Yazid I

Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان‎; 646 – 12 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate. He ruled for three years from 680 until his death in 683. His appointment was the first hereditary succession in Islamic history. His caliphate was marked by the death of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali as well as the start of the crisis known as the Second Fitna.

His nomination in 676 (56 AH) by Muawiya was opposed by several prominent Muslims from the Hejaz. Following his accession, after Muawiya's death in 680, Husayn and Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr refused to recognize him and fled to sanctuary in Mecca. When Husayn was on his way to Kufa to lead a revolt against Yazid, he was killed with his small band of supporters by Yazid's forces in the Battle of Karbala. The killing of Husayn led to resentment in the Hejaz, where Ibn al-Zubayr centered his opposition to the rule of Yazid, and was supported by many people in Mecca and Medina. After failed attempts to regain the confidence of Ibn al-Zubayr and the people of the Hejaz through diplomacy, Yazid sent an army to end the rebellion. The army defeated the Medinese in the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683 and the city was given over to three days of pillage. Later, siege was laid to Mecca, which lasted for several weeks. The siege ended with the death of Yazid in November 683 and the empire fell to civil war.

Yazid is considered an illegitimate ruler and a tyrant by many Muslims due to his hereditary succession, the death of Husayn and the attack on the city of Medina by his forces. Modern historians present a milder view of him, and consider him a capable ruler, albeit less successful than his father.

Yazīd ibn Mu‘awiya
Caliph
Drachm of Yazid I, 676-677
Arab-Sasanian Drachm of Yazid I
2nd Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
Reign26 April 680 – 12 November 683
PredecessorMu'awiya I
SuccessorMu'awiya II
Born646 (25 AH)[1][a] Mecca
(present-day Saudi Arabia)
Died12 November 683 (14 Rabi ul-Awwal 64 AH)[2]
SpouseUmm Khalid Fakhita bint Abi Hisham[3]
Umm Kulthum bint Abd Allah ibn Amir[3]
IssueMu'awiya II[3]
Khaled[3]
Atikah[4]
Full name
Yazīd ibn Mu‘awiya ibn Abī Sufyān
يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان
HouseSufyanid
DynastyUmayyad
FatherMu'awiya I
MotherMaysun bint Bahdal[5]
ReligionIslam

Early life

Sufyanid dynasty genealogy
Genealogical tree of the Sufyanids, the ruling family to which Yazid I belonged

Yazid was born in Syria in 646 to Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, then governor of Syria under Caliph Uthman (r. 644–656), and Maysun, the daughter of Bahdal ibn Unayf, a chieftain of the powerful Banu Kalb tribe.[6][7] Yazid grew up with his maternal Kalbite tribesmen.[6] Though during his youth he spent his springs in the desert with his Bedouin kin, for the remainder of the year he was in the company of the Greek and native Syrian courtiers of his father,[8] who became caliph in 661. Yazid led several campaigns against the Byzantine Empire and in 670 participated in an attack on Constantinople. He also led the hajj (the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca) on several occasions.[5]

Nomination as caliph

By the end of the first Islamic civil war (August 661), Muawiya became sole ruler of the Caliphate as a result of a peace treaty with Hasan ibn Ali, who had controlled most of the Caliphate following the murder of his father Ali a few months earlier. The terms of the treaty stipulated that Muawiya would not nominate a successor. However, in 676, Muawiya nominated Yazid as his heir.[9][10] Muawiya and the shura (consultation) declared for Yazid in Damascus,[11] where the former had summoned influential people from all provinces to the capital and convinced them one way or another. Muawiya ordered Marwan ibn al-Hakam, then the governor of Medina, to inform the people of Medina of Muawiya's decision. Marwan faced resistance to this announcement, especially from Husayn ibn Ali, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abd Allah ibn Umar and Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. Muawiya went to Medina and pressed the four dissenters to accede, but they fled to Mecca. Muawiya followed and threatened some of them with death, but they still refused to support him. Nonetheless, he was successful in convincing the people of Mecca that the four had pledged their allegiance, and received allegiance for Yazid. On his way back to Damascus, he secured allegiance from the people of Medina as well. Yazid's opponents were silent thereafter. German orientalist Julius Wellhausen doubts the story,[12] while Bernard Lewis writes that the homage was arranged with a mix of diplomacy and bribes and, to a lesser extent, by force.[11]

Before dying, Muawiya left Yazid a will, instructing him on matters of governing the empire. He advised him to beware of Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, and predicted that the people of Iraq would entice Husayn into rebellion and then abandon him. Yazid was further advised to treat Husayn with caution and not to spill his blood, since he was the grandson of Muhammad. Ibn al-Zubayr, on the other hand, was to be treated harshly, unless he came to terms. Muawiya also advised him to treat the people of the Hejaz well.[13]

Reign

Oaths of allegiance

Upon his accession, Yazid requested and received oaths of allegiance from the governors of the Caliphate's provinces. He wrote to his cousin, the governor of Medina, Walid ibn Utba ibn Abu Sufyan, informing him of the death of Muawiya and instructing him to secure allegiance from Husayn ibn Ali, Ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn Umar.[14] The instructions contained in the letter were:

Seize Husayn, Abdullah ibn Umar, and Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr to give the oath of allegiance. Act so fiercely that they have no chance to do anything before giving the oath of allegiance. Peace be with you.[15]

Walid sought the advice of Marwan on the matter. Marwan suggested that Ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn should be forced to pay allegiance as they were dangerous, while Ibn Umar should be left alone as he posed no threat. Husayn answered Walid's summon, while Ibn al-Zubayr did not. When Husayn met Walid and Marwan in a semi-private meeting, he was informed of Muawiya's death and Yazid's accession to the caliphate. When asked for his pledge of allegiance to Yazid, Husayn responded that giving his allegiance in private would be insufficient, such a thing should be given in public. Walid agreed, but Marwan interrupted demanding that Husayn be detained until he pledged allegiance. At this, Marwan was scolded by Husayn who then exited unharmed. Husayn had his armed retinue waiting nearby in case the authorities attempted to apprehend him. Immediately following Husayn's exit, Marwan admonished Walid, who in turn rebutted Marwan, justifying his refusal to harm Husayn by stating "On the Day of Resurrection a man who is [responsible] for the blood of Al-Husayn [will weigh] little in the scale of God". Ibn al-Zubayr left for Mecca that night. In the morning Walid sent eighty horsemen after him, but he escaped. Husayn too left for Mecca shortly after, without having sworn allegiance to Yazid.[16] Dissatisfied with this failure, Yazid replaced Walid with Amr ibn Said.[14] Unlike Husayn and Ibn al-Zubayr, Ibn Umar, Abd al-Rahman ibn Abi Bakr and Abd Allah ibn Abbas, who had also previously denounced Muawiya's nomination of Yazid, now paid allegiance to him.[17]

Battle of Karbala

Umayyad Caliphate. temp. Yazid I ibn Mu'awiya. AH 60-64 AD 680-683
Coin of the Umayyad Caliphate at the time of Yazid ibn Muawiya. BCRA (Basra) mint; "Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, governor". Dated AH 60 = AD 679/680. Sasanian style bust imitating Khosrau II right; bismillah and four pellets in margin/ Fire altar with ribbons and attendants; star and crescent flanking flames; date to left, mint name to right.

In Mecca Husayn received letters from pro-Alid[b] Kufans, inviting him to lead them in revolt against Yazid. Husayn subsequently sent his cousin Muslim ibn Aqil to assess the situation in the city. He also sent letters to Basra, but his messenger was handed over to the governor Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad and killed. Ibn Aqil informed Husayn of the large-scale support he found in Kufa, signaling that the latter should enter the city. Yazid ordered Ibn Ziyad to move to Kufa and execute or imprison Ibn Aqil. Ibn Ziyad brutally suppressed the rebellion and killed Ibn Aqil.[18]

Encouraged by Ibn Aqil's letter, Husayn left for Kufa, ignoring warnings from Ibn Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn Abbas that the Kufans could not be trusted. On the way to the city, he received the news of Ibn Aqil's death and that the Kufans had changed sides.[18] Nonetheless, Husayn and his companions continued towards Kufa and Ibn Ziyad sent some 4,000 men to counter them. His troops forced them to camp in the desert of Karbala. In the ensuing hostilities on 10 October 680, Husayn and 72 of his male companions were killed, while Husayn's family were taken prisoner.[18][19] This event caused widespread outcry among the Muslims and the image of Yazid suffered greatly.[20] It also helped crystallize opposition to Yazid into an anti-Umayyad movement based on Alid aspirations,[21] and contributed to the development of Shi'ite identity.[19]

Revolt of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr

Ibn al-Zubayr started secretly taking oaths of allegiance in Mecca. Upon hearing of this, Yazid sent a silver chain to Ibn al-Zubayr with the intention of pacifying him, but it was refused.[22] Yazid then sent a force led by Ibn al-Zubayr's own brother Amr, who was at odds with Ibn al-Zubayr, to arrest him. This force was defeated and Amr was killed.[23] After Husayn's death at Karbala, Ibn al-Zubayr's influence reached Medina and Kufa.[24] To counter the growing influence of Ibn al-Zubayr in Medina, Yazid invited notables of the city to Damascus and tried to win them over with gifts and presents. The notables were unpersuaded, and on their return to Medina narrated tales of his lavish lifestyle and practices considered by many to be impious, including drinking wine, hunting with hounds, and his love for music. The Medinese renounced their allegiance to Yazid upon hearing these details and expelled the governor and all Umayyads residing in the city. Yazid sent an army of 12,000 men under the command of Muslim ibn Uqba to reconquer Hejaz. By the end of August 683 Ibn Uqba approached Medina and gave the Medinese three days to reconsider, but was refused. When the ultimatum ended, a battle started in which the Medinese were defeated. After plundering the city for three days and forcing the rebels to renew their allegiance, the Syrian army headed for Mecca to subdue Ibn al-Zubayr.[25][26] According to one account, the city was not plundered, only the leaders of the rebellion were executed.[25] Ibn Uqba died on the way to Mecca and command passed to Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni, who laid siege to Mecca in September 683. The siege lasted for several weeks, during which the Kaaba caught fire. Yazid's sudden death in November 683 ended the campaign and threw the caliphate into disarray and civil war. Ibn al-Zubayr declared himself caliph and Iraq and Egypt came under his rule.[27][2]

Foreign campaigns

On the foreign front, Yazid discontinued Muawiya's policy of raids against the Byzantine Empire and focused on stabilizing his borders. Islands in the Sea of Marmara were abandoned. The Syrian district of Hims was split and the new district of Qinnasrin was formed.[28] He reappointed Uqba ibn Nafi, whom Muawiya had deposed, as governor of Ifriqiya. In 681, Uqba launched a large-scale expedition into western Africa. Defeating the Berbers and the Byzantines, Uqba reached as far as the Atlantic coast and captured Tangier and Volubilis. Despite his successes, he was unable to establish a permanent hold on these territories. On his return eastward, he was ambushed and killed by a Berber-Byzantine force, resulting in the loss of the conquered territories.[29]

Death and succession

Yazid died on 12 November 683 at Huwwarin, aged between 35 and 39. His son Muawiya II, whom he had nominated, became caliph. His control was limited to just some parts of Syria, however, and he died after a few months from an unknown illness. Some early sources state that Muawiya II abdicated before his death.[30] In any case, Marwan ibn Hakam became caliph afterwards and the Sufyanid caliphate came to an end.[31] According to Wellhausen, the story of abdication by Muawiya II is likely a Marwanid fabrication, since they had sidelined Sufyanids despite there being a pact that Yazid's second son Khalid will succeed Marwan.[30] Supporters of the Sufyanids were unhappy about the development and thus arose the idea of Sufyani, a descendant of Abu Sufyan who would restore the Sufyanid power in Syria.[2] Various Sufyani claimants arose after the fall of the Umayyads at the hand of the Abbasids.[32]

Legacy

Yazid is considered an evil figure by many Muslims, especially by Shi'ites.[5] He was the first person in the history of the caliphate to be nominated as heir based on a blood relationship, and this became a tradition afterwards.[33] He is considered a tyrant who was responsible for three major crimes during his caliphate: the death of Husayn ibn Ali and his followers at the Battle of Karbala, considered a massacre; the aftermath of the Battle of al-Harrah, in which the troops of Yazid's general, Muslim ibn Uqba, pillaged the town of Medina; and the burning of the Kaaba during the siege of Mecca, which was blamed on Yazid's commander Husayn ibn Numayr. Moreover, because of his habits of drinking, dancing and hunting, and keeping pet animals such as dogs and monkeys, he is considered to have been impious and unworthy of leading the Muslim community.[5]

Despite his reputation in religious circles, academic historians generally portray a more favourable view of Yazid. According to Wellhausen, Yazid was a mild ruler, who resorted to violence only when necessary, and was not the tyrant that religious tradition portrays him to be.[34] Michael Jan de Goeje describes him as "a peace-loving, generous prince".[2] According to G. R. Hawting, he tried to continue the diplomatic policies of his father. However, unlike Muawiya, he was not successful in winning over the opposition with gifts and bribes.[5] In the view of Bernard Lewis, Yazid was a capable ruler but was overly criticized by later Arab historians.[21]

Notes

  1. ^ His year of birth is uncertain. Reports vary from 22 AH to 30 AH[2]
  2. ^ Pro-Alids or Alid partisans were political supporters of Ali, and later his descendants.

References

  1. ^ Humphreys 1990, p. 13.
  2. ^ a b c d e de Goeje 1911, p. 30.
  3. ^ a b c d Howard 1991, p. 226.
  4. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 222.
  5. ^ a b c d e Hawting 2002, pp. 309–311.
  6. ^ a b Goldschmidt Jr. & Al-Marashi 2019, p. 53.
  7. ^ Sprengling 1939, pp. 182, 193–194.
  8. ^ Sprengling 1939, p. 194.
  9. ^ Morony 1987, p. 183.
  10. ^ Madelung 1997, p. 322.
  11. ^ a b Lewis 2002, p. 67.
  12. ^ Wellhausen 1927, pp. 141–145.
  13. ^ Lammens 1921, pp. 5–6.
  14. ^ a b Wellhausen 1927, pp. 145–146.
  15. ^ Howard 1991, pp. 2–3.
  16. ^ Howard 1991, pp. 3–7.
  17. ^ Donner 2010, p. 177.
  18. ^ a b c Madelung, Wilferd. "Hosayn b. ali". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  19. ^ a b Daftary 1992, p. 50.
  20. ^ Donner 2010, p. 179.
  21. ^ a b Lewis 2002, p. 68.
  22. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 148.
  23. ^ Donner 2010, p. 180.
  24. ^ de Goeje 1911, p. 29.
  25. ^ a b Wellhausen 1927, pp. 152–156.
  26. ^ Donner 2010, pp. 180–181.
  27. ^ Donner 2010, pp. 181–182.
  28. ^ Kennedy 2004, p. 90.
  29. ^ Christides 2000, p. 790.
  30. ^ a b Wellhausen 1927, pp. 168–169.
  31. ^ Hawting 2000, p. 47.
  32. ^ Hawting 2000, p. 34.
  33. ^ Kennedy 2016, p. 40.
  34. ^ Wellhausen 1927, p. 168.

Sources

External links

Yazid I
Born: 647  Died: 12 November 683
Preceded by
Muawiya I
Caliph of Islam
Umayyad Caliph

680 – 12 November 683
Succeeded by
Muawiya II
Abbas ibn Ali

Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي‎, romanized: al-‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī), also known as Qamar Banī Hāshim (Arabic: قمر بني هاشم) (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was a son of Imam Ali (who was the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims), and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons (Arabic: أم البنين‎).

Abbas, also known as Abbas Alamdar, is highly revered by Shia Muslims and Sunni Muslims for his loyalty to his half-brother Husain, his respect for the Household of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks" and was also well known in the Arab community for his courage, bravery, strength and ferocity as a warrior. Ibn Manzur narrates in his al-Ayn that Al-Abbas was the "lion that other lions feared" as a testament to his accolades as a warrior. Sheikh at-Turaihi describes Abbas's appearance as resembling an unshakable mountain, with his heart firmly rooted, due to his qualities as a "unique horseman" and a "fearless hero".

Abd Allah ibn Hanzala

ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ḥanẓala ibn Abī ʿĀmir al-Anṣārī (625/26 – August 683) was the leader of the Ansar faction of Medina during the city’s revolt against Caliph Yazid I in 682–683. He was killed when he led his forces to confront Yazid’s expeditionary army at the Battle of al-Harrah in August 683.

Al-Ashdaq

ʿAmr ibn Saʿīd ibn al-ʿĀṣ ibn Umayya al-Umawī (Arabic: عمرو بن سعيد بن العاص بن أمية الأموي‎; died 689/90), better known as al-Ashdaq (الأشدق), was an Umayyad prince, general and contender for the caliphal throne. He served as the governor of Medina in 680, during the reign of Caliph Yazid I (r. 680–683) and later fought off attempts by the Zubayrids to conquer Syria in 684 and 685 during the reign of Caliph Marwan I. His attempted coup against Caliph Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705) in 689 ended with his surrender and ultimately his execution by Abd al-Malik himself.

Al-Dahhak ibn Qays al-Fihri

Abū Unays (or Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān) al-Ḍaḥḥak ibn Qays al-Fihrī (died August 684) was an Umayyad general, head of security forces and governor of Damascus during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I, Yazid I and Mu'awiya II. Though long an Umayyad loyalist, after the latter's death, al-Dahhak defected to the anti-Umayyad claimant to the caliphate, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

Arba'een Pilgrimage

The Arba'een Pilgrimage is the world's largest annual public gathering that is held every year in Karbala, Iraq at the end of the 40-day mourning period following Ashura, the religious ritual for the commemoration of martyrdom of the grandson of Prophet Mohammad and the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali's in 680. Anticipating Arba'een, or the fortieth day of the martyrdom, the pilgrims make their journey to Karbala on foot, where Husayn and his companions were martyred and beheaded by the army of Yazid I in the Battle of Karbala.The number of participants in the annual pilgrimage reached 20 million or more by 2016. On the routes of the pilgrimage, food, accommodation and other services are provided for free by volunteers. Husayn is believed to transcend all cultural boundaries and be a symbol of universal freedom and compassion.Some of the pilgrims make their journey from cities as far as Basra, about 500 kilometres (310 mi) away by road. The ritual has been described as "an overwhelmingly powerful display of Shia belief and solidarity". Iran and Shias however have criticized mainstream media for ignoring the event.

Bahdal ibn Unayf al-Kalbi

Bahdal ibn Unayf ibn Walja ibn Qunafa al-Kalbi (died ca. 650s) was the chieftain of the Banu Kalb during early Muslim rule in Syria until his death in the mid-650s. A Christian like most of his tribesmen at the time, Bahdal secured a prominent role for his family and the Banu Kalb by marrying off his daughter Maysun to the future caliph Mu'awiyah I (r. 661–680), while the latter was governor of Syria (639–661). Maysun would give birth to Mu'awiyah's son and successor, Yazid I (r. 680–683). Though Bahdal died before 657, his forging of ties with the Umayyads secured his descendants and tribesmen the most prominent positions in the Umayyad court and military, so much so that partisans of the Umayyads became known as "Baḥdaliyya". Bahdal's grandchildren led the Yaman faction in the wars with Qays, a rival tribal confederation.

Banu Kalb

The Banu Kalb or Kalb ibn Wabara was an Arab tribe. Prior to the Muslim conquest of Syria in the 630s, the Kalb's territory spanned much of northwestern Arabia, the Palmyrene steppe, the Samawah (desert between Palmyra and the Euphrates), the Hawran plain and the Golan Heights. One of their main centers was the desert town of Dumat al-Jandal. The Kalb became involved in the tribal affairs in the eastern frontiers of the Byzantine Empire since the 4th century and were likely the tribe of Mavia, the Bedouin queen of southern Syria. By the 6th century, the Kalb had largely become Monophysite Christians and came under the military authority of the Ghassanids, Arab vassals of the Byzantines.

During the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a number of his close companions were Kalb tribesmen, such as Zayd ibn Harithah and Dihya al-Kalbi, but the bulk of the tribe remained Christian at the time of Muhammad's death in 632. The Kalb formed political and marital ties with the Umayyad family, and were the main source of military and political power during the reigns of the Umayyad caliphs Mu'awiyah I, Yazid I, Mu'awiyah II and Marwan I. It was during early Umayyad rule, that the Kalb became a chief belligerent in the long-running Qays–Yaman feud, being the leading tribe of the Yaman. Under their leadership, the Yaman dealt a heavy blow to the Qays in the Battle of Marj Rahit in 684. By then, the Kalb were largely concentrated in the steppe around Hims and Palmyra, but were driven out of the Samawah in the late 680s by the Qays.

Battle of al-Harra

The Battle of al-Harra (Arabic: يوم الحرة‎, romanized: Yawm al-Ḥarra lit. "the day of al-Harra") was fought between the Syrian army of the Umayyad caliph Yazid I (r. 680–683) led by Muslim ibn Uqba and the local defenders of Medina, namely the Ansar and Muhajirun factions, who had rebelled against the caliph. The battle took place at the lava field of Harrat Waqim northeast of Medina on 26 August 683.

The elite factions of Medina disapproved of the hereditary succession of Yazid, unprecedented in Islamic history until that point, resented the caliph's impious lifestyle, and chafed under Umayyad economic policies. They declared their rebellion, besieged the Umayyad clan resident in Medina and dug a defensive trench around the city. The expeditionary force sent by Yazid together with the local Umayyads, who had since been released from the siege, encamped at Harrat Waqim where they were confronted by the rebels. Despite an initial advantage, the Medinese were routed as a result of the defection of one of their factions, which enabled Umayyad horsemen led by Marwan ibn al-Hakam to attack them from the rear.

Afterward, the army pillaged Medina for three days, though accounts of the plunder vary considerably. The Syrian army proceeded to besiege the rebel leader Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr in Mecca, though Ibn Uqba, who was maligned in Muslim traditional sources for his role in Medina's plunder, died en route. The Battle of al-Harra is described as one of the Umayyads' "major" crimes by the traditional sources.

Calid

Calid, Kalid, or King Calid is a legendary figure in alchemy, latterly associated with the historical Khalid ibn Yazid (d. 704), an Umayyad prince. His name is a medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid (or Khaled).

Hussainiya

A ḥosayniya or hussainiya (Persian: حسینیه‎ hoseyniye), also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Twelver Shia Muslim commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the third of the Twelve Imams and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 CE during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The Shia commemorate his martyrdom every year on Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram. There are also other ceremonies which are held during the year in hussainiyas, including religious commemorations unrelated to Ashura.

Ibn Bahdal

Ḥassān ibn Mālik ibn Baḥdal al-Kalbī, commonly known as Ibn Baḥdal (d. 688/89), was the Umayyad governor of Palestine and Jordan during the reigns of Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680) and Yazid I (680–683), a senior figure in the caliph's court, and a chieftain of the Banu Kalb tribe. He owed his position both to his leadership of the powerful Kalb, a major source of troops, and his kinship with the Umayyads through his aunt Maysun bint Bahdal, the wife of Mu'awiya and mother of Yazid. Following Yazid's death, Ibn Bahdal served as the guardian of his son and successor, Mu'awiya II, until the latter's premature death in 684. Amid the political instability and rebellions that ensued in the caliphate, Ibn Bahdal threw his support behind Marwan I, who hailed from a different branch of the Umayyads. Ibn Bahdal and his tribal allies defeated Marwan's opponents at the Battle of Marj Rahit and secured for themselves the most prominent roles in the Umayyad administration and military.

Muawiya II

Muawiya II or Muawiya ibn Yazid (Arabic: معاوية بن يزيد‎, romanized: Mu‘āwiya ibn Yazīd; c. 664–684 CE) succeeded his father Yazid I as the third Umayyad caliph and last caliph of the Sufyanid line. He ruled briefly in 683-684 (64 AH) before he died.

Muslim ibn Uqba

Muslim ibn ʿUqba al-Murrī (pre-622–683) was a general of the Umayyad Caliphate during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I (r. 661–680) and his son and successor Yazid I (680–683). The latter assigned Muslim, a staunch loyalist who had distinguished himself at the Battle of Siffin, to be the commander of an expedition against the people of Medina for refusing to give Yazid the oath of allegiance. The victory of Muslim at the Battle of al-Harrah in 683 and the subsequent pillaging of Medina by his army was considered among the major injustices carried out by the Umayyads. Muslim died shortly after.

Sarjun ibn Mansur

Sarjun ibn Mansur (Arabic: سرجون بن منصور‎; Greek: Σέργιος ὁ τοῦ Μανσοῦρ) was a Melkite Arab Christian official of the early Umayyad Caliphate. The son of a prominent Byzantine official of Damascus, he was a favourite of the early Umayyad caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and served as the head of the fiscal administration for Syria from the mid-7th century until the year 700, when Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan dismissed him as part of his efforts to Arabicize the administration of the Caliphate.

He was the father of the theologian John of Damascus and adoptive father of Cosmas of Maiuma.

Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid

Sermon of Zaynab bint Ali in the court of Yazid are the statements made by Zaynab bint Ali in the presence of Yazid I in the aftermath of the Battle of Karbala when the captive family members of Muhammad, prophet of Islam, and the heads of those murdered were moved to the Levant (it is equivalent to the historical region of Syria Arabic: شام‎) by the forces of Yazid I. Zaynab delivered a defiant sermon in the court of Yazid in which she humiliated Yazid and exposed his army's atrocities while honoring the Ahl al-Bayt and those killed in Karbala and expounding upon the eternal consequences of the battle.

Shemr

Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan or Shimr (Arabic: شمر بن النغل ذي الجوشن الضبابي الهوازني‎) was a son of Dhil-Jawshan from the tribe of Banu Kilab (Sunni belief differs), one of Arabia's Hawazinite Qaysid tribes. Umm ul-Banin, the mother of Abbas ibn Ali, was also from the Banu Kilab tribe. Shemr has a villainous reputation in both Sunni and Shia Islam. He was a Kharijite leader before paying allegiance to Yazid I and joining Ibn Ziyad's Umayyad forces. He is known as the man who beheaded Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson Hussein ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala. Considering he was a relative of Abbas ibn Ali, he offered protection to him as long as he does not fight Yazid, to which Abbas rejects.

Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad

ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Ziyād (Arabic: عبيد الله بن زياد‎; died August 686) was the Umayyad governor of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and the leading general of the Umayyad army under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik. Ubayd Allah is primarily remembered for his role in the killings of members of Ali ibn Abi Talib's family and he has become infamous in Muslim tradition.

He virtually inherited the governorships from his father Ziyad ibn Abihi after the latter's death in 673. During Ubayd Allah's governorship, he suppressed Kharijite and Alid revolts, including an attempt by Husayn ibn Ali, a grandson of the prophet Muhammad, to enter Kufa and revolt against Yazid. In the ensuing Battle of Karbala in 680, Husayn and his small retinue were slain by Ubayd Allah's troops, shocking many in the Muslim community. Ubayd Allah was ultimately evicted from Iraq by the Arab tribal nobility amid the revolt of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr.

He made it to Syria where he persuaded Marwan I to seek the caliphate and helped galvanize support for the flailing Umayyads. Afterward, he fought at the Battle of Marj Rahit in 684 against pro-Zubayrid tribes and helped reconstitute the Umayyad army. With this army he struggled against rebel Qaysi tribe in the Jazira before advancing against the Alids and Zubayrids of Iraq. However, he was slain and his forces routed at the Battle of Khazir by Ibrahim ibn al-Ashtar, the commander of the pro-Alid al-Mukhtar of Kufa.

Uthman ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Sufyan

ʿUthman ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Sufyān (fl. 682 – c. 683) was a member of the Umayyad ruling family who served as the governor of Medina under the Umayyad caliph Yazid I (r. 680–683) in 682 until being expelled by its townspeople in 683 during the Second Fitna.

Caliphs of Damascus
(661–750)
Emirs of Córdoba
(756–929)
Caliphs of Córdoba
(929–1031)

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