Yevgeny Baratynsky

Yevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky[1] (Russian: Евге́ний Абра́мович Бараты́нский, IPA: [jɪvˈɡʲenʲɪj ɐˈbraməvʲɪtɕ bərɐˈtɨnskʲɪj] (listen); 2 March [O.S. 19 February]  1800 – 11 July 1844) was lauded by Alexander Pushkin as the finest Russian elegiac poet. After a long period when his reputation was on the wane, Baratynsky was rediscovered by Russian Symbolism poets as a supreme poet of thought.

Yevgeny Baratynsky
Evgeny Boratynsky by Francois Frederic Chevalier (1812-1849)
BornYevgeny Abramovich Baratynsky
2 March 1800
village Vyazhlya, Kirsanov Uyezd, Tambov Governorate, Russian Empire
Died11 July 1844 (aged 44)
Naples, Italy
OccupationPoet

Biography

A member of the noble Baratynsky, or, more accurately, Boratynsky family, the future poet received his education at the Page Corps at St. Petersburg, from which he was expelled at the age of 15 after stealing a snuffbox and five hundred roubles from the bureau of his accessory's uncle. After three years in the countryside and deep emotional turmoil he entered the army as a private.[2]

In 1820 the young poet met Anton Delvig, who rallied his falling spirits and introduced him to the literary press.[3] Soon the military posted Baratynsky to Finland, where he remained for six years. His first long poem, Eda, written during this period, established his reputation.[2]

In January 1826 he married the daughter of Major-General Gregory G. Engelhardt.[3] Through the interest of friends he obtained leave from the Emperor to retire from the army, and he settled in 1827 in Muranovo just north of Moscow (now a literary museum). There he completed his longest work, The Gipsy, a poem written in the style of Pushkin.[4]

Baratynsky
Portrait, 1826

Baratynsky's family life seemed happy, but a profound melancholy remained the background of his mind and of his poetry. He published several books of verse which Pushkin and other perceptive critics praised highly, but which met with a comparatively cool reception from the public, and with violent ridicule on the part of the young journalists of the "plebeian party". As time went by, Baratynsky's mood progressed from pessimism to hopelessness, and elegy became his preferred form of expression. He died in 1844 at Naples,[5] where he had gone in pursuit of a milder climate.

Poetry

Baratynsky's earliest poems are punctuated by conscious efforts to write differently from Pushkin who he regarded as a model of perfection. Even Eda, his first long poem, though inspired by Pushkin's The Prisoner of the Caucasus, adheres to a realistic and homely style, with a touch of sentimental pathos but not a trace of romanticism. It is written, like all that Baratynsky wrote, in a wonderfully precise style, next to which Pushkin's seems hazy. The descriptive passages are among the best — the stern nature of Finland was particularly dear to Baratynsky.[2]

His short pieces from the 1820s are distinguished by the cold, metallic brilliance and sonority of the verse. They are dryer and clearer than anything in the whole of Russian poetry before Akhmatova. The poems from that period include fugitive, light pieces in the Anacreontic and Horatian manner, some of which have been recognized as the masterpieces of the kind, as well as love elegies, where a delicate sentiment is clothed in brilliant wit.[2]

In his mature work (which includes all his short poems written after 1829) Baratynsky is a poet of thought, perhaps of all the poets of the "stupid nineteenth century" the one who made the best use of thought as a material for poetry. This made him alien to his younger contemporaries and to all the later part of the century, which identified poetry with sentiment. His poetry is, as it were, a short cut from the wit of the 18th-century poets to the metaphysical ambitions of the twentieth (in terms of English poetry, from Alexander Pope to T. S. Eliot).[2]

Baratynsky's style is classical and dwells on the models of the previous century. Yet in his effort to give his thought the tersest and most concentrated statement, he sometimes becomes obscure by sheer dint of compression. Baratynsky's obvious labour gives his verse a certain air of brittleness which is at poles' ends from Pushkin's divine, Mozartian lightness and elasticity. Among other things, Baratynsky was one of the first Russian poets who were, in verse, masters of the complicated sentence, expanded by subordinate clauses and parentheses.[2]

Philosophy

Boratynsky grave
Baratynsky's grave in the cemetery of Alexander Nevsky Lavra

Baratynsky aspired after a fuller union with nature, after a more primitive spontaneity of mental life. He saw the steady, inexorable movement of mankind away from nature. The aspiration after a more organic and natural past is one of the main motives of Baratynsky's poetry. He symbolized it in the growing discord between nature's child — the poet — and the human herd, which were growing, with every generation, more absorbed by industrial cares. Hence the increasing isolation of the poet in the modern world where the only response that greets him is that of his own rhymes (Rhyme, 1841).

The future of industrialized and mechanized mankind will be brilliant and glorious in the nearest future, but universal happiness and peace will be bought at the cost of the loss of all higher values of poetry (The Last Poet). And inevitably, after an age of intellectual refinement, humanity will lose its vital sap and die from sexual impotence. Then earth will be restored to her primaeval majesty (The Last Death, 1827).

This philosophy, allying itself to his profound temperamental melancholy, produced poems of extraordinary majesty, which can compare with nothing in the poetry of pessimism, except Leopardi. Such is the crushing majesty of that long ode to dejection, Autumn (1837), splendidly rhetorical in the grandest manner of classicism, though with a pronouncedly personal accent.

References

  1. ^ Surname also spelled Boratynsky (Russian: Бораты́нский).
  2. ^ a b c d e f Mirsky 1927.
  3. ^ a b "Prominent Russians: Yevgeny Baratynsky". TV-Novosti. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  4. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  5. ^ Mirsky, D. S. (1958). "The Golden Age of Poetry". In Whitfield, Francis James (ed.). A History of Russian Literature from Its Beginnings to 1900. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. p. 104. ISBN 9780810116795. Retrieved 2016-01-29. In 1843 Baratynsky left Moscow for a journey to France and Italy. He died in Naples, of a sudden illness, on June 29, 1844.
Attribution

External links

 This article incorporates text from D.S. Mirsky's "A History of Russian Literature" (1926-27), a publication now in the public domain.

1800

1800 (MDCCC)

was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1800th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 800th year of the 2nd millennium, the 100th and last year of the 18th century, and the 1st year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1800, the Gregorian calendar was

11 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. As of March 1 (O.S. February 18), when the Julian calendar acknowledged a leap day and the Gregorian calendar did not, the Julian calendar fell one day further behind, bringing the difference to 12 days until February 28 (O.S. February 16), 1900.

1844

1844 (MDCCCXLIV)

was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1844th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 844th year of the 2nd millennium, the 44th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1844, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Alexander Turgenev

Alexander Ivanovich Turgenev (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Турге́нев; (27 March [7 April] 1784, Simbirsk - 3 [15] December 1845, Moscow) was a Russian statesman and historian.

Anna Davidovna Abamelik-Lazareva

Anna Davidovna Abamelik-Lazareva (Lazarian) (Armenian: Աննա Դավթի Աբամելիք-Լազարևա (Լազարյան)) (Baratinskaya, April 15, 1814 in Saint-Petersburg - November 25, 1889 in Saint-Petersburg) was a Russian-Armenian translator, lady-in-waiting, socialite and public figure. She was recognized as one of the most beautiful women of Russia of her times.She was the daughter of David Semyonovich Abamelik. She was a friend and translator of Alexander Pushkin.

Abamelik-Lazareva married to the governor of Kazan, Irakli Baratinsky, the brother of Russian poet Yevgeny Baratynsky. She knew English, French, Armenian and German, translated poems by Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, etc. and published them in Europe, also translated some prominent European poets into Russian.

Anton Delvig

Baron Anton Antonovich Delvig (Russian: Антон Антонович Дельвиг, tr. Antón Antónovich Délʹvig, IPA: [ɐnˈton ɐnˈtonəvʲɪtɕ ˈdelʲvʲɪk]; German: Anton Antonowitsch Freiherr von Delwig; 17 August [O.S. 6 August] 1798, Moscow – 26 January [O.S. 14 January] 1831, St. Petersburg) was a Russian poet and journalist of Baltic German ethnicity.

Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts

The Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts (Russian: Вольное общество любителей словесности, наук и художеств) was a Russian literary and political society active in the early 19th Century.

The precursor to the Society was founded by a group of secondary school graduates from the gymnasium of the Imperial Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg on July 15, 1801.

The founders included Ivan Born, Vasili Popugaev, Vasili Krasovsky, Alexei Volkov, Mikhail Mikhailov, and Vasili Dmitriev. The original name chosen by the group was "Friendly Society of Afficianados of Elegance", but this was soon changed.

According to Nikolai Grech, the founders of the Society "were prepared for a strenuous and exacting study of literature". Born, Popugaev, and the others were to demonstrate the erudition obtained from their studies of science and the humanities at the gymnasium. All the members were fluent in French, and some in German, English, and Italian.

Dmitriev worked in the field of astronomy, Volkov later in chemistry, and Krasovsky in physics and mineralogy; Popugaev was also learned in science.

In 1802 the membership of the Society grew considerably with the addition of the poets Alexander Vostokov, Ivan Pnin, Gavril Kamenev, Alexander Izmailov, Nikolai Ostolopov, and the sons of Alexander Radishchev, Nicholas and Vasili.

In 1802 and 1803 the Society published the first part of its two-part anthology Scroll of the Muses.

On November 26, 1803, the Society was officially recognized and its charter approved.

In 1804 the Society started a magazine, The Review, which only published one issue.

In 1807 D. I. Jazyko, representing the conservative wing of the Society, replaced Born as president.

In 1811, membership fees were abolished and some other changes in the Society's rules were made.

With the French invasion of Russia in 1812, the Society temporarily suspended operations. Meetings were resumed in 1816 under the chairmanship of A. E. Izmailov and continued until 1826. In this third phase of the Society's existence, the Society saw the influx of a large number of new members which had a major impact on its direction. These included Fyodor Glinka, Anton Delvig, Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Yevgeny Baratynsky, Orest Somov, Alexei Martos, and Kondraty Ryleyev.

Geir Kjetsaa

Geir Kjetsaa (2 June 1937, Oslo – 2 June 2008) was a Norwegian professor in Russian literary history at the University of Oslo, translator of Russian literature, and author of several biographies of classical Russian writers.

Golden Age of Russian Poetry

Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century. It is also called the Age of Pushkin, after its most significant poet (in Nabokov's words, the greatest poet this world was blessed with since the time of Shakespeare). Mikhail Lermontov and Fyodor Tyutchev are generally regarded as two most important Romantic poets after Pushkin. Vasily Zhukovsky and Konstantin Batyushkov are the best regarded of his precursors. Pushkin himself, however, considered Evgeny Baratynsky to be the finest poet of his day.

List of 19th-century Russian Slavophiles

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Slavophilia is an intellectual movement originating from the 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history. Slavophiles were especially opposed to the influences of Western Europe in Russia. There were also similar movements in Poland, Hungary and Greece.

List of burials at Tikhvin Cemetery

Tikhvin Cemetery (Russian: Тихвинское кладбище) is a historic cemetery in the centre of Saint Petersburg. It is part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra and contains a large number of burials, including many notable figures in Russian. It is administered by the State Museum of Urban Sculpture, which refers to it as the Necropolis of the Masters of Art (Russian: Некрополь мастеров искусств).

During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries it was a popular burial site for statesmen and military personnel. Among those buried here were naval officers Fyodor Dubasov, Yuri Lisyansky, Pyotr Ricord, Zinovy Rozhestvensky and Alexei Senyavin; army officers Apostol Kostanda, Nikolay Leontiev, Valerian Madatov and Alexander Mikhailovsky-Danilevsky; and statesmen Alexander Abaza, Dmitry Bludov, Pavel Demidov, Ivan Durnovo, Mikhail Speransky and Pyotr Valuyev. Relatively few of these graves have survived to the present day. Scientists Sergey Lebedev and Ivan Tarkhanov were also buried here.

The cemetery is most famous for its representatives from the arts world, some of whom were originally buried here, while others were reinterred here during the Soviet period. Composers and musicians buried in the cemetery include Alexander Borodin, César Cui, Alexander Dargomyzhsky, Alexander Glazunov, Mikhail Glinka, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Anton Rubinstein and Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. Actors and performers Varvara Asenkova, Nikolay Cherkasov, Vera Komissarzhevskaya, Marius Petipa and Georgy Tovstonogov are buried here, as are painters and sculptors Mikhail Avilov, Vasily Demut-Malinovsky, Alexander Ivanov, Ivan Kramskoi, Boris Kustodiev and Ivan Shishkin. Luminaries from the world of literature represented in the cemetery include Yevgeny Baratynsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Ivan Gorbunov, Nikolay Karamzin, Ivan Krylov and Vladimir Stasov.

List of people from Tambov

This is a list of notable people who were born or have lived in Tambov, Tambov Oblast, Russia.

Maxim Gorky Literature Institute

The Maxim Gorky Literature Institute (Russian: Литературный институт им. А. М. Горького) is an institution of higher education in Moscow. It is located at 25 Tverskoy Boulevard in central Moscow.

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Muranovo is the Fyodor Tyutchev state museum located in Pushkino, Moscow Oblast, Russia.

The estate was founded in 1816 and since then has belonged to four families, including Fyodor Tyutchev's family. Its main house was built in wood in 1842 by Yevgeny Baratynsky, another renowned Russian poet. In August 1920, the estate became a museum.

Muranovo contains many historically important relics such as original furniture, manuscripts and artwork, which originally belonged to Tyutchev, Baratynsky and their families.

In July 2006, a fire from a lightning nearly destroyed the main building. Nevertheless, almost all exhibits were saved, and the estate has since been restored.

Nadezhda Obukhova

Nadezhda Andreyevna Obukhova (Russian: Наде́жда Андре́евна Обу́хова, 1886–1961) was a Russian mezzo-soprano. She was awarded the title People’s Artist of the USSR in 1937. Pianist Heinrich Neuhaus said that "he who even once hears her voice, will never forget it...". Asteroid 9914 Obukhova is named for her.

Nikolay Yazykov

Nikolay Mikhailovich Yazykov (Russian: Никола́й Миха́йлович Язы́ков, March 4, 1803, Simbirsk, Russian Empire – December 26, 1846, Moscow, Russian Empire) was a Russian poet and Slavophile who in the 1820s rivalled Alexander Pushkin and Yevgeny Baratynsky as the most popular poet of his generation.

Pushkino, Pushkinsky District, Moscow Oblast

Pushkino (Russian: Пу́шкино, Russian pronunciation: [ˈpuʂkʲɪnə]) is a city and the administrative center of Pushkinsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Ucha and Serebryanka Rivers, 30 kilometers (19 mi) northeast of Moscow. Population: 102,874 (2010 Census); 72,425 (2002 Census); 75,847 (1989 Census); 57,000 (1974); 30,000 (1959); 21,000 (1939).

Sergey Andreyevsky

Sergey Arkadievich Andreyevsky (Russian: Сергей Аркадьевич Андреевский, December 29, 1847, – November 9, 1918) was a leading defense attorney of Imperial Russia. He was also known as a writer, poet, and literary critic.

Thaddeus Bulgarin

Thaddeus Venediktovich Bulgarin (Russian: Фаддей Венедиктович Булгарин; Polish Jan Tadeusz Krzysztof Bulharyn, July 5 [O.S. June 24] 1789 – September 13 [O.S. September 1] 1859), was a Russian writer, journalist and publisher of Polish, Bulgarian and Albanian ancestry. In addition to his newspaper work, he rejuvenated the Russian novel, and published the first theatrical almanac in Russian. During his life, his novels were translated and published in English, French, German, Swedish, Polish, and Czech. He served as a soldier under Napoleon, and in later life as an agent of the Czar's secret police. As a writer his self-imposed mission was to popularize the authoritarian policies of Alexander I and Nicholas I.

Zinaida Volkonskaya

Princess Zinaida Aleksandrovna Volkonskaya (Зинаида Александровна Волконская; 14 December 1792 – 24 January 1862), was a Russian writer, poet, singer, composer, salonist and lady in waiting.

She was an important figure in 19th-century Russian cultural life. As an amateur opera singer, she performed in Paris and London.

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