Yellow pond turtle

The yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica), is a medium-sized (to 19.5 cm), semi-aquatic turtle in the family Geoemydidae. This species has a characteristic broad yellow stripe extending behind the eye and down the neck; the carapace ranges in color from grayish brown to brown and the plastron is yellow or orange with black blotches along the outer edges.[2] It is found in East Asia, ranging from central Vietnam, north through the coastal provinces of south and central China. Additional insular populations are found in Taiwan, Hainan, Ryukyu Islands, and Japan.[3] The Japanese populations are believed to have been introduced as a result of imports from Taiwan.[4]

This species inhabits ponds, creeks, swamps, marshes and other bodies of shallow, slow-moving water. It is omnivorous, feeding on insects, fish, tadpoles, and vegetable matter such as leaves and seeds. The yellow pond turtle generally remains in or close to water during the day but may become more active at night and during rainy weather, when it sometimes ventures onto land.[4]

One subspecies, Mauremys mutica kami, is currently recognized in the Ryukyu Islands.[4] Research has shown unexpected genetic diversity in M. mutica, raising the possibility that additional subspecies might exist. Evidence of widespread hybridization further complicates efforts to understand the genetics of this and related species.[5] Several hybrid Asian pond turtles that were described as new species have been found to be hybrids. Fujian pond turtles (Mauremys iversoni) are hybrid specimens mainly produced in Chinese turtle farms, usually from matings between female yellow pond turtles and golden coin turtles (Cuora trifasciata) males. The supposed Mauremys pritchardi turtles are wild and captive-bred hybrids between the present species and the Chinese pond turtle (Chinemys reevesi).[6][7]

"Clemmys guangxiensis" is a composite taxon described from specimens of Mauremys mutica and the natural hybrid "Mauremys" × iversoni.[7]

The yellow pond turtle is threatened with extinction. China is the largest consumer of turtles in the world and this trade has been cited as the greatest threat to Asian turtles including M. mutica. Most of the turtle trade is destined for human consumption but traditional medicine[8] and the pet trade are also driving demand for turtles.[9][10][11] Habit loss and water pollution are additional impacts. The IUCN considers M. mutica an endangered species and it is listed in CITES Appendix II.[3]

Yellow Pond Turtle Peeping
A yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, at the surface of the water in a terrarium.
Yellow pond turtle
Mauremys mutica kami Stuffed specimen
Stuffed specimen of Mauremys mutica kami, exhibited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Family: Geoemydidae
Genus: Mauremys
M. mutica
Binomial name
Mauremys mutica
(Cantor, 1842)
Mauremys mutica mutica
  • Emys muticus Cantor, 1842
  • Emys mutica Gray, 1844
  • Clemmys mutica Boettger, 1888
  • Damonia mutica Boulenger, 1889
  • Clemmys schmackeri Boettger, 1894
  • Geoclemys mutica Siebenrock, 1909
  • Cathaiemys mutica Lindholm, 1931
  • Annamemys grochovskiae Tien, 1957
  • Annamemys groeliovskiae Battersby, 1960 (ex errore)
  • Mauremys mutica McDowell, 1964
  • Mauremys muica Zhou & Zhou, 1991 (ex errore)
  • Mauremys grochovskiae Iverson & McCord, 1994
  • Mauremys mutica mutica Yasukawa, Ota & Iverson, 1996
  • Cathaiemys mutica mutica Vetter, 2006
Mauremys mutica kami
  • Mauremys mutica kami Yasukawa, Ota & Iverson, 1996
  • Mauremys mutica karni Ferri, 2002 (ex errore)
  • Cathaiemys mutica kami Vetter, 2006


  1. ^ Fritz Uwe; Peter Havaš (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2): 231–232. ISSN 1864-5755. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  2. ^ Ernst, Altenburg & Barbour.
  3. ^ a b Asian Turtle Trade Working Group (2000).
  4. ^ a b c Yasukawa, Ota & Iverson (1996).
  5. ^ Fong et al. (2007).
  6. ^ Feldman & Parham (2004).
  7. ^ a b Parham et al. (2001).
  8. ^ Rômulo, Washington & Gindomar (2008).
  9. ^ Cheung & Dudgeon (2006).
  10. ^ Gong et al. (2009).
  11. ^ Shi & Parham (2000).


External links

Chinese pond turtle

Mauremys reevesii, commonly known as the Chinese pond turtle, the Chinese three-keeled pond turtle, or Reeves' turtle, is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae, a family which was formerly called Bataguridae. The species is endemic to Asia.

Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden

The Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden is the second-oldest zoo in the United States, opening in 1875, just 14 months after the Philadelphia Zoo opened on July 1, 1874. It is located in the Avondale neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. It originally began with 64.5 acres (26.5 ha) in the middle of the city, but has spread into the neighboring blocks and several reserves in Cincinnati's outer suburbs. It was appointed as a National Historic Landmark in 1987. The zoo houses over 500 animals and 3,000 plant species. In addition, the zoo also has conducted several breeding programs in its history, and was the first to successfully breed California sea lions. In 1986, the Lindner Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife (CREW) was created to further the zoo's goal of conservation. The zoo is known for being the home of Martha, the last living passenger pigeon, and to Incas, the last living Carolina parakeet. The zoo is an accredited member of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), and a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA).A 2014 ranking of the nations's best zoos by USA Today based on data provided by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums lists the Cincinnati Zoo among the best in the country.A 2019 reader's choice ranking of the nation's best zoos by USA Today named the Cincinnnati Zoo the top zoo in North America.

Fujian pond turtle

The Fujian pond turtle ("Mauremys" × iversoni ) is a possibly also naturally occurring intergeneric hybrid turtle in the family Geoemydidae (formerly Bataguridae) produced in larger numbers by Chinese turtle farms as a "copy" of the golden coin turtle Cuora trifasciata. It appears to occur in China and Vietnam. Before its actual origin became known, it was listed as data deficient in the IUCN Red List.

The parents of this hybrid are the Asian yellow pond turtle and the golden coin turtle, with the male apparently usually of the latter species. While it is not unusual for perfectly valid geoemydid species to arise from hybridization, recognition as a species would require that the hybrids are fertile and constitute a phenotypically distinct and self-sustaining lineage. This does not appear to be the case in this "species" as only single specimens have been found rather than an entire population of these turtles and captive breeding has rarely been successful as most males proved to be infertile (while females are fully fertile).The Fujian pond turtle's scientific name was given in dedication to American herpetologist John B. Iverson."Clemmys guangxiensis" is a composite taxon described from specimens of Mauremys mutica and the natural hybrid "Mauremys" × iversoni.

Golden coin turtle

The golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata) or Chinese three-striped box turtle is a species of turtle endemic to southern China and northern Vietnam.

The species is distributed in China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan provinces as well as Hong Kong and Macau) and northern Vietnam. The populations from other parts of Vietnam and Laos are now regarded a separate species, the Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (C. cyclornata).It hybridizes vigorously with its relatives in captivity and in the wild, and hybrids may be fertile. Several of these have been described as new species, such as the Fujian pond turtle ("Mauremys" × iversoni), a hybrid between (usually) males of this species and females of the Asian yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica). In addition, the golden coin turtle is suspected to be a parent of the supposed species Chinese false-eyed turtle and Philippen's striped turtle.The species is considered critically endangered with extinction by the IUCN. It is used in folk medicine, e.g. as the key ingredient for the Chinese medicinal dessert guīlínggāo (龜苓膏); thus it is under threat because of unsustainable hunting. This is one of the most endangered turtle species in the world, according to a 2003 assessment by the IUCN. C. trifasciata is listed among Turtle Conservation Coalition's 25 Most Endangered Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles.

Heian Shrine

The Heian Shrine (平安神宮, Heian-jingū) is a Shinto shrine located in Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. The Shrine is ranked as a Beppyō Jinja (別表神社) (the top rank for shrines) by the Association of Shinto Shrines. It is listed as an important cultural property of Japan.

List of domesticated animals

This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and/or morphological changes from their wild ancestors; while others have been changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, however, there isn't always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, i.e., there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

commensals, adapted to a human niche (e.g., dogs, cats, guinea pigs)

prey animals sought for food (e.g., cows, sheep, pig, goats)

targeted animals for draft and nonfood resources (e.g., horse, camel, donkey).To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates.

List of endangered and protected species of China

The endangered species of China may include any wildlife species designated for protection by the national government of China or listed as endangered by international organizations such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

As one of the world's most biodiverse countries and its most populous, China is home to a significant number of wildlife species vulnerable to or in danger of local extinction due to the impact of human activity. Under the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife, the national and local governments are required to designate rare or threatened species for special protection under the law. The type of legal protection that a particular species in China enjoys may depend on the locality of administration. For example, the Beijing Municipal Government designates the red fox, wild boar, leopard cat and masked palm civet, which are found in the wilderness around the municipality, as local Class I protected species even though none are among the Class I or II protected species designated by the national government.China is a signatory country to the CITES and the national government's protected species list generally follows the designation of endangered species by CITES, but also includes certain species that are rare in the country but quite common in other parts of the world so as not to be considered globally threatened (such as moose and beaver) or are vulnerable to economic exploitation thus require legal protection (such as sable and otter). The Chinese endangered species classifications are updated relatively infrequently, and a number of species deemed to be endangered by international bodies have not yet been so recognized in China. Many listed species are endemic to the country, such as the groove-toothed flying squirrel and the Ili pika.

List of endangered reptiles

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 382 endangered reptile species. 7.4% of all evaluated reptile species are listed as endangered.

The IUCN also lists nine reptile subspecies as endangered.

Of the subpopulations of reptiles evaluated by the IUCN, one species subpopulation has been assessed as endangered.

For a species to be considered endangered by the IUCN it must meet certain quantitative criteria which are designed to classify taxa facing "a very high risk of exintction". An even higher risk is faced by critically endangered species, which meet the quantitative criteria for endangered species. Critically endangered reptiles are listed separately. There are 578 reptile species which are endangered or critically endangered.

Additionally 910 reptile species (18% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of endangered reptile species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN. Species and subspecies which have endangered subpopulations (or stocks) are indicated.

List of introduced species

A complete list of introduced species for even quite small areas of the world would be dauntingly long. Humans have introduced more different species to new environments than any single document can hope to record. This list is generally for established species with truly wild populations— not kept domestically—that have been seen numerous times, and have breeding populations. While most introduced species can cause a negative impact to new environments they reach, some can have a positive impact, just for conservation purpose.

List of protected species in Taiwan

ist of protected species in Taiwan.

According to Wildlife Conservation Act Republic of China (Taiwan) article 4, endangered and vulnerable species were classified into following categories:

丨 - Endangered species (瀕臨絕種保育類)

II - Rare and valuable species (珍貴稀有保育類)

III - Other conservation-deserving species (其他應予保育類)

List of reptiles of China

China has around 403 different species of reptiles that can be found in many environments including deserts, grasslands, rivers, and forests. It is the country with the seventh largest amount of different reptile species.


Mauremys is a genus of turtles in the family Geoemydidae (formerly called Bataguridae). Ocadia and Chinemys are included here by some scientists, but not by the majority nor by hobbyists.

Species include:

Japanese pond turtle, M. japonica

Yellow pond turtle, M. mutica

M. mutica mutica

M. mutica kami

Vietnamese pond turtle or Annam leaf turtle, M. annamensis - formerly separated in Annamemys

Caspian turtle or striped-neck terrapin, M. caspica

M. caspica caspica

M. caspica siebenrocki

M. caspica vetrimaculata

Balkan pond turtle or Balkan terrapin, M. rivulata - formerly included in M. caspica

Spanish pond turtle, M. leprosa - formerly included in M. caspica

M. leprosa leprosa

M. leprosa saharica

Chinese broad-headed pond turtle, M. megalocephala

Red-necked pond turtle, M. nigricans

Chinese pond turtle, M. reevesii

Chinese stripe-necked turtle, M. sinensisThe Fujian pond turtle, described as Mauremys iversoni, is a farm-bred hybrid, between yellow pond turtles (usually females) and the golden coin turtle or Cuora cyclornata (usually males). Similarly, the turtles described as Mauremys pritchardi are farm-bred and wild-occurring hybrids between the Chinese pond turtle and the yellow pond turtle. While it is not unusual for valid species of geoemydid turtles to arise from hybrids, this is yet to be discussed with M. pritchardi; M. iversoni is probably not, since they only seem to be produced in farms and most males are sterile.

Mauremys pritchardi

Mauremys pritchardi is an interspecific hybrid turtle in the family Geoemydidae. M. pritchardi, described to be from Myanmar (where neither of the parental species occurs apparently), has been found in the wild in China and Japan, and is produced to some extent in Chinese turtle farms. It was listed as data deficient in the IUCN Red List before its actual origin became known.

The parents of this hybrid are the Chinese pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii ) and the Asian yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica). While it is not unusual for perfectly valid geoemydid species to arise from hybridization, recognition as a species would require that the hybrids be fertile and constitute a phenotypically distinct and self-sustaining lineage. This does not yet appear to be the case in this "species" as recently (Kosukawa et al. 2006) a population of these turtles has been found in Japan. The hybrid offspring are perfectly fertile, which is not the case in Mauremys iversoni for example, another intergeneric hybrid, and have been bred in F2 already, with all juveniles resembling their parents (and not the parental species) perfectly as well. Genetic studies verify its hybrid origin but scientists are unsure of the time of creation. According to Wink et al. 2001, it might well be a very ancient hybrid, while Parham et al. 2001 suppose that it is of rather recent origin.

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.

Sedgwick County Zoo

The Sedgwick County Zoo is an AZA-accredited wildlife park and major attraction in Wichita, Kansas. Founded in 1971 with the help of the Sedgwick County Zoological Society, the zoo has quickly become recognized both nationally and internationally for its support of conservation programs and successful breeding of rare and endangered species. Having over 3,000 animals of nearly 400 different species, the zoo has slowly increased its visitors and now ranks as the number one outdoor tourist attraction in the state.

Turtle farming

Turtle farming is the practice of raising turtles and tortoises of various species commercially. Raised animals are sold for use as gourmet food, traditional medicine ingredients, or as pets. Some farms also sell young animals to other farms, either as breeding stock, or more commonly to be raised there to a larger size for subsequent resale.Turtle farms primarily raise freshwater turtles (primarily, Chinese softshell turtles as a food source and sliders and cooter turtles for the pet trade); therefore, turtle farming is usually classified as aquaculture. However, some terrestrial tortoises (e.g. Cuora mouhotii) are also raised on farms for the pet trade.Only three serious attempts are believed to have been made to farm sea turtles.

Only one of them, in Cayman Islands, continues to operate.

The one in Australia's Torres Strait Islands folded after a few years of operation, and the one in Réunion has been converted to a public aquarium (Kélonia).


The Yangtze or Yangzi (English: or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises in the northern part of the Tibetan Plateau and flows 6,300 km (3,900 mi) in a generally easterly direction to the East China Sea. It is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world. Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China, and is home to nearly one-third of the country's population.The Yangtze has played a major role in the history, culture and economy of China. For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, irrigation, sanitation, transportation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. In mid-2014, the Chinese government announced it was building a multi-tier transport network, comprising railways, roads and airports, to create a new economic belt alongside the river.The Yangtze flows through a wide array of ecosystems and is habitat to several endemic and endangered species including the Chinese alligator, the narrow-ridged finless porpoise, the Chinese paddlefish, the (extinct) Yangtze river dolphin or baiji, and the Yangtze sturgeon. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, plastic pollution, agricultural run-off, siltation, and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. Some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. A stretch of the upstream Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Yilan River

The Yilan River (Chinese: 宜蘭河; pinyin: Yílán Hé; Wade–Giles: I2-lan2 Ho2) is a tributary of the Lanyang River in Yilan County, northeast Taiwan. It flows through Yilan for 25 kilometers.

Turtle family Geoemydidae
Extant turtle taxonomy


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