chain became defunct in the late 1990s.

The Toronto Eaton Centre attracts the most visitors of any of Toronto's tourist attractions. It is North America's busiest shopping mall, due to extensive transit access, its downtown location and tourist traffic. With 48,969,858 visitors in 2015 alone, the centre sees more annual visitors than either of the two busiest malls in the United States (Mall of America and Ala Moana Center), or Central Park in New York City. The number of visitors to the Toronto Eaton Centre in 2015 exceeds the total 2015 passenger counts at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada's largest and busiest airport.

Toronto van attack

The Toronto van attack was a vehicle-ramming attack that occurred on April 23, 2018, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in which a rented van was driven along Yonge Street through the North York City Centre business district, deliberately targeting pedestrians, killing 10 and injuring 16, some critically.The attack started at the intersection of Yonge Street and Finch Avenue and proceeded south along the sidewalks of Yonge Street to near Sheppard Avenue. The 25-year-old male driver was arrested uninjured just south of the crime scene after attempting to provoke a police officer to kill him. The arrest was made at 1:32 p.m. EDT, seven minutes after the first 9-1-1 call reporting the incident was made. The incident is the deadliest vehicle-ramming attack in Canadian history.

Willowdale, Toronto

Willowdale is a neighbourhood in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, located in the district of North York. It developed from three postal villages: Newtonbrook, Willowdale and Lansing.

Willowdale began as a postal village (orig. Willow Dale) which covered the area from Finch Ave. at the north to Elmwood Ave at the south and Bathurst St. at the west to Bayview Ave. at the east. The postal village of Lansing was from Elmwood Ave. at the north to approx. Hwy. 401 at the south and Bathurst St. at the west to Bayview Ave. at the east. (East of Bayview Ave. was the postal village of Oriole.) The north–south centreline of Lansing & Willowdale was Yonge St. The postal village of Lansing remained in existence until the post office at Lansing corner (northwest corner of Yonge St. & Sheppard Ave.) was closed. When a new post office was built in Willowdale, the postal villages of Lansing and Willowdale were combined as the new postal village of Willowdale, within the Township of North York.

North York City Centre is centred at the intersection of Yonge Street and Empress Avenue/Park Home Avenue and is commonly thought to be a part of Willowdale, though its high-rise residential and commercial development sets it apart from much of the rest of Willowdale. The Willowdale neighbourhood consists of single-family homes, condominium townhouses and high-rise condominium towers. High density development is restricted along Yonge Street.

Yonge Street Rapidway

The Yonge Street Rapidway is a bus rapid transit corridor on Yonge Street in York Region, Ontario, Canada. Construction of the Yonge Street portion of the network began in 2014.The Yonge Street Rapidway is central to the Vivanext transport masterplan and will eventually extend from the Richmond Hill/Langstaff Urban Growth Centre at Highway 7 to Green Lane in East Gwillimbury.In February 2010, a public open house was held for the first segment of the Yonge Street Rapidway, which will extend from Mulock to Davis Drive in Newmarket.It is expected that the section from the Newmarket Bus Terminal on Davis Drive to Mulock Drive and 19th Avenue to the Richmond Hill Centre Terminal at Highway 7 will be completed in late 2019 and late 2020, respectively.The corridor was originally intended to continue south of Richmond Hill Centre Terminal towards the regional bus terminal at Finch subway station in Toronto. However, with the anticipated northward extension of the Yonge–University subway, the rapidway's southern terminus will be Richmond Hill Centre.


Yonge−Eglinton is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, at the intersection of Yonge Street and Eglinton Avenue. It is central to the area of Midtown Toronto, one of four central business districts outside Downtown Toronto. The City of Toronto defines its boundaries as Briar Hill Avenue to the north, Yonge Street to the east, Frobisher Avenue and a line in that direction west to Elmsthorpe Avenue, then north to Eglinton Avenue, east to Avenue Road and north to Briar Hill.

According to a survey conducted in 2017 by Toronto Life, it was the highest-ranked neighbourhood in Greater Toronto in terms of housing, crime rate, transit, health, entertainment, people and employment. It is geographically central to the city of Toronto and surrounded by a number of the country's highly affluent neighbourhoods, including Forest Hill, Bridle Path and Lawrence Park.

York Mills Road

York Mills Road is an east-west route in Toronto, Ontario, Canada named for the historic village of York Mills that was located on the hill immediately north of today's intersection of York Mills Road and Yonge Street. The village of York Mills is distinguished from the 1920s subdivision to the south known as Hoggs Hollow. "York" refers to York Township and "Mills" refers to the gristmills and sawmills that once operated (1804–1926) in the valley through which the Don River runs.York Mills runs east of Yonge Street and ends at Victoria Park Avenue. Near Victoria Park, most of the traffic follows Parkwoods Village Drive in connection to Ellesmere Road. To the west, York Mills Road becomes Wilson Avenue. These roads form a parallel alternative to the nearby Highway 401. Based on early surveys of Toronto and York County, York Mills Road would have been the Fifth Concession.

In the 1970s, when the Toronto Transit Commission extended the Yonge Street subway line north from the Eglinton terminus, a new roadway alignment from York Mills to Wilson was completed in 1973 to accommodate 96 Wilson Avenue buses running directly to the new York Mills subway station rather than travelling south on Yonge Boulevard to Yonge Street terminus at Glen Echo Loop.

Landmarks along York Mills Road include a recreation complex at Bayview Avenue, York Mills Collegiate Institute, a large Rogers Communications complex past Leslie Street, and the former site of the Upjohn Company of Canada near Don Mills Road at Upjohn Road.

Major roads, highways and streets in Toronto

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