The Yellowstone hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the United States responsible for large scale volcanism in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming as the North American tectonic plate moved over it. It formed the eastern Snake River Plain through a succession of caldera-forming eruptions. The resulting calderas include the Island Park Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera, and the Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera. The hotspot currently lies under the Yellowstone Caldera. The hotspot's most recent caldera-forming supereruption, known as the Lava Creek eruption, took place 640,000 years ago and created the Lava Creek Tuff, and the most recent Yellowstone Caldera. The Yellowstone hotspot is one of a few volcanic hotspots underlying the North American tectonic plate; others include the Anahim and Raton hotspots.
The eastern Snake River Plain is a topographic depression that cuts across Basin and Range Mountain structures, more or less parallel to North American plate motion. Beneath more recent basalts are rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites that erupted as the lithosphere passed over the hotspot. Younger volcanoes that erupted after passing over the hotspot covered the plain with young basalt lava flows in places, including Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve.
The central Snake River plain is similar to the eastern plain, but differs by having thick sections of interbedded lacustrine (lake) and fluvial (stream) sediments, including the Hagerman Fossil Beds.
Although the McDermitt volcanic field on the Nevada–Oregon border is frequently shown as the site of the initial impingement of the Yellowstone Hotspot, new geochronology and mapping demonstrates that the area affected by this mid-Miocene volcanism is significantly larger than previously appreciated. Three silicic calderas have been newly identified in northwest Nevada, west of the McDermitt volcanic field as well as the Virgin Valley Caldera. These calderas, along with the Virgin Valley Caldera and McDermitt Caldera, are interpreted to have formed during a short interval 16.5–15.5 million years ago, in the waning stage of the Steens flood basalt volcanism. The northwest Nevada calderas have diameters ranging from 15–26 km and deposited high temperature rhyolite ignimbrites over approximately 5000 km2.
The Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera erupted between ten and twelve million years ago, spreading a thick blanket of ash in the Bruneau-Jarbidge event and forming a wide caldera. Animals were suffocated and burned in pyroclastic flows within a hundred miles of the event, and died of slow suffocation and starvation much farther away, notably at Ashfall Fossil Beds, located 1000 miles downwind in northeastern Nebraska, where a foot of ash was deposited. There, two hundred fossilized rhinoceros and many other animals were preserved in two meters of volcanic ash. By its characteristic chemical fingerprint and the distinctive size and shape of its crystals and glass shards, the volcano stands out among dozens of prominent ashfall horizons laid down in the Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene periods of central North America. The event responsible for this fall of volcanic ash was identified as Bruneau-Jarbidge. Prevailing westerlies deposited distal ashfall over a vast area of the Great Plains.
The Twin Falls and Picabo volcanic fields were active about 10 million years ago. The Picabo Caldera was notable for producing the Arbon Valley Tuff 10.2 million years ago.
The Heise volcanic field of eastern Idaho produced explosive caldera-forming eruptions which began 6.6 million years ago and lasted for more than 2 million years, sequentially producing four large-volume rhyolitic eruptions. The first three caldera-forming rhyolites — Blacktail Tuff, Walcott Tuff and Conant Creek Tuff — totaled at least 2250 km3 of erupted magma. The final, extremely voluminous, caldera-forming eruption — the Kilgore Tuff — which erupted 1800 km3 of ash, occurred 4.5 million years ago.
The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field is composed of four adjacent calderas. West Thumb Lake is itself formed by a smaller caldera[a] which erupted 174,000 years ago. (See Yellowstone Caldera map.) The Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho was formed in an eruption of more than 280 km3 (67 cu mi) 1.3 million years ago, and is the source of the Mesa Falls Tuff. The Henry's Fork Caldera is nested inside of the Island Park Caldera and the calderas share a rim on the western side. The earlier Island Park Caldera is much larger and more oval and extends well into Yellowstone Park. Although much smaller than the Island Park Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera is still sizeable at 18 miles (29 km) long and 23 miles (37 km) wide and its curved rim is plainly visible from many locations in the Island Park area.
Of the many calderas formed by the Yellowstone Hotspot, including the later Yellowstone Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera is the only one that is currently clearly visible. The Henry's Fork of the Snake River flows through the Henry's Fork Caldera and drops out at Upper and Lower Mesa Falls. The caldera is bounded by the Ashton Hill on the south, Big Bend Ridge and Bishop Mountain on the west, by Thurburn Ridge on the North and by Black Mountain and the Madison Plateau on the east. The Henry's Fork caldera is in an area called Island Park. Harriman State Park is situated in the caldera.
The Island Park Caldera is older and much larger than the Henry's Fork Caldera with approximate dimensions of 58 miles (93 km) by 40 miles (64 km). It is the source of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff that is found from southern California to the Mississippi River near St. Louis. This supereruption occurred 2.1 million years BP and produced 2500 km3 of ash. The Island Park Caldera is sometimes referred to as the First Phase Yellowstone Caldera or the Huckleberry Ridge Caldera. The youngest of the hotspot calderas, the Yellowstone Caldera, formed 640,000 years ago and is about 34 miles (55 km) by 45 miles (72 km) wide. Non-explosive eruptions of lava and less-violent explosive eruptions have occurred in and near the Yellowstone Caldera since the last super eruption. The most recent lava flow occurred about 70,000 years ago, while the largest violent eruption excavated the West Thumb of Lake Yellowstone around 150,000 years ago. Smaller steam explosions occur as well – an explosion 13,800 years ago left a 5 kilometer diameter crater at Mary Bay on the edge of Yellowstone Lake.
Both the Heise and Yellowstone volcanic fields produced a series of caldera-forming eruptions characterised by magmas with so-called "normal" oxygen isotope signatures (with heavy oxygen-18 isotopes) and a series of predominantly post-caldera magmas with so-called "light" oxygen isotope signatures (characterised as low in heavy oxygen-18 isotopes). The final stage of volcanism at Heise was marked by "light" magma eruptions. If Heise is any indication, this could mean that the Yellowstone Caldera has entered its final stage, but the volcano might still exit with a climactic fourth caldera event analogous to the fourth and final caldera-forming eruption of Heise (the Kilgore Tuff) – which was also made up of so-called "light" magmas. The appearance of "light" magmas would seem to indicate that the uppermost portion of the continental crust has largely been consumed by the earlier caldera- forming events, exhausting the melting potential of the crust above the mantle plume. In this case Yellowstone could be expiring. It could be another 1–2 million years (as the North American Plate moves across the Yellowstone hotspot) before a new supervolcano is born to the northeast, and the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field joins the ranks of its deceased ancestors in the Snake River Plain. (References to be added: Kathryn Watts (Nov 2007) GeoTimes "Yellowstone and Heise: Supervolcanoes that Lighten Up": Kathryn E. Watts, Ilya N. Bindeman and Axel K. Schmitt (2011) Petrology, Vol. 52, No. 5, "Large-volume Rhyolite Genesis in Caldera Complexes of the Snake River Plain: Insights from the Kilgore Tuff of the Heise Volcanic Field, Idaho, with Comparison to Yellowstone and Bruneau-Jarbidge Rhyolites" pp. 857–890).
The Ashfall Fossil Beds of Antelope County in northeastern Nebraska are rare fossil sites of the type called lagerstätten that, due to extraordinary local conditions, capture a moment in time ecological "snapshot" in a range of well-preserved fossilized organisms. Ash from a Yellowstone hotspot eruption 10-12 million years ago created these fossilized bone beds.
The site is protected as Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park, a 360-acre (150 ha) park that includes a visitor center with interpretive displays and working fossil preparation laboratory, and a protected ongoing excavation site, the Hubbard Rhino Barn, featuring fossil Teleoceras (native hippo-like ancestral rhinoceros) and ancestral horses.The Ashfall Fossil Beds are especially famous for fossils of mammals from the middle Miocene geologic epoch. The Ashfall Fossil Beds are stratigraphically part of the Serravallian-age Ogallala Group.Black Butte Crater Lava Field
The Black Butte Crater Lava Field, formerly known as Shoshone Lava Field is a lava plain in the U.S. state of Idaho, located in Lincoln County north of the city of Shoshone.
It is the westernmost of the young lava fields accupying the Snake River Plain. The latest volcanic activity occurred during the Holocene period.Brothers Fault Zone
The Brothers Fault Zone (BFZ) is the most notable of a set of northwest-trending fault zones including the Eugene–Denio, McLoughlin, and Vale zones that dominate the geological structure of most of Oregon. These are also representative of a regional pattern of generally northwest-striking geological features ranging from Walker Lane on the California–Nevada border to the Olympic–Wallowa Lineament in Washington; these are generally associated with the regional extension and faulting of the Basin and Range Province, of which the BFZ is considered the northern boundary.The relationships with other features is complex. At the BFZ's eastern end, near the Steens Mountain fault, the zone of surface faulting turns slightly to the south-southeast (possibly due to rotation of Nevada), then follows the Northern Nevada Rift to form the Oregon–Nevada lineament, with a total length of over 75 km (47 mi). Lavas associated with the Nevada Rift have been dated to 16.3 Ma (millions of years ago), close to the inception of basin-and-range faulting, but there is a suspicion that the rifting developed on an older strike-slip fault, possibly connected with the East Pacific Rise.At its west end, just past the Newberry Volcano, the BFZ terminates at the north-striking Sisters Fault, part of the High Cascades geological province. But further south the Pliocene (<5 Ma) High Cascades volcanic trend is offset right-laterally about 10 to 20 km (6.2 to 12.4 mi) by the Eugene–Denio fault zone, and another 15 to 20 km (9.3 to 12.4 mi) by the McLoughlin zone.At a possibly more fundamental level, the Brothers, Eugene–Denio, and McLoughlin zones, and possibly the Vale zone, all terminate near the Klamath – Blue Mountains Lineament (KBML; shortened and slightly misplaced on the map at right). The KBML is a prominent, 700 km (430 mi) long southwest-to-northeast-striking gravitational anomaly that crosses all of Oregon. It coincides with the southern boundary of the Columbia Embayment (the Olympic–Wallowa Lineament in Washington being the northern boundary), a region noticeably lacking in pre-Tertiary bedrock. Aside from aligning with the northwestern edge of several terranes that have accreted to the North American continent (such as the Klamath Mountains on the southern coast of Oregon, and Blue Mountains Province just north of the BFZ), the KBML has no apparent surface manifestation; it is believed to reflect a deeper structure, possible a pre-Tertiary continental margin.The BFZ is the northern edge of the Basin and Range Province, a region of northwest directed extension, wherefore the BFZ also accommodates the offset with the Blue Mountains Province. It does this not by through-going strike-slip faulting (such as with the San Andreas fault to the south) but by a series of hundreds of en echelon normal faults somewhat crosswise to the zone itself. Such faulting is believed to be the surface manifestation of a deeper shear zone.
The Brothers Fault Zone is also the locus of the High Lava Plains (HLP) volcanism of central and southeastern Oregon. HLP volcanism is notable for showing an age progression from 16 Ma at its eastern end (near the Oregon–Nevada–Idaho corner) to the active Newberry Volcano at its western end. This age progression mirrors the very similar progression along the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot, which appears to have a common origin. Also closely related in space and time is the eruption of the 16.6 Ma Steens Basalts, the initial and most voluminous phase of the Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows that blanket eastern Oregon and the entire southeastern quarter of Washington. These also show a similar age progression to the north; there is a great deal of debate on how all of these are related, and how they initiated. The track of the Yellowstone Hotspot is neatly explained by motion of the North American craton over a plume (hotspot) of material rising from the mantle. But this explanation fails for the so-called "Newberry hotspot" track, which lies oblique to the motion of the craton. One suggestion is that the large blob of molten rock at the head of the plume was sheared off by the advancing edge of the craton, and remained entrained in front of the craton to melt the lithosphere in a broad region, while the tail of the plume was overrun to make the Yellowstone Hotspot track. Age progressive volcanism along the Brothers Fault Zone (as well as the Steens Fault and North Nevada Rift) results from the expanding lithospheric melt opportunistically exploiting existing crustal faults.In summary, the Brothers Fault Zone, and the related Eugene–Denio, McLoughlin, and Vale zones, appear to be deep-seated structures in accreted terranes bounded by the Klamath—Blue Mountains Lineament, which has been reactivated by Basin and Range extension, and exploited by mid-Miocene volcanism associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot.Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera
The Bruneau-Jarbidge caldera (sometimes called a supervolcano) is located in present-day southwest Idaho. The volcano erupted during the Miocene, between ten and twelve million years ago, spreading a thick blanket of ash in the Bruneau-Jarbidge event and forming a caldera. Animals were suffocated and burned in pyroclastic flows within a hundred miles of the event, and died of slow suffocation and starvation much farther away, notably at Ashfall Fossil Beds, located 1,000 miles downwind in northeastern Nebraska, where up to two meters of ash were deposited. At the time, the caldera was above the Yellowstone hotspot.
By its uniquely characteristic chemical composition and the distinctive size and shape of its crystals and glass shards, the volcano stood out among dozens of prominent ashfall horizons laid down in the Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene periods of central North America. The event responsible for this fall of volcanic ash was identified at Bruneau-Jarbidge, 1,600 kilometers west in Idaho. Prevailing westerlies deposited distal ashfall over a vast area of the Great Plains.
The evolving composition of the erupted material indicates that while it is derived in large part from molten material from the middle or upper crust, it also incorporated a young basaltic component.Carmacks Group
The Carmacks Group is a Late Cretaceous volcanic group in southwest-central Yukon, Canada, located between the communities of Dawson City and Whitehorse. It consists of flood basalts, coarse volcaniclastic rocks and sandy tuffs interbedded with subordinate andesite and basaltic lava flows. It has been interpreted to be a displaced portion of the Yellowstone hotspot track that was formed 70 million years ago.Columbia River Basalt Group
The Columbia River Basalt Group is the youngest, smallest and one of the best-preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, covering over 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi) mainly eastern Oregon and Washington, western Idaho, and part of northern Nevada. The basalt group includes the Steen and Picture Gorge basalt formations.Harriman State Park (Idaho)
Harriman State Park is a public recreation area located on the 11,000-acre (4,500 ha) Harriman Wildlife Refuge in Fremont County, three miles (4.8 km) south of Island Park in eastern Idaho, United States. The state park is within the Henry's Fork Caldera in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. It is home to an abundance of elk, moose, sandhill cranes, trumpeter swans, and the occasional black or grizzly bear. Two-thirds of the trumpeter swans that winter in the contiguous United States spend the season in Harriman State Park.Hell's Half Acre Lava Field
Hell's Half Acre Lava Field is a basaltic lava plain located on the Snake River Plain of Idaho in the United States. It is the easternmost of the basaltic lava fields on the Snake River Plain, located about 25 miles (40 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho and 30 miles (48 km) north of Pocatello, Idaho. In 1976, the National Park Service designated the northwestern portion of the site a National Natural Landmark. In 1986, the Bureau of Land Management recommended that 68,760 acres (27,830 ha) of the site, located just southeast of the National Natural Landmark, to be a wilderness study area.Henry's Fork Caldera
The Henry's Fork Caldera in eastern Idaho is a caldera located an area known as Island Park, west of Yellowstone National Park. The caldera was formed by an eruption 1.3 million years ago of the Yellowstone hotspot, that had a volume of 280 km3 (67 cu mi) and is the source of the Mesa Falls Tuff.
The Henry's Fork Caldera is nested inside of the Island Park Caldera, and the calderas share a rim on the western side. The earlier Island Park Caldera is much larger and more oval and extends well into Yellowstone Park. Although much smaller than the Island Park Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera is still sizeable at 18 miles (29 km) long and 23 miles (37 km) wide and its curved rim is plainly visible from many locations in the Island Park area. Of the many calderas formed by the Yellowstone hotspot, including the later Yellowstone Caldera, the Henry's Fork Caldera is the only one that is currently clearly visible. It is one of a succession of supervolcanoes and calderas that formed the Snake River Plain.
The Henrys Fork of the Snake River flows through the Henry's Fork Caldera and drops out at Upper and Lower Mesa Falls. The caldera is bounded by the Ashton Hill on the south, Big Bend Ridge and Bishop Mountain on the west, by Thurmon Ridge on the North and by Black Mountain and the Madison Plateau on the east.
The Henry's Fork caldera is in an area called Island Park, known for its beautiful forests, large springs, clear streams, waterfalls, lakes, ponds, marshes, wildlife, and fishing. Harriman State Park is situated within the caldera. The peaks of the Teton Range in adjacent Wyoming are visible to the southeast. Snowmobiling, fishing, and Nordic skiing, and wildlife viewing are popular activities in the area.Huckleberry Ridge Tuff
The Huckleberry Ridge Tuff is a tuff formation created by the Huckleberry Ridge eruption that formed the Island Park Caldera that lies partially in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and stretches westward into Idaho into a region known as Island Park. This eruption of 2,200 km³ of material is thought to be the largest known eruption in the Yellowstone Hotspot's history. This eruption, 2.1 million years ago, is the third most recent large caldera forming eruption from the Yellowstone hotspot. It was followed by the Mesa Falls Tuff and the Lava Creek Tuff eruptions.Island Park Caldera
The Island Park Caldera, in the U.S. states of Idaho and Wyoming, is one of the world's largest calderas, with approximate dimensions of 80 by 65 km. Its ashfall is the source of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff that is found from southern California to the Mississippi River near St. Louis. This super-eruption of approximately 2,500 km3 (600 cu mi) occurred 2.1 Ma (million years ago) and produced 2,500 times as much ash as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Island Park Caldera has the smaller and younger Henry's Fork Caldera nested inside it.The caldera clearly visible today is the later Henry's Fork Caldera, which is the source of the Mesa Falls Tuff. It was formed 1.3 Ma in an eruption of more than 280 km3 (67 cu mi). The two nested calderas share the same rim on their western sides, but the older Island Park Caldera is much larger and more oval and extends well into Yellowstone National Park. The Island Park Caldera is sometimes referred to as the First Phase Yellowstone Caldera or the Huckleberry Ridge Caldera.
To the southwest of the caldera lies the Snake River Plain, which was formed by a succession of older calderas marking the path of the Yellowstone hotspot. The plain is a depression, sinking under the weight of the volcanic rocks that formed it, through which the Snake River winds. Other observable volcanic features in the plain include: the Menan Buttes, the Big Southern Butte, Craters of the Moon, the Wapi Lava Field and Hell's Half Acre.
These calderas are in an area called Island Park that is known for beautiful forests, large springs, clear streams, waterfalls, lakes, ponds, marshes, wildlife, and fishing. Harriman State Park is located in the caldera. Snowmobiling, fishing, and Nordic skiing, and wildlife viewing are popular activities in the area. The peaks of the Teton Range to the southeast are visible from places in the caldera.List of large volcanic eruptions
This is a sortable summary of the pages Timeline of volcanism on Earth, List of Quaternary volcanic eruptions, and Large volume volcanic eruptions in the Basin and Range Province. Uncertainties as to dates and tephra volumes are not restated, and references are not repeated. Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) values for events in the Miocene epoch sometimes lack references. They are given as VEI-equivalent, as orientation of the erupted tephra volume. Please note that this is not a comprehensive list, and some events are missing from the table.Mesa Falls Tuff
The Mesa Falls Tuff is a tuff formation created by the Mesa Falls eruption that formed the Henry's Fork Caldera that is located in Idaho west of Yellowstone National Park. It is the second most recent caldera forming eruption from the Yellowstone hotspot and ejected of 280 km3 (67 cu mi) of material. This eruption, 1.3 million years BP, was preceded by the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff and succeeded by the Lava Creek Tuff both of which were created by the Yellowstone hotspot.Signal Mountain (Wyoming)
Signal Mountain is an isolated summit standing 7,720 feet (2,350 m) above sea level. The mountain is located in Grand Teton National Park in the U.S. state of Wyoming. The next closest higher summit is more than 10 miles (16 km) distant, and this isolation provides sweeping views of the Teton Range, much of the northern Jackson Hole area as well as the Snake River. Though located adjacent to the Tetons, Signal Mountain was not formed in the same manner or period. The mountain originally was formed by volcanic ashfall from one of the eruptions of the Yellowstone hotspot. The peak is also partially a glacial moraine formed by a receding glacier that came south out of the Yellowstone icecap. This same glacier also created neighboring Jackson Lake.
Signal Mountain has a 5-mile (8.0 km) long road providing vehicular access to an observation area located just below the main summit. The Signal Mountain Trail is a hiking trail that goes from Signal Mountain Lodge to the summit and covers a distance of 6.8 miles (10.9 km). The trail splits mid-way for a portion of approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km), allowing hikers to take either a trail along the lower part of the ridge or south of the ridge past a series of small ponds. The trails then rejoin and steepen over the last mile to reach the secondary summit of the mountain, the Jackson Lake Overlook. The trail rises approximately 800 feet (240 m) from the lodge to the overlook, though on the ridge trail there is quite a bit of up and down that adds a few hundred feet to the cumulative elevation gain. The trail is a hiking only trail, mountain biking and horseback riding are not permitted by the park service. The road is a popular biking destination due to the difficult climb up and then (after turning around at the summit) continuous downhill experienced on a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) portion of the road.Siletz River Volcanics
The Siletz River Volcanics, located in the Oregon Coast Range, United States, are a sequence of basaltic pillow lavas that make up part of Siletzia. The basaltic pillow lavas originally came from submarine volcanoes that existed during the Eocene.
The Paleocene to Eocene volcanics consist of volcanism flows and sills of tholeitic to alkalic basalts with associated tuff-breccia, siltstone and sandstone. The flows are vesiculated with zeolite filled amygdules.
The volcanics originated as oceanic crust and seamounts. Potassium argon dating gives an age of 50.7 ± 3.1 to 58.1 ± 1.5 Ma.The sequence has been divided into a lower pillowed tholeiitic unit and an upper porphyritic alkali basalt unit.The volcanics occur in the following counties of western Oregon: Benton, Coos, Douglas, Lane, Lincoln, Polk, Tillamook, Washington and Yamhill.Supervolcano
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 8, the largest recorded value on the index. This means the volume of deposits for that eruption is greater than 1,000 cubic kilometers (240 cubic miles).
Supervolcanoes occur when magma in the mantle rises into the crust but is unable to break through it and pressure builds in a large and growing magma pool until the crust is unable to contain the pressure. This can occur at hotspots (for example, Yellowstone Caldera) or at subduction zones (for example, Toba). Large-volume supervolcanic eruptions are also often associated with large igneous provinces, which can cover huge areas with lava and volcanic ash. These can cause long-lasting climate change (such as the triggering of a small ice age) and threaten species with extinction. The Oruanui eruption of New Zealand's Taupo Volcano (about 26,500 years ago) was the world's most recent VEI-8 eruption.Supervolcano (film)
Supervolcano is a 2005 British-Canadian disaster television film that originally aired on 13 March 2005 on BBC One, and released by the BBC on 10 April 2005 on the Discovery Channel. It is centered on the speculated and potential eruption of the volcanic caldera of Yellowstone National Park. Its tagline is "Scientists know it as the deadliest volcano on Earth. You know it...as Yellowstone."Timeline of volcanism on Earth
This timeline of volcanism on Earth is a list of major volcanic eruptions of approximately at least magnitude 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) or equivalent sulfur dioxide emission around the Quaternary period (from 2.58 Mya to the present).
Some eruptions cooled the global climate—inducing a volcanic winter—depending on the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted and the magnitude of the eruption. Before the present Holocene epoch, the criteria are less strict because of scarce data availability, partly since later eruptions have destroyed the evidence. Only some eruptions before the Neogene period (from 23 Mya to 2.58 Mya) are listed. Known large eruptions after the Paleogene period (from 66 Mya to 23 Mya) are listed, especially those relating to the Yellowstone hotspot, the Santorini caldera, and the Taupo Volcanic Zone.
Active volcanoes such as Stromboli, Mount Etna and Kilauea do not appear on this list, but some back-arc basin volcanoes that generated calderas do appear. Some dangerous volcanoes in "populated areas" appear many times: so Santorini, six times and Yellowstone hotspot, twenty-one times. The Bismarck volcanic arc, New Britain, and the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, appear often too.
In addition to the events listed below, are many examples of eruptions in the Holocene on the Kamchatka Peninsula, which are described in a supplemental table by Peter Ward.Yellowstone Caldera
The Yellowstone Caldera is a volcanic caldera and supervolcano in Yellowstone National Park in the Western United States, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano. The caldera and most of the park are located in the northwest corner of Wyoming. The major features of the caldera measure about 34 by 45 miles (55 by 72 km).The caldera formed during the last of three supereruptions over the past 2.1 million years: the Huckleberry Ridge eruption 2.1 million years ago (which created the Island Park Caldera and the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff); the Mesa Falls eruption 1.3 million years ago (which created the Henry's Fork Caldera and the Mesa Falls Tuff); and the Lava Creek eruption approximately 630,000 years ago (which created the Yellowstone Caldera and the Lava Creek Tuff).