Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir, also called Midas City, is a village with Phrygian ruins.
Yazilikaya Kammer A
Yazılıkaya is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationÇorum Province, Turkey
Coordinates40°01′30″N 34°37′58″E / 40.02500°N 34.63278°ECoordinates: 40°01′30″N 34°37′58″E / 40.02500°N 34.63278°E
Site notes
ConditionIn ruins

Yazılıkaya (Turkish; inscribed rock) was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey. Rock reliefs are a prominent aspect of Hittite art, and these are generally regarded as the most important group.

Yazilikaya B Thudalija
Rock carving in Chamber B depicting god Sharruma and King Tudhaliya dated to around 1250 - 1220 BC.

This was a holy site for the Hittites, located within walking distance of the gates of the city of Hattusa. It had two main chambers formed inside a group of rock outcrops. Access to the roofless chambers were controlled by gateway and building structures built right in front of them, however only the foundations of those structures survived today. Most impressive today are the rock reliefs of Chambers A and B portraying the gods of the Hittite pantheon. One of the uses of the sanctuary may have involved the New Year's celebrations ceremonies. It was in use at least since late 16th century BCE, but most of the rock carvings date to the reign of the Hittite kings Tudhaliya IV and Suppiluliuma II in the late 13th century BCE, when the site underwent a significant restoration.

Yazilikaya B 12erGruppe
Chamber B relief with the twelve gods of the underworld.

The most impressive is Chamber A, which contains rock-cut relief of 64 deities in procession. The left wall shows a procession of male deities, wearing the traditional kilts, pointed shoes and horned hats. Mountain gods are also shown with scaled skirts to symbolise the rocky mountains. The right wall shows a procession of female deities wearing crowns and long skirts. The only exception to this divide is the goddess of love and war, Shaushka (Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar/Inanna) who is shown on the male procession with two female attendants. This is likely to be because of her male attributes as the goddess of war. The processions lead to a central scene of the supreme couple of the pantheon: the storm-god Teshub and the sun-goddess Hebat. Teshub stands on two mountain gods whilst Hebat stands on a panther. Behind Hebat are shown their son Sharruma, daughter Alanzu and a granddaughter.

The smaller and narrower Chamber B has fewer but larger and better preserved reliefs. It may have served as a mortuary mausoleum or memorial for the Hittite king Tudhaliya IV.

It is intriguing to note how the Hittite practise of assimilating other cultures' gods into their own pantheon is in evidence at Yazilikaya. The Mesopotamian god of wisdom, Ea (Enki) is shown in the male procession and the god Teshub was a Hurrian god who was syncretized with the Hittite storm-god. Hebat's original consort was changed into her and Teshub's son (Sharruma) and she was later syncretized with the Hattic sun-goddess of Arinna. It is believed that the wife of the Hittite king Hattusili III, Puduhepa, who was the daughter of a Hurrian priestess, also played a role in the increasing Hurrian influence on Hittite cult.

External links


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Eskişehir Province

Eskişehir Province (Turkish: Eskişehir ili) is a province in northwestern Turkey. Its adjacent provinces are Bilecik to the northwest, Kütahya to the west, Afyon to the southwest, Konya to the south, Ankara to the east, and Bolu to the north. The provincial capital is Eskişehir. Most of the province is laid down in Central Anatolia Region. Northern parts of Mihalıççık district and ones of Mihalgazi and Sarıcakaya are located in the Black Sea Region and one of them belong to the Aegean Region.

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Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas ; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. Its ruins lie near modern Boğazkale, Turkey, within the great loop of the Kızılırmak River (Hittite: Marashantiya; Greek: Halys).

Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986.

Hittite art

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Hurrian religion

The Hurrian religion was the polytheistic religion of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of the Near East. These people settled over a wide area, so there were differences between them, especially between the eastern Hurrians around Nuzi and Arrapha and the western Hurrians in Syria and Anatolia. From the 14th century BC, the Hurrian religion had a powerful influence on the Hittite religion and the Hurrian pantheon is depicted in the 13th century rock reliefs at the important Hittite sanctuary at Yazılıkaya.


Kušuḫ (Ugaritic: kḏġ or kzġ) is the Hurrian Moon god. In the Kaluti List he is named after Ea and before the Sun god Šimige.

Kušuḫ was syncretised with the Moon god of Harran (Hurrian: Kuzina). Kušuḫ, "Lord of the Oath" was invoked, along with his wife Nikkal, "Lady of the Oath" and Išḫara, as guarantor of oaths.

At the Hittite cliff sanctuary in Yazılıkaya, he is depicted as a winged god with a crescent moon on top of his pointy hat.

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List of ancient settlements in Turkey

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Sapinuwa (sometimes Shapinuwa; Hittite: Šapinuwa) was a Bronze Age Hittite city at the location of modern Ortaköy in the province Çorum in Turkey. It was one of the major Hittite religious and administrative centres, a military base and an occasional residence of several Hittite kings. The palace at Sapinuwa is discussed in several texts from Hattusa.


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Yazılıkaya, Eskişehir

Yazılıkaya (lit. 'inscribed rock'), Phrygian Yazılıkaya, or Midas Kenti (Midas city) is a village in Eskişehir Province, Turkey known for its Phrygian archaeological remains and inscription mentioning Midas.

The ancient remains are sometimes called the Midas Monument or Midas City and were formerly identified as the tomb of Midas.Yazılıkaya is about 27 km south of Seyitgazi, 66 km south of Eskişehir, and 51 km north of Afyonkarahisar.

Çorum Province

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Šarruma or Sharruma was a Hurrian mountain god, who was also worshipped by the Hittites and Luwians.


Šimige (in Ugaritic: ṯmg) was the Hurrian sun god. From the 14th century BC he was also worshiped by the Hittites as the Sun god of Heaven. In the Hittite cliff sanctuary at Yazılıkaya, he is depicted as one of the chief deities.

Šimige was closely connected to the Mesopotamian sun god, Šamaš, from whom he took his consort the goddess Aya Ikaltu, whose epithet Ikaltu or Nikaltu derived from the Akkadian word kallātu ('bride'). Two of his servants were also borrowed in this way: Bunene and Mišaru; a third servant was named Lipparu.

Šimige drove a chariot pulled by four horses. On either side, he was accompanied by Bunene and Mišaru, as well as the personifications of "Respect" and "Awe".

Children were ascribed to Šimige. A Hurrian oath from Mari mentions the seven daughters of Šimige and a fragmentary text lists his sons, who performed evil deeds. The Hittite Ilaliyanteš may also be among his followers.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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