Yokohama (Japanese: 横浜 Hepburn: Yokohama, pronounced [jokohama] (listen)) is the second largest city in Japan by population, and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.
Yokohama's population of 3.7 million makes it Japan's largest city. Yokohama developed rapidly as Japan's prominent port city following the end of Japan's relative isolation in the mid-19th century, and is today one of its major ports along with Kobe, Osaka, Nagoya, Hakata, Tokyo, and Chiba.
|City of Yokohama|
Map of Kanagawa Prefecture with Yokohama highlighted in purple
|• Mayor||Fumiko Hayashi|
|• Total||437.38 km2 (168.87 sq mi)|
(October 1, 2016)
|• Density||8,534.03/km2 (22,103.0/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)|
|– Tree||Camellia, Chinquapin, Sangoju|
Sasanqua, Ginkgo, Zelkova
|Address||1-1 Minato-chō, Naka-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken|
Yokohama (横浜) literally means "horizontal beach". The current area surrounded by Maita Park, the Ōoka River and the Nakamura River had been a gulf divided by a sandbar from the open sea. This sandbar was the original Yokohama fishing village. Since the sandbar protruded perpendicularly from the land, or horizontally when viewed from the sea, it was called a "horizontal beach".
Yokohama was a small fishing village up to the end of the feudal Edo period, when Japan held a policy of national seclusion, having little contact with foreigners. A major turning point in Japanese history happened in 1853–54, when Commodore Matthew Perry arrived just south of Yokohama with a fleet of American warships, demanding that Japan open several ports for commerce, and the Tokugawa shogunate agreed by signing the Treaty of Peace and Amity.
It was initially agreed that one of the ports to be opened to foreign ships would be the bustling town of Kanagawa-juku (in what is now Kanagawa Ward) on the Tōkaidō, a strategic highway that linked Edo to Kyoto and Osaka. However, the Tokugawa shogunate decided that Kanagawa-juku was too close to the Tōkaidō for comfort, and port facilities were instead built across the inlet in the sleepy fishing village of Yokohama. The Port of Yokohama was officially opened on June 2, 1859.
Yokohama quickly became the base of foreign trade in Japan. Foreigners initially occupied the low-lying district of the city called Kannai, residential districts later expanding as the settlement grew to incorporate much of the elevated Yamate district overlooking the city, commonly referred to by English speaking residents as The Bluff.
Kannai, the foreign trade and commercial district (literally, inside the barrier), was surrounded by a moat, foreign residents enjoying extraterritorial status both within and outside the compound. Interactions with the local population, particularly young samurai, outside the settlement inevitably caused problems; the Namamugi Incident, one of the events that preceded the downfall of the shogunate, took place in what is now Tsurumi Ward in 1862, and prompted the Bombardment of Kagoshima in 1863.
To protect British commercial and diplomatic interests in Yokohama a military garrison was established in 1862. With the growth in trade increasing numbers of Chinese also came to settle in the city. Yokohama was the scene of many notable firsts for Japan including the growing acceptance of western fashion, photography by pioneers such as Felice Beato, Japan's first English language newspaper, the Japan Herald published in 1861 and in 1865 the first ice cream and beer to be produced in Japan. Recreational sports introduced to Japan by foreign residents in Yokohama included European style horse racing in 1862, cricket in 1863 and rugby union in 1866. A great fire destroyed much of the foreign settlement on November 26, 1866 and smallpox was a recurrent public health hazard, but the city continued to grow rapidly – attracting foreigners and Japanese alike.
After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the port was developed for trading silk, the main trading partner being Great Britain. Western influence and technological transfer contributed to the establishment of Japan's first daily newspaper (1870), first gas-powered street lamps (1872) and Japan's first railway constructed in the same year to connect Yokohama to Shinagawa and Shinbashi in Tokyo. In 1872 Jules Verne portrayed Yokohama, which he had never visited, in an episode of his widely read novel Around the World in Eighty Days, capturing the atmosphere of the fast-developing, internationally oriented Japanese city.
In 1887, a British merchant, Samuel Cocking, built the city's first power plant. At first for his own use, this coal-burning plant became the basis for the Yokohama Cooperative Electric Light Company. The city was officially incorporated on April 1, 1889. By the time the extraterritoriality of foreigner areas was abolished in 1899, Yokohama was the most international city in Japan, with foreigner areas stretching from Kannai to the Bluff area and the large Yokohama Chinatown.
The early 20th century was marked by rapid growth of industry. Entrepreneurs built factories along reclaimed land to the north of the city toward Kawasaki, which eventually grew to be the Keihin Industrial Area. The growth of Japanese industry brought affluence, and many wealthy trading families constructed sprawling residences there, while the rapid influx of population from Japan and Korea also led to the formation of Kojiki-Yato, then the largest slum in Japan.
Much of Yokohama was destroyed on September 1, 1923 by the Great Kantō earthquake. The Yokohama police reported casualties at 30,771 dead and 47,908 injured, out of a pre-earthquake population of 434,170. Fuelled by rumours of rebellion and sabotage, vigilante mobs thereupon murdered many Koreans in the Kojiki-yato slum. Many people believed that Koreans used black magic to cause the earthquake. Martial law was in place until November 19. Rubble from the quake was used to reclaim land for parks, the most famous being the Yamashita Park on the waterfront which opened in 1930.
Yokohama was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by U.S. air raids during World War II. An estimated seven or eight thousand people were killed in a single morning on May 29, 1945 in what is now known as the Great Yokohama Air Raid, when B-29s firebombed the city and in just one hour and nine minutes reduced 42% of it to rubble.
During the American occupation, Yokohama was a major transshipment base for American supplies and personnel, especially during the Korean War. After the occupation, most local U.S. naval activity moved from Yokohama to an American base in nearby Yokosuka.
The city was designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956.
Construction of Minato Mirai 21 ("Port Future 21"), a major urban development project on reclaimed land, started in 1983. Minato Mirai 21 hosted the Yokohama Exotic Showcase in 1989, which saw the first public operation of maglev trains in Japan and the opening of Cosmo Clock 21, then the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. The 860m-long Yokohama Bay Bridge opened in the same year.
In 2009, the city marked the 150th anniversary of the opening of the port and the 120th anniversary of the commencement of the City Administration. An early part in the commemoration project incorporated the Fourth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD IV) which was held in Yokohama in May 2008.
In November 2010, Yokohama hosted the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting.
Yokohama features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) with hot and humid summers and chilly winters. Weatherwise, Yokohama has a mixed bag of rain, clouds and sun, although in winter, it is surprisingly sunny, more so than Southern Spain. Winter temperatures rarely drop below freezing, while summer can be quite warm because of the effects of humidity. The coldest temperature was on 24 January 1927 when −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) was reached, whilst the hottest day was 11 August 2013 at 37.4 °C (99.3 °F). The highest monthly rainfall has been in October 2004 with 761.5 millimetres (30.0 in), closely followed by July 1941 with 753.4 millimetres (29.66 in), whilst December and January have recorded no measurable precipitation three times each.
|Population||Rank among cities in Japan|
|1920||422,942||6th, behind Kobe, Kyoto,|
Nagoya, Osaka, and Tokyo
|1940||968,091||5th, surpassing Kobe|
|1945||814,379||4th, the city government of Tokyo|
having been disbanded in 1943
|1960||1,375,710||3rd, surpassing Kyoto|
|1970||2,238,264||2nd, surpassing Nagoya|
|1980||2,773,674||1st, surpassing Osaka|
Yokohama has 18 wards (ku):
The Yokohama Municipal Assembly consists of 92 members elected from a total of 18 Wards. The LDP has minority control with 30 seats with Democratic Party of Japan with a close 29. The mayor is Fumiko Hayashi, who succeeded Hiroshi Nakada in September 2009.
The city has a strong economic base, especially in the shipping, biotechnology, and semiconductor industries. Nissan moved its headquarters to Yokohama from Chūō, Tokyo in 2010. Yokohama's GDP per capita (Nominal) was $30,625($1=\120.13).
Yokohama is serviced by the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, a high-speed rail line with a stop at Shin-Yokohama Station. Yokohama Station is also a major station, with two million passengers daily. The Yokohama Municipal Subway, Minatomirai Line and Kanazawa Seaside Line provide metro services.
In 2013, APM Terminals Yokohama facility was recognised as the most productive container terminal in the world averaging 163 crane moves per hour, per ship between the vessel's arrival and departure at the berth.
Public elementary and middle schools are operated by the city of Yokohama. There are nine public high schools which are operated by the Yokohama City Board of Education, and a number of public high schools which are operated by the Kanagawa Prefectural Board of Education. Yokohama National University is a leading university in Yokohama which is also one of the highest ranking national universities in Japan.
The J.League 1993 season was the inaugural season of the J.League Division 1. The league fixtures began on May 15, 1993, and ended on December 15, 1993. The first ever Suntory Championship took place in the following year, January 9 and January 16, 1994.2019 Rugby World Cup
The 2019 Rugby World Cup will be the ninth Rugby World Cup, and is to be held in Japan from 20 September to 2 November. This will be the first time the tournament is to be held in Asia, the first time consecutive tournaments have been staged in the same hemisphere, and also the first time that the event will take place outside the traditional heartland of the sport.
Hong Kong and Singapore had expressed interest in hosting some of the matches and were included as part of the JRFU's successful original hosting bid to World Rugby (known at the time of bidding as the International Rugby Board, or IRB) but were not amongst the fourteen locations announced by organisers Japan 2019 on 5 November 2014 that had formally bid for the right to host games.The opening match of the 2019 Rugby World Cup will take place at the Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, Tokyo, and the final match will be held at the Nissan Stadium in Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture. These venue assignments were announced in September 2015 when plans for the tournament were revised by Japan's organizing committee and accepted by World Rugby. The National Olympic Stadium, being rebuilt for the 2020 Summer Olympics, was originally the centerpiece of Japan's Rugby World Cup bid, but revisions to the Olympic Stadium plans mandated the World Cup venue changes.Greater Tokyo Area
The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan, including Tokyo Metropolis, as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region. In Japanese, it is referred to by various terms, one of the most common being Capital Region (首都圏, Shuto-ken).
A 2016 United Nations estimate puts the total population at 38,140,000. It covers an area of approximately 13,500 km2 (5,200 mi2), giving it a population density of 2,642 person/km2. It is the second largest single metropolitan area in the world in terms of built-up or urban function landmass at 8,547 km2 (3,300 mi2), behind only New York City at 11,642 km2 (4,495 mi2).The area has the largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a total GDP (nominal) of approximately $2 trillion (¥165 trillion) in 2008. According to research published by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the agglomeration of Tokyo had a total GDP of $1.5 trillion in 2008 (at purchasing power parity), ranking again as the largest urban agglomeration GDP in the world.J1 League
The J1 League (J1リーグ, J1 Rīgu) is the top division of the Japan Professional Football League (日本プロサッカーリーグ, Nihon Puro Sakkā Rīgu) and the top professional association football J.League in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football. Currently, the J1 League is the first level of the Japanese association football league system. The second tier is represented by the J2 League. It is currently sponsored by Meiji Yasuda Life and thus officially known as the Meiji Yasuda J1 League. Until the 2014 season it was named the J.League Division 1.Kanagawa Prefecture
Kanagawa Prefecture (神奈川県, Kanagawa-ken) is a prefecture located in Kantō region of Japan. The capital of the prefecture is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area. Kanagawa Prefecture is home to Kamakura and Hakone, two popular side trip destinations from Tokyo.Minatomirai Line
The Minatomirai 21 Line (みなとみらい21線 Minato-mirai-21-sen), commonly known as the Minatomirai Line (みなとみらい線 Minatomirai-sen), is a subway line of the Yokohama Minatomirai Railway Company connecting Yokohama Station to Yokohama Chinatown through the Minato Mirai 21 development.
On maps and station numbering the line is identified by the color navy blue and the route symbol MM. The line was opened on February 1, 2004. The whole line is underground and goes through the Yokohama Minato Mirai 21 and Kannai Districts. The line passes though numerous islands made of soft reclaimed land and channels requiring the stations to be built very deep. The original surface alignment Tokyu Toyoko line between Yokohama and Sakuragicho stations were abolished and replaced with a new underground alignment to connect and allow for through services with the newly completed Minatomirai Line.NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium
The NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium (ニッパツ三ツ沢球技場, Nippatsu Mitsuzawa Kyugijo) is a football stadium in Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan. It serves as a home ground of Yokohama FC and, on occasion, Yokohama F. Marinos. Until 1999 it had been the home of Yokohama FC's spiritual predecessor, Yokohama Flügels, and also, on occasion, to Kawasaki-based NKK FC The stadium holds 15,046 people.
It was formerly known as Yokohama Mitsuzawa Football Stadium. Since March 2008 it has been called NHK Spring Mitsuzawa Football Stadium for the naming rights by NHK Spring Company.
It is also used sometimes for Top League rugby games.
During the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, it hosted some of the football preliminaries. It was also one of the venues of the 1979 FIFA World Youth Championship.Nissan Stadium (Yokohama)
Nissan Stadium, (日産スタジアム, Nissan Sutajiamu) known as International Stadium Yokohama (横浜国際総合競技場, Yokohama Kokusai Sōgō Kyōgi-jō) until 2005, is a sports venue in Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, that opened in March 1998. It is the home stadium of Yokohama F. Marinos of the J1 League.
International Stadium Yokohama has the highest seating capacity of any stadium in Japan, with a total of 72,327 seats. It hosted three first-round games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and the final game between Germany and Brazil was played there on 30 June 2002. The stadium is one of the planned football venues for the 2020 Summer Olympics. The stadium has also been selected as one of the venues for 2019 Rugby World Cup and will also host the final of the tournament. This decision was taken by World Rugby after Japan announced that the proposed new National Stadium wouldn't be completed in time.On 28 August 2009, Nissan Motors announced that they would not renew the contract for the naming rights of the stadium, which expired on 28 February 2010. But negotiations continued with the city, and a new agreement for three more years was completed. On 28 February 2013, Yokohama City as the stadium's owner renewed the contract for 3 years from 1 March 2013 until 29 February 2016 in a deal worth 150 million yen a year. On 1 December 2015, Yokohama City renewed the contract for 5 years from 1 March 2016 until 28 February 2021 in another deal worth 150 million yen a year.Wards of Japan
A ward (区, ku) is a subdivision of the cities of Japan that are large enough to have been designated by government ordinance. Wards are used to subdivide each city designated by government ordinance ("designated city"). The 23 special wards of Tokyo have a municipal status, and are not the same as other entities referred to as ku, although their predecessors were.
Wards are local entities directly controlled by the municipal government. They handle administrative functions such as koseki registration, health insurance, and property taxation. Many wards have affiliated residents' organizations for a number of tasks, although these do not have any legal authority.YSCC Yokohama
Yokohama Sports & Culture Club (横浜スポーツ&カルチャークラブ, Yokohama Supōtsu Ando Karuchākurabu), commonly referred to as simply YSCC or YSCC Yokohama is a Japanese multisports club based in Yokohama. Although they compete in a number of different sports, YSCC is best known for its association football team that currently plays in J3 League.Yokohama DeNA BayStars
The Yokohama DeNA BayStars (横浜DeNAベイスターズ, Yokohama Dī-Enu-Ē Beisutāzu) are a professional baseball team in the Japanese Central League. Their home field is Yokohama Stadium, located in central Yokohama. The team has been known by several names since becoming a professional team in 1950. It adopted its current name in 2011 when the club was purchased by software company DeNA.
The minor league team shares the same name and uniform as the parent team and plays in the Eastern League. The minor league home field is Yokosuka Stadium, located in Yokosuka, Kanagawa.Yokohama F. Marinos
Yokohama F. Marinos (横浜F・マリノス, Yokohama Efu Marinosu) is a Japanese association football team that participates in the J1 League.Having won the J-League title three times and finishing second twice, they are one of the most successful J-League clubs. The team is based in Yokohama and was founded as the company team of Nissan Motors. The club was formed by the merger of Yokohama Marinos and Yokohama Flügels in 1999. The current name is intended to reflect both Marinos and Flügels. The team name Marinos means "sailors" in Spanish. Yokohama F. Marinos is the longest serving team in the top flight of Japanese football, having played at the top level since 1982, also making them, along with Kashima Antlers, one of only two teams to have competed in Japan's top flight of football every year since its inception.Yokohama FC
Yokohama FC (横浜FC, Yokohama Efushī) is a Japanese football club based in the city of Yokohama. The club was formed by fans of Yokohama Flügels as a protest against Flügels' merger with Yokohama Marinos in 1999, becoming the first supporter-owned professional sports team in Japan.Since gaining J.League membership in 2001, Yokohama FC has spent all but one season in the second tier of the Japanese football league system; the club gained promotion to J.League Division 1 as champions of J.League Division 2 in 2006, but were immediately relegated the following season.Yokohama Film Festival
The Yokohama Film Festival (ヨコハマ映画祭, Yokohama eigasai) is an annual awards ceremony held in Yokohama, Japan. Ten films are chosen as the best of the year and various awards are given to personnel. The first festival, held on February 3, 1980, was a small affair by fans and film critics. In 1994, France announced plans to help sponsor the festival with grants from the National Cinema Center.Yokohama Flügels
Yokohama Flügels (横浜フリューゲルス, Yokohama Furyūgerusu) was a Japanese football club that played in the J.League between 1993 and 1998. In 1999 the club was officially merged with local rivals Yokohama Marinos and the two teams became known together as Yokohama F. Marinos. However, many Flügels fans refused to support the new Marinos and created their own club, Yokohama FC, as they felt that the Flügels had been dissolved rather than merged with.Yokohama Line
The Yokohama Line (横浜線, Yokohama-sen) is a Japanese railway line of the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) connecting Higashi-Kanagawa Station in Yokohama, Kanagawa and Hachiōji Station in Hachiōji, Tokyo. The line forms part of what JR East refers to as the "Tokyo Mega Loop" (東京メガループ) around Tokyo, consisting of the Keiyo Line, Musashino Line, Nambu Line, and Yokohama Line. The line's name comes from the section between Nagatsuta and Higashi-Kanagawa that runs through the city of Yokohama. Nicknamed the Hama-sen (浜線) by locals, the line serves commuters in the southwestern suburbs of Tokyo and northeastern suburbs of Yokohama.Yokohama Municipal Subway
Yokohama Municipal Subway (横浜市営地下鉄, Yokohama-shiei chikatetsu) is the metro network in the city of Yokohama, Japan, south of Tokyo in Kanagawa pref. It is operated by Yokohama City Transportation Bureau, and is operated as two lines, though 3 continuous lines exist.Yokohama Rubber Company
The Yokohama Rubber Company, Limited (横浜ゴム株式会社, Yokohama Gomu Kabushiki-gaisha) is a tire company based in Tokyo, Japan. The company was founded and started Oct 13, 1917 in a joint venture between Yokohama Cable Manufacturing and B.F. Goodrich. In 1969 the company expanded to the United States as Yokohama Tire Corporation. The Aspec A300 was the driving force behind its tremendous rise. Branding, especially in Japan, will often use "ADVAN" instead of Yokohama. ADVAN wheels and tires have a strong presence in the aftermarket scene worldwide.
The company has two manufacturing facilities in the United States: one in Salem, Virginia, and another in West Point, Mississippi.Yokohama Station
Yokohama Station (横浜駅, Yokohama-eki) is a major interchange railway station in Nishi-ku, Yokohama, Japan. It is the busiest station in Kanagawa Prefecture and the fifth-busiest in the world as of 2013, serving 760 million passengers a year.
|Climate data for Yokohama, Kanagawa (1981–2010 except for records)|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.8
|Average high °C (°F)||9.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||5.9
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−8.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||58.9
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)||6.0||6.7||11.8||11.1||11.5||13.6||11.7||8.7||12.7||11.5||8.3||5.5||119.1|
|Average snowy days||1.6||2.3||0.7||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||4.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||53||54||60||65||70||78||78||76||76||71||64||56||67|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||186.4||164.0||159.5||175.2||177.1||131.7||162.9||206.3||130.7||141.0||149.3||180.4||1,964.4|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2:  (records)|
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