Yellow-faced myna

The yellow-faced myna (Mino dumontii) is a species of starling in the family Sturnidae. It is found in New Guinea and nearby smaller islands, where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. The long-tailed myna was formerly included as a subspecies. One of the largest species of starling, this species attains 23 to 26 cm (9 to 10 in) in length and weighs around 217 g (7.7 oz).[2] They have dark plumage with a metallic lustre and bright orange facial markings and beak. These birds are social and omnivorous. Their diet consists of fruit and insects for which they forage high in the canopy. They are common birds with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed their conservation status as being of "least concern".[1]

Yellow-faced myna
Yellow-faced Myna
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Mino
Species:
M. dumontii
Binomial name
Mino dumontii
Lesson, 1827

Description

The yellow-faced myna grows to a length of between 23 and 26 cm (9 and 10 in) and is one of the largest species of starling. The head has short black feathers glossed bluish-purple on the forehead and at the base of the upper mandible, but most of the head is bare yellowish-orange skin. This forms a wide patch around and behind the eye and includes a bib on the chin and the sides of the throat. The neck, central throat and mantle are black glossed with purple while the back, wings, breast and belly are black glossed with green. The rump is white, the lower belly is golden-yellow and the undertail-coverts are white. The short, squarish tail is black. The iris is usually yellow, but in some parts of New Guinea may be brown. The bill and legs are yellow.[3]

Distribution and habitat

This myna is endemic to New Guinea. As well as being present on the mainland, its range extends to many of the smaller offshore islands. It is common over much of its range at altitudes of up to about 800 metres (2,600 ft) and even higher in parts of Papua New Guinea. It is not present on the southeastern coast of the mainland however. Its typical habitats include rainforests, forest fringes, partially cut areas, secondary growth and gallery forests, and it is sometimes present in savannah areas.[3]

Ecology

M. dumontii is sometimes seen in small groups but is more often found in pairs. It occasionally forms larger flocks, and communal roosts in tall trees have been described, containing over two hundred birds. It is a noisy bird, emitting a variety of "nasal, growling, and croaking calls with a sometimes human-like conversational quality".[3] It often perches in an elevated position, calling loudly. It has a quick wing-beat and a direct flight, and pairs of birds are often seen flying together; it is possible that this species is monogamous and pairs for life.[3]

This bird is usually found high in the canopy feeding mainly on berries and fruit, although it also feeds on small invertebrates, and it has been observed catching insects in flight. It breeds in holes and crevices in trees well above the ground. The nests are formed of twigs and one or two pale blue eggs speckled with grey and rust are laid. Three birds have been observed carrying nesting material into a single hole, so it is possible that there is some degree of cooperation from the extended family.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Mino dumontii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2012: e.T22710955A39676510. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22710955A39676510.en. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
  2. ^ Starlings & Mynas (Helm Identification Guide) by Chris Feare. A&C Black (1998). ISBN 978-0713639612.
  3. ^ a b c d e Craig, Adrian; Feare, Chris (2010). Starlings and Mynas. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 132. ISBN 978-1-4081-3522-8.

External links

Birds of Eden

Birds of Eden is the world's largest free flight aviary and bird sanctuary, located near Plettenberg Bay in the Western Cape, South Africa. The mesh dome of the sanctuary was built over 2.3 hectares (5.7 acres) of indigenous forest, and is up to 55 metres (180 ft) above ground level. 1.2 kilometres (0.75 mi) of walkways, about 75% of which are elevated, let visitors see the birds at all levels of the aviary.

Birds of Eden is one of the three Sanctuaries under The South African Animal Sanctuary Alliance (SAASA). As a member of SAASA Birds of Eden was honoured with four major tourism awards in 2014. The four awards are namely the Lilizela Tourism Visitor Experience of the Year Award at a 'Wildlife Encounters', the Skål International Sustainable Tourism Award, Overall winner of the World Responsible Tourism Award as well as the Gold Award in World Responsible Tourism in the category of 'Best Animal Welfare Initiative'

Chester Zoo

Chester Zoo is a zoo at Upton by Chester, in Cheshire, England. Chester Zoo was opened in 1931 by George Mottershead and his family. It is one of the UK's largest zoos at 125 acres (51 ha). The zoo has a total land holding of approximately 400 acres (160 ha).

Chester Zoo is operated by the North of England Zoological Society, a registered charity founded in 1934. The zoo receives no government funding. It is the most-visited wildlife attraction in Britain with more than 1.9 million visitors in 2018. In 2007 Forbes described it as one of the best fifteen zoos in the world. In 2017 it was named as the best zoo in the UK and third in the world by TripAdvisor.

List of birds of Indonesia

Indonesia, with its vast islands, tropical weather and rainforests is one of the world's richest and most important country in term of biodiversity. In addition to the many resident birds, of which the most important are the 380 endemics, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.

The list will be growing, since many new species are discovered every year in many unexplored areas of Indonesia. In December 2005, a honeyeater Melipotes carolae was discovered in Foja Mountains among other new animal and plant species.

In June 2011 there are 123 Indonesian bird species threatened, 18 were categorized as endangered while 31 others endangered and 74 vulnerable.

List of birds of Papua New Guinea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Papua New Guinea. The avifauna of Papua New Guinea include a total of 781 species, of which 76 are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and eighteen are rare or accidental. Twenty-eight species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Papua New Guinea.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Papua New Guinea

(E) Endemic - a species that is native only to Papua New Guinea

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Papua New Guinea as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of least concern birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Long-tailed myna

The long-tailed myna (Mino kreffti) is a member of the starling family. It is resident in the Bismarck Archipelago and northern Solomon Islands. It resembles the yellow-faced myna, and the two were formerly considered conspecific.

Its binomial name commemorates Gerard Krefft, Australian zoologist and palaeontologist.

Mino (bird)

Mino is a genus of mynas, birds in the starling family. These are the largest of the starlings, and are found in tropical moist lowland forests in Papua New Guinea and neighbouring islands.

Muséum de Toulouse

The Muséum de Toulouse, Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Toulouse (abbreviation: MHNT) is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France. It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir, and houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items and has some 3 000 square metres of exhibition space. Its Index Herbariorum code is TLM.

Myna

The myna (; also spelled mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae). This is a group of passerine birds which are native to southern Asia, especially Nepal, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh . Several species have been introduced to areas like North America, Australia, South Africa, Fiji and New Zealand, especially the common myna which is often regarded as an invasive species. It is often known as "Selarang" and "Teck Meng" in Malay and Chinese respectively in Singapore, due to their high population there. Similarly, in Nepal, it is known by local name Dangre.

Mynas are not a natural group; instead, the term myna is used for any starling in the Indian subcontinent, regardless of their relationships. This range was colonized twice during the evolution of starlings, first by rather ancestral starlings related to the coleto and Aplonis lineages, and millions of years later by birds related to the common starling and wattled starling's ancestors. These two groups of mynas can be distinguished in the more terrestrial adaptions of the latter, which usually also have less glossy plumage except on the heads and longer tails. The Bali myna which is nearly extinct in the wild is highly distinctive.

Some mynas are considered talking birds, for their ability to reproduce sounds, including human speech, when in captivity.

Myna is derived from the Hindi language mainā which itself is derived from Sanskrit madanā.

Oro Province

Oro Province, formerly (and officially still) Northern Province, is a coastal province of Papua New Guinea. The provincial capital is Popondetta. The province covers 22,800 km2, and has 176,206 inhabitants (2011 census). The province shares land borders with Morobe Province to the northwest, Central Province to the west and south, and Milne Bay Province to the southeast. The province is located within the Papuan Peninsula.

Oro is the only province in which the Anglican Church is the major religious denomination. Oil palm is the principal primary industry. William Clarke College also funds people in that area.The northern end of the Kokoda Track terminates at the village of Kokoda in the province and the active volcano Mount Lamington. Once the Kokoda Track was taken and provided access from Port Moresby to the hinterland during the Second World War, the coast of the then Northern District was also the scene of heavy fighting; the Buna, Gona and Sanananda campaigns are particularly well remembered.

The Tufi dive and cultural resort is located on the north coast of the Cape Nelson Rural Local Level Government area and is well known for its diving and the spectacular rias, locally referred to as ' fjords'.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 14

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Starling

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings are native to Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitats with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the common starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific, the common myna is indeed common.

Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for prey such as grubs by "open-bill probing", that is, forcefully opening the bill after inserting it into a crevice, thus expanding the hole and exposing the prey; this behaviour is referred to by the German verb zirkeln (pronounced [ˈtsɪɐ̯kl̩n]).Plumage of many species is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes and lay blue or white eggs.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls and are the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

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