Shown within Turkey
|Location||Çorum Province, Turkey|
Yazılıkaya (Turkish; inscribed rock) was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey. Rock reliefs are a prominent aspect of Hittite art, and these are generally regarded as the most important group.
This was a holy site for the Hittites, located within walking distance of the gates of the city of Hattusa. It had two main chambers formed inside a group of rock outcrops. Access to the roofless chambers were controlled by gateway and building structures built right in front of them, however only the foundations of those structures survived today. Most impressive today are the rock reliefs of Chambers A and B portraying the gods of the Hittite pantheon. One of the uses of the sanctuary may have involved the New Year's celebrations ceremonies. It was in use at least since late 16th century BCE, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late 13th century BCE, when the site underwent a significant restoration.
The most impressive is Chamber A, which contains rock-cut relief of 64 deities in procession. The left wall shows a procession of male deities, wearing the traditional kilts, pointed shoes and horned hats. Mountain gods are also shown with scaled skirts to symbolise the rocky mountains. The right wall shows a procession of female deities wearing crowns and long skirts. The only exception to this divide is the goddess of love and war, Shaushka (Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar/Inanna) who is shown on the male procession with two female attendants. This is likely to be because of her male attributes as the goddess of war. The processions lead to a central scene of the supreme couple of the pantheon: the storm-god Teshub and the sun-goddess Hebat. Teshub stands on two mountain gods whilst Hebat stands on a panther. Behind Hebat are shown their son Sharruma, daughter Alanzu and a granddaughter.
The smaller and narrower Chamber B has fewer but larger and better preserved reliefs. It may have served as a mortuary mausoleum or memorial for the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV.
It is intriguing to note how the Hittite practise of assimilating other cultures' gods into their own pantheon is in evidence at Yazilikaya. The Mesopotamian god of wisdom, Ea (Enki) is shown in the male procession and the god Teshub was a Hurrian god who was syncretized with the Hittite storm-god. Hebat's original consort was changed into her and Teshub's son (Sharruma) and she was later syncretized with the Hattic sun-goddess of Arinna. It is believed that the wife of the Hittite king Hattusili III, Puduhepa, who was the daughter of a Hurrian priestess, also played a role in the increasing Hurrian influence on Hittite cult.
Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).Arma (deity)
Arma was an Anatolian Moon god, worshipped by the Hittites and Luwians in the Bronze Age and early Iron Age.Boğazkale
Boğazkale ("Gorge Fortress") is a district of Çorum Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, located 87 kilometres (54 mi) from the city of Çorum. Formerly known as Boğazköy ("Gorge Village"), Boghaz Keui or Boghazköy, this small town (basically one street of shops with a population of ~1,500) sits in a rural area on the road from Çorum to Yozgat. The mayor is Osman Tangazoğlu (AKP).
Boğazkale is the site of the ancient Hittite city Hattusa and its sanctuary Yazılıkaya. Because of its rich historic and architectural heritage, the town is a member of the Norwich-based European Association of Historic Towns and Regions (EAHTR).Cotenna
Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.Eberhard Zangger
Eberhard Zangger (born 1958 in Kamen, West Germany) is a Swiss geoarchaeologist, corporate communications consultant and publicist. Since 1994 he has been advocating the view that a Luwian civilization existed in Western Asia Minor during the 2nd millennium BC. In 2014 he established the international non-profit foundation Luwian Studies, whose president he is.Eskişehir Province
Eskişehir Province (Turkish: Eskişehir ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Bilecik to the northwest, Kütahya to the west, Afyon to the southwest, Konya to the south, Ankara to the east, and Bolu to the north. The provincial capital is Eskişehir. Most of the province is laid down in Central Anatolia Region. Northern parts of Mihalıççık district and ones of Mihalgazi and Sarıcakaya are located in the Black Sea Region and one of them belong to the Aegean Region.
Eskişehir is an old, culturally developed province of Turkey. It has a population of 844,842. Its urban population is 734,837. Eskişehir has 2 universities, Eskişehir Osmangazi University ESOGU, and Anadolu Üniversitesi, which is the largest university in Turkey and which has some branch offices in Europe.Han, Eskişehir
Han, formerly Hanköy and Hüsrevpaşa, is a town and district of Eskişehir Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to a 2010 census, population of the district is 2,165 of which 1,057 live in the town of Han. The district covers an area of 250 km2 (97 sq mi), and the town lies at an average elevation of 1,207 m (3,960 ft).Hattusa
Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas ; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River (Hittite: Marashantiya; Greek: Halys).
Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986.Hittite art
Hittite art was produced by the Hittite civilization in ancient Anatolia, in modern-day Turkey, and also stretching into Syria during the second millennium BCE from the nineteenth century up until the twelfth century BCE. This period falls under the Anatolian Bronze Age. It is characterized by a long tradition of canonized images and motifs rearranged, while still being recognizable, by artists to convey meaning to a largely illiterate population. “Owing to the limited vocabulary of figural types [and motifs], invention for the Hittite artist usually was a matter of combining and manipulating the units to form more complex compositions"Many of these recurring images revolve around the depiction of Hittite deities and ritual practices. There is also a prevalence of hunting scenes in Hittite relief and representational animal forms. Much of the art comes from settlements like Alaca Höyük, or the Hittite capital of Hattusa near modern-day Boğazkale. Scholars do have difficulty dating a large portion of Hittite art, citing the fact that there is a lack of inscription and much of the found material, especially from burial sites, was moved from their original locations and distributed among museums during the nineteenth century. However, larger period groupings have been established by some, including the Colony Age, the Hittite Old Kingdom Era, and the period of the Hittite Empire.Hurrian religion
The Hurrian religion was the polytheistic religion of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of the Near East. These people settled over a wide area, so there were differences between them, especially between the eastern Hurrians around Nuzi and Arrapha and the western Hurrians in Syria and Anatolia. From the 14th century BC, the Hurrian religion had a powerful influence on the Hittite religion and the Hurrian pantheon is depicted in the 13th century rock reliefs at the important Hittite sanctuary at Yazılıkaya.Kušuḫ
Kušuḫ (Ugaritic: kḏġ or kzġ) is the Hurrian Moon god. In the Kaluti List he is named after Ea and before the Sun god Šimige.
Kušuḫ was syncretised with the Moon god of Harran (Hurrian: Kuzina). Kušuḫ, "Lord of the Oath" was invoked, along with his wife Nikkal, "Lady of the Oath" and Išḫara, as guarantor of oaths.
At the Hittite cliff sanctuary in Yazılıkaya, he is depicted as a winged god with a crescent moon on top of his pointy hat.
He was identified with the Hittite god Kaskuh.List of ancient settlements in Turkey
Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.Sacred dance
Sacred dance is the use of dance in religious ceremonies and rituals, present in most religions throughout history and prehistory. Its connection with the body and fertility has caused it to be forbidden by some religions; for example, its acceptability in Christianity has varied widely. Dance has formed a major element of worship in Hindu temples with strictly formalized styles such as bharatanatyam, requiring skilled dancers and temple musicians. In the 20th century, sacred dance has been revived by choreographers such as Bernhard Wosien as a means of developing community spirit.Sapinuwa
Sapinuwa (sometimes Shapinuwa; Hittite: Šapinuwa) was a Bronze Age Hittite city at the location of modern Ortaköy in the province Çorum in Turkey. It was one of the major Hittite religious and administrative centres, a military base and an occasional residence of several Hittite kings. The palace at Sapinuwa is discussed in several texts from Hattusa.Tarḫunna
Tarḫunna or Tarḫuna/i was the Hittite weather god. He was also referred to as the "Weather god of Heaven" or the "Lord of the Land of Hatti".Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir
Yazılıkaya (lit. 'inscribed rock'), Phrygian Yazılıkaya, or Midas Kenti (Midas city) is a village in Eskişehir Province, Turkey known for its Phrygian archaeological remains and inscription mentioning Midas.
The ancient remains are sometimes called the Midas Monument or Midas City and were formerly identified as the tomb of Midas.Yazılıkaya is about 27 km south of Seyitgazi, 66 km south of Eskişehir, and 51 km north of Afyonkarahisar.Çorum Province
Çorum (Turkish: Çorum İli) is a province in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, but lying inland and having more characteristics of Central Anatolia than the Black Sea coast. Its provincial capital is the city of Çorum, the traffic code is 19.Šarruma
Šarruma or Sharruma was a Hurrian mountain god, who was also worshipped by the Hittites and Luwians.Šimige
Šimige (in Ugaritic: ṯmg) was the Hurrian sun god. From the 14th century BC he was also worshiped by the Hittites as the Sun god of Heaven. In the Hittite cliff sanctuary at Yazılıkaya, he is depicted as one of the chief deities.
Šimige was closely connected to the Mesopotamian sun god, Šamaš, from whom he took his consort the goddess Aya Ikaltu, whose epithet Ikaltu or Nikaltu derived from the Akkadian word kallātu ('bride'). Two of his servants were also borrowed in this way: Bunene and Mišaru; a third servant was named Lipparu.
Šimige drove a chariot pulled by four horses. On either side, he was accompanied by Bunene and Mišaru, as well as the personifications of "Respect" and "Awe".
Children were ascribed to Šimige. A Hurrian oath from Mari mentions the seven daughters of Šimige and a fragmentary text lists his sons, who performed evil deeds. The Hittite Ilaliyanteš may also be among his followers.