Yevpatoria

Yevpatoriya, is a city of regional significance in Western Crimea, north of Kalamita Bay. Yevpatoriya serves as the administrative center of Yevpatoriya municipality, one of the districts (raions) into which Crimea is divided. Population: 105,719 (2014 Census).[1]

Yevpatoriya

Євпаторія
Евпатория
Kezlev
Yevpatoriya panorama
Yevpatoriya panorama
Flag of Yevpatoriya
Flag
Coat of arms of Yevpatoriya
Coat of arms
Yevpatoriya is located in Crimea
Yevpatoriya
Yevpatoriya
Location of Yevpatoriya within Crimea
Coordinates: 45°11′38″N 33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°ECoordinates: 45°11′38″N 33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°E
CountryRussia (de facto) Ukraine (de jure)
RegionCrimea
Area
 • Total120 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
 • Density1,618.37/km2 (4,191.6/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
97400 — 97490
Area code(s)+7-36569
ClimateCfa
Websitewww.kalamit.info

History

Greek settlement

The first recorded settlement in the area, called Kerkinitis (Κερκινίτις), was built by Greek colonists around 500 BC. Along with the rest of Crimea, Kerkinitis was part of the dominions of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus, from whose nickname, Eupator ("of noble father"), the city's modern name derives.

Khanate period

From roughly the 7th through the 10th centuries AD, Yevpatoria was a Khazar settlement; its name in Khazar language was probably Güzliev (literally "beautiful house").[2] It was later subject to the Cumans (Kipchaks), the Mongols and the Crimean Khanate. During this period the city was called Kezlev by Crimean Tatars and Gözleve by Ottomans. The Russian medieval name Kozlov is a Russification of the Crimean Tatar name. For a short period between 1478 and 1485, the city was administrated by the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards, it became an important urban center of the Crimean Khanate.

The 400-year-old Juma Jami mosque is one of the many designed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. It was built from 1552 until 1564. 35-metre minarets rose on the flanks of the building. The mosque was of great state significance. It was here that a ceremony of the declaration of rights of the Crimean Khans was held at their enthronement. Only after that they went to their capital, the city of Bakhchisarai.

Eupatoria 04-14 img16 Karaimskaya Street
Entrance to the Karaite Kenassa in Yevpatoria

Yevpatoria became a residence of the spiritual ruler of the Karaites, the Gakham. In this connection here, a complex of two praying houses was built under the supervision of the Rabovich brothers, in which forms of the Renaissance and Muslim architecture entwined in a most unusual manner. The ensemble organically incorporates three courtyards. The entrance to it is marked by the gates, built in 1900, which look like a refined triumphal arch.

Russian rule

Evpatoriyskoye shosse
USSR road sign on P25 road in Crimea

In 1783, along with the rest of the Crimea, Kezlev was captured by the Russian Empire. Its name was officially changed to Yevpatoriya in 1784. The name comes from the Greek Eupatoria (transliteration from Greek to Russian is Евпатория) in honor of Eupator Dionysius, king of Pontus. This spelling of the city name came to the French, German, Spanish and English languages at the end of the 18th сentury. The spelling Yevpatoriya came to English from the Ukrainian name Євпаторія, in the second half of the 20th century.

Adam Mickiewicz visited the town in 1825 and wrote one of his Crimean Sonnets here; it was later translated into Russian by Mikhail Lermontov.

The city was occupied in September 1854 by British, French and Turkish troops during the Crimean War prior to the Allied landing in Kalamita Bay, after which the Battle of the Alma south of the bay followed. It became a garrison of Ottoman troops later during the war and was the site of the Battle of Eupatoria in February 1855, which was the largest military clash in the Crimean theatre outside the Sevastopol area.

2014 Russian annexation

Crimea was annexed by Russia in early 2014 and the peninsula, Ukrainian territory since 1991, is now administered as two Russian federal subjects - the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The international community has overwhelmingly condemned the Russian Federation's acts in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 68/262 of 27 March 2014 [1], 71/205 of 19 December 2016 [2] and 72/190 of 19 December 2017 [3] confirmed the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine, condemned the occupation of Crimea by the Russian Federation and reaffirmed the non-recognition of the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The United Nations also called upon all States, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and to refrain from any action or dealing that might be interpreted as recognizing any such altered status.

Modern Yevpatoria

USSR

Jugadušš (šarko) Moinaki limaani kõrgsoolase veega.
Hydro-massage on Lake Moynaki

In 1930s it was a question about the medical profile resort of Yevpatoria. Natural factors create excellent conditions for the treatment of osteo-articular tuberculosis and other children's diseases. In 1933, at a scientific conference in Yalta, it was agreed that among the Soviet resort towns Yevpatoria, Odessa, Anapa, or one of the South Coast of Crimea - the most suitable for the organization of children's resort is Yevpatoria. In Yevpatoria there is a perfect combination of climatic and balneological factors contributing to the healing of the most serious diseases of this time like tuberculosis  . An additional positive factor is the lack of mosquitoes in Yevpatoria, as on the southern coast of Crimea, or mosquitoes as in Anapa.

In 1936, the government decided to determine the place of construction of the All-Union children's resort in Yevpatoria. In 1938, the approved plan of general reconstruction of the city. During World War II, sanatoriums were used as military hospitals. By July 1, 1945 in Yevpatoria operated 14 sanatoriums, have taken 2,885 people. By 1980s, in city operated 78 sanatoriums for 33 thousand people. About one million vacationers visited Yevpatoria in summer time without the purpose of treatment.

Ukraine

Today Yevpatoria is a major Black Sea port, a rail hub, and resort town. The population swells greatly during the summer months, with many residents of northern cities visiting for beach recreation. As such, local residents are heavily employed during summer months but are often underemployed during the winter. The main industries include fishing, food processing, wine making, limestone quarrying, weaving, and the manufacture of building materials, machinery, furniture manufacturing and tourism.

Yevpatoria has spas of mineral water, salt and mud lakes. These resorts belong to a vast area with curative facilities where the main health-improving factors are the sunshine and sea, air and sand, brine and mud of the salt lakes, as well as the mineral water of the hot springs. The population of the town is sure to have known about the curative qualities of the local mud that can be found here from time immemorial, which is witnessed by the manuscripts of Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar (ca 80 BC).

On December 24, 2008 a blast destroyed a five-story building in the town. 27 people were killed. President Viktor Yushchenko declared December 26 to be a day of national mourning.[3][4][5][6][7]

Two beaches in Yevpatoria have been Blue Flag beaches since May 2010, these were the first beaches (with two beaches in Yalta) to be awarded a Blue Flag in a CIS memberstate.[8]

Russian Federation

Economy and Industry

  • Industry, Engineering
  • Agriculture
  • AO Vympel NPO (MicroElectronics and Electronics , circuits microchips IC, Electrical parts, connectors, optoelectronics television and other devices and machinery, metallurgy engineering technology)
  • Eupatoria Aircraft Plant and Repair EupAZ EARZ (Antonov Mil Kamov Suhoj MiG Yak Il Tu, An22 Su25 MiG31 Yak38 Be12, transport aircraft and amphibious)
  • Construction, Building

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Yevpatoria in 2001 according to the Ukrainian census:

  1. Russians: 64,9%
  2. Ukrainians: 23,3%
  3. Crimean Tatars: 6,9%
  4. Belarusians: 1,5%
  5. Armenians: 0,5%
  6. Jews: 0,4%
  7. Tatars (excluding Crimean Tatars): 0,2%
  8. Poles: 0,2%
  9. Moldovans: 0,2%
  10. Azerbaijanis: 0,2%

Climate

Yevpatoria has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) under the Köppen climate classification with cool winters and warm to hot summers.

Area attractions

Famous attractions within or near Yevpatoria are:

Дворик в Евпаторийских Кенассах
The garden at the Karaite Kenasa in Yevpatoria

Famous people from Yevpatoria

Names of asteroid number 6489 and number 24648

Asteroid number 6489 has a name Golevka, which has a complicated origin. In 1995, Golevka was studied simultaneously by three radar observatories across the world: Goldstone in California, Eupatoria RT-70 radio telescope (Yevpatoriya is sometimes romanized as Evpatoria or Eupatoria (Russian origin)) and Kashima in Japan. 'Gol-Ev-Ka' comes from the first few letters of each observatory's name; it was proposed by the discoverer following a suggestion by Alexander L. Zaitsev.

Asteroid 24648 Evpatoria was discovered 1985 Sept. 19 by Nikolai Chernykh and Lyudmila Chernykh at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, and named in honor of Evpatoria (transliteration from Russian to English, thus Yevpatoriya). The minor planet marked the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of the town in 2003.[11]

Twin towns – sister cities

Arms City Nation Since
Ioannina  Greece 1989
FIG.png Figueira da Foz  Portugal 1989
Wappen Ludwigsburg.svg Ludwigsburg  Germany 1992
Zakynthos  Greece 2002
POL Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski COA.svg Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski  Poland 2004
Coat of arms of Krasnogorsky rayon (Moscow oblast).png Krasnogorsky District  Russia 2006
Lambie  Greece 2009
Coat of Arms of Belgorod.png Belgorod  Russia 2010

Gallery

Hydromassage

Hydro-massage on Lake Moynaki

Lake Moinaki and the Black Sea.Evpatoria. Crimea

Lake Moinaki left, right Black Sea

Eupatoria 04-14 img14 Old city tower

Odun-Bazar-Kapusu - reconstructed tower of the medieval Kezlev

Eupatoria 04-14 img12 Juma Jami Mosque

The Juma-Jami Mosque designed in 1522 by Mimar Sinan

Krimmi-tatarlaste paviljonid Jevpatorija rannajoonel Musta mere kaldal

Vacation on the Black Sea coast in Yevpatoria

Морской порт г Евпатория

The port of Yevpatoria

Monument-Omer-Gezlevi-Eupatoria

Monument to Crimean Tatar poet Omer Gezlevi

Jevpatorija kuldne supelrand Musta mere ääres.

Golden beach of the Black Sea coast

Yevpatoria.Holiday on Lake Moinaki

Holiday by Lake Moinaki

Лиман Мойнаки в Евпатории.Черное море.

Healing Lake Moinaki

Egiptlaste mudaravi meetod Jevpatorijas

Therapeutic mud

Evpat gotta

Tramway

See also

References

  1. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  2. ^ Brutzkus, Julius (1944). "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev", Slavonic and East European Review, p. 118
  3. ^ UPDATE: 26 Killed, 5 Hospitalized After Crimea House Blast, Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  4. ^ Death toll of Crimean blast reaches 27, says Emergencies Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (December 26, 2008)
  5. ^ Friday Declared Mourning Day In Ukraine For Victims Of Yevpatoriya Gas Explosion Archived 2012-09-13 at Archive.today, Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  6. ^ Ukraine mourns Crimea blast dead, BBC News (December 26, 2008)
  7. ^ 27 dead after Ukrainian apartment blast, CNN (December 26, 2008)
  8. ^ Four beaches in Crimea receive international certificates of cleanliness, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
  9. ^ "Climate: Yevpatoria - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved October 23, 2013.
  10. ^ fr:Sémion Ezrovitch Douvan
  11. ^ JPL Small-Body Database, NASA

External links

Battle of Eupatoria

The Battle of Eupatoria (Russian: Штурм Евпатории (Storm of Eupatoria), Turkish: Gözleve Muharebesi) was the most important military engagement of the Crimean War on the Crimean theatre in 1855 outside Sevastopol.

Donuzlav

Lake Donuzlav (Russian: Донузлав) also referred to as Donuzlav Bay is the deepest lake of Crimea (27 m) and biggest in Chornomorske Raion (47 km²). It is a protected landscape and recreational park of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

In practice it is no longer a lake but rather a bay since 1961, when a sandy spit (200–400 m wide) separating it from the Black Sea was dug out with a 200-metre width channel. The lake is as salty as the sea near its mouth but bottom springs make the water much more sweet near the head.

Galenki RT-70 radio telescope

The Galenki RT-70 radio telescope is an RT-70 telescope at the East Center for Deep Space Communications, Galenki (Ussuriysk), Russia.

With its 70m antenna diameter, it is among the largest single dish radio telescopes in the world. It forms part of the Soviet Deep Space Network.

Two other RT-70 telescopes are:

Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope – at the Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria

Suffa RT-70 radio telescope – at the Suffa Radio Observatory

Juma-Jami Mosque, Yevpatoria

The Juma-Jami Mosque, (Ukrainian: Мечеть Джума-Джамі, Crimean Tatar: Cuma Cami, Russian: Мечеть Джума-Джами) also known as the Friday Mosque, is located in Yevpatoria, Crimea. Built between 1552 and 1564, and designed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.

Phobos 1

Phobos 1 was an unmanned Russian space probe of the Phobos Program launched from the Baikonour launch facility on 7 July 1988. Its intended mission was to explore Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. The mission failed on 2 September 1988 when a computer malfunction caused the end-of-mission order to be transmitted to the spacecraft. At the time of launch it was the heaviest interplanetary spacecraft ever launched, weighing 6200 kg.

RT-70

There are three radio telescopes designated RT-70, all in countries that were once part of the former Soviet Union, all with similar specifications: 70m dishes and an operating range of 5–300 GHz. The Yevpatoria telescope has also been used as a radar telescope in observations of space debris and asteroids.

With their 70m antenna diameter, they are among the largest radio telescopes in the world.

They are:

the Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope at the former soviet Center for Deep Space Communications or West Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria (Since the 2014 Crimean crisis, the status of Crimea, and thus of the city of Yevpatoria which is located on Crimea, is under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community considers Crimea and Yevpatoria an integral part of Ukraine, while Russia, on the other hand, considers Crimea and Yevpatoria an integral part of Russia).

the Galenki RT-70 radio telescope at the East Center for Deep Space Communications, Galenki (Ussuriysk), Russia

the Suffa RT-70 radio telescope at the Suffa Radio Observatory on the Suffa plateau, UzbekistanIn 2008, RT-70 was used to beam 501 messages at the exoplanet Gliese 581c, in hopes of making contact with extraterrestrial intelligence. The messages should arrive in 2029.

Ruslana Taran

Ruslana Oleksiïvna Taran (Ukrainian: Руслана Олексіївна Таран; born 27 October 1970 in Yevpatoria, Ukrainian SSR) is a Ukrainian sailor.At the 1996 470-European-Sailing-Championship she won with her Partner Olena Pakholchyk the gold medal.

Suffa RT-70 radio telescope

The Suffa RT-70 radio telescope is an RT-70 radio telescope under construction at the Suffa Radio Observatory on the Suffa plateau, Uzbekistan. Construction began in the late 80's, but was put on hold when the Soviet Union fell. As of 2008, construction had resumed, with an updated emphasis on millimeter-wave band observations at 100–300 GHz. As of 2014, construction was reported to be 50% complete.With its 70m antenna diameter, this third unit of the RT-70 telescope design will be among the largest single dish radio telescopes in the world.

Two completed RT-70 telescopes are:

Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope – at the Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria, Crimea

Galenki RT-70 radio telescope – at the Ussuriysk Astrophysical Observatory, Russia

Yevpatoria Airport

Yevpatoria Airport "Yevpatoria aircraft repair plant" (Ukrainian: Євпаторійський авіаційний ремонтний завод, Russian: Евпаторийский авиационный ремонтный завод) (ICAO: UKFE) is an airport in Yevpatoria, Crimea. The airport is located just east of the city.

Yevpatoria Municipality

The Yevpatoria City Municipality (Ukrainian: Євпаторійська міськрада, translit. Yevpatoriis'ka mis'krada) is one of the 25 regions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a territory recognized by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine and incorporated by Russia as the Republic of Crimea. The region is located on the western coast of Crimea on the Black Sea's shore. Its administrative center is the city of Yevpatoria. Population: 119,258 (2014 Census).

Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope

The Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope (P-2500, RT-70) is an RT-70 radio telescope and planetary radar at the Center for Deep Space Communications, Yevpatoria, Crimea. In the scientific literature is often called Evpatoria Planetary Radar (EPR).

With its 70-meter antenna diameter, it is among the largest single dish radio telescopes in the world. It has an advantage in comparison with other large radio telescopes in the fact that the complex includes powerful transmitters that allow active space experiments. Powerful electromagnetic beams can be accurately targeted and the signals received can be analyzed. For this reason, the Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope is one of only two in the world that are able to transmit messages to extraterrestrial civilizations, i.e. the multiple Cosmic Calls, Teen Age Messages or AMFE. Radio telescopes are highly sensitive detectors of signals from outer space.

The radiotelescope is depicted on Russia's commemorative 100-ruble banknote of 2015.

Climate data for Eupatoria
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.4
(41.7)
8.6
(47.5)
15.7
(60.3)
21.0
(69.8)
25.4
(77.7)
28.1
(82.6)
27.7
(81.9)
23.1
(73.6)
17.1
(62.8)
11.3
(52.3)
7.1
(44.8)
16.3
(61.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.1
(34.0)
1.9
(35.4)
4.5
(40.1)
10.8
(51.4)
15.8
(60.4)
20.1
(68.2)
22.6
(72.7)
22.1
(71.8)
17.7
(63.9)
12.3
(54.1)
7.6
(45.7)
3.8
(38.8)
11.7
(53.1)
Average low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
0.5
(32.9)
5.9
(42.6)
10.7
(51.3)
14.8
(58.6)
17.1
(62.8)
16.5
(61.7)
12.3
(54.1)
7.5
(45.5)
3.9
(39.0)
0.6
(33.1)
7.2
(45.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.4)
31
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
30
(1.2)
29
(1.1)
43
(1.7)
40
(1.6)
33
(1.3)
40
(1.6)
31
(1.2)
35
(1.4)
44
(1.7)
421
(16.6)
Source: Climate Data.org[9]
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