Yining

Yining[4] (Chinese: 伊宁), also known as Ghulja (Uyghur: غۇلجا‎) or Qulja (Kazakh: قۇلجا, Qulja),[b] and formerly Ningyuan (寧遠) is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Historically, Yining is the successor to the ruined city of Almaliq in neighbouring Huocheng County.

Yining

伊宁  (Chinese)
غۇلجا  (Uighur)
قۇلجا  (Kazakh)
Yining City
伊宁市  (Chinese)
غۇلجا شەھىرى  (Uighur)
قۇلجا قالاسى  (Kazakh)
Town square in Yining (Gulja) in July 2005
Town square in Yining (Gulja) in July 2005
Yining is located in Xinjiang
Yining
Yining
Location in Xinjiang
Coordinates: 43°55′N 81°19′E / 43.917°N 81.317°ECoordinates: 43°55′N 81°19′E / 43.917°N 81.317°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionXinjiang
Autonomous prefectureIli (Kazakh)
Area
 • County-level city629 km2 (243 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[1]
49 km2 (19 sq mi)
Population
(2015)[2]
 • County-level city542,507
 • Density860/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2018)[3]
345,000
 • Urban density7,000/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Postal code
835000
Area code(s)0999
WebsiteOfficial website
Yining
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese伊宁
Traditional Chinese伊寧
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinYīníng
Wade–GilesI1-ning2
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese固勒扎
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinGùlèzhā
Wade–GilesKu4-lê4-cha1
Tibetan name
Tibetanགུལ་ཅ
Transcriptions
Wyliegul ca
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicХулж
Mongolian scriptᠬᠤᠯᠵᠠ
Uyghur name
Uyghurغۇلجا
Transcriptions
Latin YëziqiGhulja
Yengi YeziⱪƢulja
SASM/GNCĜulja
Siril YëziqiҒулҗа
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡤᡡᠯᠵᠠ
AbkaiGvlja
MöllendorffGūlja
Russian name
RussianКульджа
RomanizationKuldzha
Kazak(h) name
Kazak(h)قۇلجا
Құлжа
Oirat name
Oiratᡎᡇᠯᠴᠠ
Chagatai name
Chagataiغولجا

Area and population

The city of Yining is a county-level administrative unit located along Ili River. As of 2015, it has an estimated population of 542,507, with a total land area of 629 km2 (243 sq mi).[5] It is the most populous city in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.

The land area and population of the City of Yining saw an increase in 2003; the increase resulted from the transfer of two villages with some 100 km2 (39 sq mi) of land from the adjacent Yining County, which is a separate administrative unit from the city.

History

Note on historical place names

From 13-15th century it was under the control of Chagatai Khanate known as Mughulistan empire with its capital Almaligh, Turpan, Tashkent, Yarkent and Kashgar. Another Mongul empire—the Zunghar Khanate—established around Ili area. In the 19th and early 20th century, the word Kuldja or Ghulja was often used in Russia and in the West as the name for the entire Chinese part of the Ili River basin as well as for its two main cities. The usage of 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica is fairly characteristic: it defines Kulja as a "territory in north-west China" bounded by the Russian border and the mountains that surround the Ili basin, and it talks about two major cities of the region:[6]

  • Kulja (i.e. today's Yining ), or more specifically Old Kulja (elsewhere, also called Taranchi Kulja), which was the commercial center of the region.
  • Suidun (i.e. Suiding, now called Shuiding), or more specifically New Kulja, Manchu Kulja, or Ili (elsewhere, also Chinese Kulja), the Chinese fortress and the regional capital.

Until the 1860s Huiyuan to the south of Suiding was the regional capital.

Qing dynasty

The fort of Ningyuan (寧遠城) was built in 1762 to accommodate new settlers from southern Xinjing. The forts of Huining (惠寧城) and Xichun (熙春城) built later in 1765 and 1780 were also located within the modern Yining City.

The Sino-Russian Treaty of Kulja 1851 opened the area for trade.

In 1864-66, the city suffered severely from fighting during the Dungan Revolt. The city and the rest of the Ili River basin were seized by the Russians in 1871 during Yakub Beg's independent rule of Kashgaria. It was restored to the Chinese under the terms of the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1881). In 1888 the Ningyuan County was established.

The Geographical Magazine in 1875 by Sir Clements Robert Markham stated:

What little industry Kulja possesses is all due to the Chinese, who transplanted the taste for art, assiduity and skilfulness of their pigtailed race, even to these western outskirts of "the celestial flowery dominion of the Middle." Had the Taranjis and Kalmuks been left to themselves, or had they remained in a preponderating majority, Kulja would not be a bit farther advanced than either Yarkand or Aksu. The principal trades are the following:— founders, manufacturing kettles, plates, and other implements of a very primitive form; paper-makers, whose productions do not seem to be superior to the paper manufactured at the present time after Chinese patterns at Khokand and Samarkand. There are, moreover, some confectionaries in which cakes of all shapes are baked of rice and millet, overlaid with sugar; also maccaroni-makers, the Taranjis being notoriously very fond of dried farinaceous food. In Eastern Turkistan there still exist many similar trades, and although their products are not equal to European articles of the same kind—I mean here the fabrics of the formerly western Chinese provinces— they are still said to be profitable. Finally among the tradesmen we may mention millers, vinegar manufacturers and potters. The number of factories amount to-day at Kulja to 38, wherein over 131 hands are occupied. To this of course other tradespeople have to be added, such as 169 boot-makers, 50 blacksmiths, 48 carpenters, 11 brass-founders, 3 silversmiths, 26 stone-cutters, and 2 tailors.[7]

Republic of China

In 1914 the Ningyuan County was renamed Yining County to avoid confusion with other places in China named Ningyuan.

During the Ili Rebellion, the Chinese Muslim officer Liu Bin Di engaged in combat against Soviet backed Turkic Muslim rebels, and was killed in action in November 1944 in Yining (Gulja).[8]

People's Republic

Yining became a separate city from Yining County in 1952. In 1962, major Sino-Soviet clashes took place along the Ili River.

In 1997, in what came to be known as the Gulja Incident or massacre, the city was rocked by two days of demonstrations or riots[9] followed by a government crack down resulting in at least 9 deaths following the execution of 30 Uighur activists.[10]

Geography

Yining (Gulja)
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
18
 
 
−2
−15
 
 
19
 
 
0
−12
 
 
20
 
 
9
−3
 
 
28
 
 
20
6
 
 
27
 
 
25
10
 
 
29
 
 
29
14
 
 
20
 
 
31
16
 
 
14
 
 
30
14
 
 
15
 
 
26
9
 
 
26
 
 
18
3
 
 
28
 
 
9
−3
 
 
25
 
 
1
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [11]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
28
5
 
 
0.7
 
 
32
10
 
 
0.8
 
 
48
28
 
 
1.1
 
 
69
42
 
 
1.1
 
 
77
50
 
 
1.1
 
 
83
57
 
 
0.8
 
 
88
60
 
 
0.6
 
 
87
57
 
 
0.6
 
 
78
49
 
 
1
 
 
64
37
 
 
1.1
 
 
48
27
 
 
1
 
 
34
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Yining is located on the northern side of the Ili River in the Dzungarian basin, about 70 km (43 mi) east of the border with Kazakhstan, and about 710 km (440 mi) west of Ürümqi. The Ili River valley is far wetter than most of Xinjiang and has rich grazing land.

The City of Yining borders on Huocheng County in the west and the Yining County in the east; across the river in the south is Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County.

Climate

Yining (Gulja) has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), without the strong variation in seasonal precipitation seen across most of China. Dry and sunny weather dominates year-round. Winters are cold, with a January average of −8.8 °C (16.2 °F). Yet the influence of the Dzungarian Altau to the northwest and Boroboro Mountains to the northeast helps keep the city warmer than more easterly locales on a similar latitude. Summers are hot, with a July average of 23.1 °C (73.6 °F). Diurnal temperature ranges tend to be large from April to October. The annual mean temperature is 8.98 °C (48.2 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 53% in December to 73% in August and September, sunshine is abundant and the city receives 2,834 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Yining (Gulja) (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −2.1
(28.2)
0.2
(32.4)
9.0
(48.2)
20.4
(68.7)
24.8
(76.6)
28.5
(83.3)
31.0
(87.8)
30.4
(86.7)
25.8
(78.4)
18.0
(64.4)
8.7
(47.7)
1.3
(34.3)
16.3
(61.4)
Average low °C (°F) −15
(5)
−12.2
(10.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
5.8
(42.4)
10.2
(50.4)
14.0
(57.2)
15.8
(60.4)
14.1
(57.4)
9.3
(48.7)
2.9
(37.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
−9.5
(14.9)
2.5
(36.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.9
(0.70)
19.1
(0.75)
20.2
(0.80)
28.0
(1.10)
27.2
(1.07)
28.5
(1.12)
20.2
(0.80)
14.2
(0.56)
14.6
(0.57)
26.1
(1.03)
27.8
(1.09)
25.0
(0.98)
268.8
(10.57)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.1 7.6 8.1 7.6 8.6 9.1 8.1 6.2 4.4 6.7 7.4 8.3 90.2
Average relative humidity (%) 78 78 70 55 58 59 56 54 57 66 74 78 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 159.7 170.9 213.8 252.2 291.5 299.6 327.4 316.0 274.8 213.8 168.6 145.7 2,834
Percent possible sunshine 56 58 58 63 64 65 70 73 73 68 58 53 64
Source: China Meteorological Administration [11]

Administrative divisions

The administrative divisions of Yining include eight subdistricts, two towns, and seven townships (the below names are pinyin transcriptions may not necessarily be the official names):[12]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY)
Subdistricts
Sayibuyi Subdistrict 萨依布依街道 Sàyībùyī Jiēdào
Dunmaili Subdistrict 墩买里街道 Dūnmǎilǐ Jiēdào
Yili He Lu Subdistrict 伊犁河路街道 Yīlí Hé Lù Jiēdào
Kazanqi Subdistrict 喀赞其街道 Kāzànqí Jiēdào
Doulaitibage Subdistrict 都来提巴格街道 Dōuláitíbāgé Jiēdào
Qiongkeruike Subdistrict 琼科瑞克街道 Qióngkēruìkè Jiēdào
Ailanmubage Subdistrict 艾兰木巴格街道 Àilánmùbāgé Jiēdào
Jiefang Lu Subdistrict 解放路街道 Jiěfàng Lù Jiēdào
Towns
Bayandai Town 巴彦岱镇 Bāyàndài Zhèn
Panjin Town 潘津镇 Pānjīn Zhèn
Townships
Yingye'er Township 英也尔乡 Yīngyě'ěr Xiāng
Hanbin Township 汉宾乡 Hànbīn Xiāng
Tashekeruike Township 塔什科瑞克乡 Tǎshékēruìkè Xiāng
Ka'erdun Township 喀尔墩乡 Kā'ěrdūn Xiāng
Tuogelake Township 托格拉克乡 Tuōgélākè Xiāng
Kebokeweizi Township 克伯克圩孜乡 Kèbókèwéizī Xiāng
Dadamutu Township 达达木图乡 Dádámùtú Xiāng
Other
Yining Border Economic Cooperation Zone 伊宁边境经济合作区 Yīníng Biānjìng Jīngjì Hézuò Qū
伊犁州农业良种繁育中心 Yīlí Zhōu Nóngyè Liángzhǒng Fányù Zhōngxīn
伊宁市园艺场和伊犁州奶牛场 Yīníng Shì Yuányìchǎng hé Yīlí Zhōu Nǎiniúchǎng

Economy

The city's nominal GDP was approximately 20.9 billion RMB (US$3.1 billion) as of 2015 with an annual increase of 7.6%.The nominal GDP per capita was approximately 38,805 RMB(US$5976).[13] Yining is the chief city and the agricultural and commercial center of the Ili valley. It is an old commercial center trading in tea and cattle, and it is still an agricultural area with extensive livestock raising. It has fruit orchards. Iron, coal, and uranium are mined nearby.

Transportation

Culture

Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture Museum, opened in Yining in 2004, is one of Xinjiang's most important museums. In fact, at the time it opened it became, in the words of a Western scholar, the "only modern museum" in Xinjiang. (Xinjiang of course also has the provincial museum in Ürümqi; but at that time point, its old building had been demolished, while its replacement was still under construction). The museum houses archaeological and ethnological artefacts from throughout the prefecture.[17]

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6, 2 hours behind Beijing.
  2. ^ Alternate spellings: Ĝulja, Gulja, Kuldja and Kulja.

References

  1. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 88.
  2. ^ "National Data". Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  3. ^ Cox, W (2018). Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th Annual Edition (PDF). St. Louis: Demographia. p. 88.
  4. ^ The official spelling according to Zhōngguó dìmínglù 中国地名录 (Beijing, SinoMaps Press 中国地图出版社 1997); ISBN 7-5031-1718-4
  5. ^ "Yining: Bulletin for economical and social development in 2015". Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  6. ^ "Kulja" in Encyclopædia Britannica 1911, e.g
  7. ^ Sir Clements Robert Markham (1875). The Geographical Magazine. Trübner & Company. pp. 176–.
  8. ^ Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs (1982). "Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs". 4–5. King Abdulaziz University: 299. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  9. ^ "Xinjiang to intensify crackdown on separatists", China Daily, 10/25/2001 [1]
  10. ^ 1997 Channel 4 UK report which can be seen here
  11. ^ a b "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)". China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  12. ^ http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2016/65/40/654002.html
  13. ^ "Bulletin for the economy and society development in 2015". Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  14. ^ Xingjiang’s first electrified railway rails laid 2009-09-17
  15. ^ Tickets of train from Urumqi to Yining put on sale (2010-06-22)
  16. ^ Xinjiang's first electrified railway passenger train (2010-07-07)
  17. ^ A TALE OF TWO CITIES: NEW MUSEUMS FOR YINING AND URUMQI. CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER, No. 3, September 2005

External links

2005 World Table Tennis Championships

The 2005 World Table Tennis Championships was held in the Shanghai Grand Stage of Shanghai, China from April 29 to May 6, 2005.

China National Highway 218

China National Highway 218 (G218) runs from Yining, Xinjiang to Ruoqiang, Xinjiang. It is 1,067 kilometres in length and runs southeast from Yining towards Ruoqiang. The road starts at the Kazakh border. (West of Yining it may have a different number (?).) It passes Yining (Kulja) and follows the natural trade route east along the upper valley of the Ili River. It enters higher country and south of Urumchi turns south and crosses the Tien Shan mountains. It then enters the oasis country around Korla and Karashahr and then crosses the Tarim Basin along the old bed to the Tarim River to Ruoqiang (Charkilik) on the south side of the basin. With highways 314 and 315 it forms a loop around most of the Tarim basin.

Deng Yaping

Deng Yaping (simplified Chinese: 邓亚萍; traditional Chinese: 鄧亞萍; born February 6, 1973 in Zhengzhou, Henan) is a Chinese table tennis player, who won eighteen world championships including four Olympic championships between 1989 and 1997. She is regarded as one of the greatest players in the history of the sport.

Ding Ning

Ding Ning (simplified Chinese: 丁宁; traditional Chinese: 丁寧; pinyin: Dīng Níng; born 20 June 1990) is a Chinese table tennis player. She was the winner of women's singles in the 2011 World Table Tennis Championships. At the 2015 World Table Tennis Championships, Ding Ning won her second world title in women's singles by defeating her compatriot Liu Shiwen 4-3 in the final. Ding Ning at the 2017 World Table Tennis Championships in Düsseldorf defeated Zhu Yuling 4-2 in the final, becoming World Champion for the third time. She won the women's table tennis singles gold medal at the 2016 Summer Olympics at the Rio Olympics where she beat compatriot Li Xiaoxia in the women's singles final.

G3016 Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway

The Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway (Chinese: 清水河—伊宁高速公路, Uyghur: چىڭسىخوزا-غۇلجا يۇقىرى سۈرئەتلىك تاشيولى‎), commonly referred to as the Qingyi Expressway (Chinese: 清伊高速公路), is a 56.36-kilometre-long-Chinese expressway (35.02 mi) in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China. It connects the towns of Qingshuihe, in Huocheng County, and Bayandai, in Yining City (also known as Ghulja). It opened on 20 April 2009.The expressway is an auxiliary line of the G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway. It branches from the G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway at Qingshuihe.

Gertrude Pritzi

Gertrude Pritzi (15 January 1920 - 21 October 1968) was a female international table tennis player from Austria.

Ghulja incident

The Ghulja incident (Chinese: 伊宁事件; pinyin: Yīníng Shìjiàn, also referred to as the Ghulja Massacre) was the culmination of the Ghulja protests of 1997, a series of demonstrations in the city of Ghulja (known as Yining (伊宁) in Chinese) in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China (PRC) beginning in early February 1997.

The protests were sparked by the news of the execution of 30 Uyghur independence activists as well as the crackdown on attempts to revive elements of traditional Uyghur culture, including traditional gatherings known as meshrep. On 5 February 1997, after two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang", and had reportedly been dispersed using clubs, water cannon, and tear gas, the demonstrations were crushed by gunfire. Official reports put the death toll at 9, while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100 and even as many as 167.

Huocheng County

Huocheng County (Chinese: 霍城县) as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Korgas County (Uyghur: قورغاس ناھىيىسى‎; Chinese: 霍尔果斯县), is situated within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and under the administration of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. It is located between Yining and the border city Khorgas, occupying an area of 5,466 km2 (2,110 sq mi) and has a population of 360,000 (2004 estimate). Including the Han and Uyghur nationalities, there are twenty nine ethnic groups living in the county.

North of Huocheng County is Wenquan County; to the south lies the Ili River. Its Western side is Khorgas City; Yining lies about 45 km (28 mi) to the east.

Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture

Ili or Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China.

Jinghe–Yining–Khorgos railway

The Jingyihuo railway (Chinese: 精伊霍铁路; pinyin: Jīng yī huò tiělù), short for Jinghe–Yining–Khorgas railway, is the first electrified railway in operation in Xinjiang, China. The line is 286 km in length and connects Jinghe, Yining and Khorgos. The Jingyihuo railway branches from the Northern Xinjiang railway at Jinghe in the Junggar Basin, and heads south through the Tian Shan range into the Ili River Valley. Cities and towns along route include Jinghe, Nilka County, Yining County, Yining, Huocheng County, and Khorgos, on the border with Kazakhstan.The line opened to trial operation in December 2009. Passenger train service to the Yining railway station (43°58′00″N 81°16′30″E) began in July 2010. One of the three daily Ürümqi-Yining passenger trains (all running overnight) was extended to Khorgos in December 2013.On its way from the Dzungarian Basin (where the Northern Xinjiang railway runs) to the Ili Valley (where Yining is), the railway crosses the Borohoro Mountain Range (one of the ranges of the Tian Shan) in the 13-km long North Tianshan Tunnel (Chinese: 北天山隧道; pinyin: Běi tiānshān suìdào).

The Jinghe–Yining section is electrified.

Li Ju

Li Ju (Chinese: 李菊; pinyin: Lǐ Jú; born on January 22, 1976 in Nantong, Jiangsu) is a Chinese table tennis player.

Li Xiaoxia

Li Xiaoxia (simplified Chinese: 李晓霞; traditional Chinese: 李曉霞; pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎoxiá; born 16 January 1988) is a Chinese table tennis professional.

Liu Shiwen

Liu Shiwen (simplified Chinese: 刘诗雯; traditional Chinese: 劉詩雯; pinyin: Liú Shīwén; born 12 April 1991) is a Chinese table tennis player. She is 4 times World Cup, 3 times World Tour Grand Finals and 4 times Asian Cup champion. She held the ITTF No. 1 rank for 9 consecutive months from January to September 2010.

She has been consistently ranked #1 or #2 in ITTF Women's World ranking from early 2012 to late 2015 (with no lower rank than 3rd).

Marie Kettnerová

Marie Kettnerová (born in Prague on 4 April 1911; died in London on 28 February 1998) was a female Czech international table tennis player.

Wang Nan (table tennis)

Wang Nan (Chinese: 王楠; pinyin: Wáng Nán; born October 23, 1978 in Fushun, Liaoning) is a female Chinese table tennis player from Liaoning. Wang remained as world #1 on the ITTF ranking system from January, 1999 to November, 2002. She is left-handed, and began playing table tennis when she was seven years old. Her particular skills are changing the placement of the ball during rallies and her loop drive, as well as her notable speed. Wang has been the leader of the women's table-tennis team of China after Deng Yaping's retirement.

Yining Airport

Yining Airport (IATA: YIN, ICAO: ZWYN) is an airport serving Yining (Ghulja), the capital of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.

Yining County

Yining County (Chinese: 伊宁县) as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Gulja County (Uyghur: غۇلجا ناھىيىسى‎; Chinese: 固勒扎县), is a county within the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. The county seat is in the town of Jélilyüzi (Uyghur: جېلىل يۈزى‎; 吉里于孜; Jílǐyúzī).

Yining County does not include the adjacent city of Yining, which is a county-level administrative unit in its own right.

The county land area is 4486 km², with the population of 360,000 people as of 2004.A larger area (around 4580 km²) and population (400,000) was reported for the county 2000; this decrease, and the corresponding increase of area and population for the City of Yining resulted from the transfer of the villages of Dadamtu (Uyghur: دادامتۇ, Дадамту‎; 达达木图; Dádámùtú) and Penjim (Uyghur: پەنجىم, Пәнҗим‎; 潘津; Pānjīn), with 100.45 km2 (38.78 sq mi) of land, from the County to the City in 2004.

Zhang Yining

Zhang Yining (simplified Chinese: 张怡宁; traditional Chinese: 張怡寧; pinyin: Zhāng Yíníng; born October 5, 1981 in Beijing) is a former Chinese table tennis player. She is considered one of the greatest female table tennis players in the history of the sport.

Zhu Yuling

Zhu Yuling (Chinese: 朱雨玲; born 10 January 1995) is a Chinese table tennis player.

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