Yassa (alternatively: Yasa, Yasaq, Jazag, Zasag, Mongolian: Их засаг, Yehe Zasag) the forty millenary oral law code of the Mongols declared in public in Bokhara by Genghis Khan de facto law of the Mongol Empire even though the "law" was kept secret and never made public. The Yassa seems to have its origin as decrees issued in war times. Later, these decrees were codified and expanded to include cultural and life-style conventions. By keeping the Yassa secret, the decrees could be modified and used selectively. It is believed that the Yassa was supervised by Genghis Khan himself and his stepbrother Shihihutag who was then high judge (in Mongolian: улсын их заргач) of the Mongol Empire. Genghis Khan appointed his second son Chagatai (later Chagatai Khan) to oversee the execution of the laws.
The Yassa decrees were thought to be comprehensive and specific, although no Mongolian scroll or codex has been found. There are records of excerpts among many chronicles including Makrizi, Vartang, and ibn Batuta, among others. Moreover, copies may have been discovered in Korea as well. The absence of any physical document is historically problematic. Historians are left with secondary sources, conjecture and speculation, which describes much of the content of this overview. Historical certainty about the Yassa is weak compared to the much older Code of Hammurabi 18th century BCE or the Edicts of Ashoka, 3rd century BCE. The latter were carved for all to see on stone plinths, 12 to 15 meters high, which were located throughout Ashoka's empire (today's India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Afghanistan). The Yassa, thought to be written in the Uigur Mongolian script and scribed on scrolls, was preserved in secret archives and known only to and read only by the royal family. Beyond being a code of laws, the Yassa may have included philosophical, spiritual, and mystical elements, and thus may have been thought of as a quasi-sacred or magic text.
The exoteric aspect of Yassa outlined laws for various members of the Mongol community such as soldiers, officers, and doctors. The Yassa aimed at three things: obedience to Genghis Khan, a binding together of the nomad clans, and the merciless punishment of wrongdoing. It concerned itself with people, not property. Unless a man actually confessed, he was not judged guilty. The purpose of many decrees was probably to eliminate social and economic disputes among the Mongols and future allied peoples. Among the rules were no stealing of livestock from other people, sharing food with travelers, no abduction of women from other families, and no defection among soldiers. It represented a day-to-day set of rules for people under Mongol control that was strictly enforced.
The Yassa also addressed and reflected Mongol cultural and lifestyle norms. Death via decapitation was the most common punishment save for when the offender was of noble blood, in which case the offender was killed without shedding blood. Even minor offenses were punishable by death. For example, a soldier would be put to death if he did not pick up something that fell from the person in front of him. Those favored by the Khan were often given preferential treatment within the system of law and were allowed several chances before being punished.
As Genghis Khan had set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, people under his rule were free to worship as they pleased, as long as the laws of the Yassa were observed.
Many sources provide conjectures about the actual laws of the Yassa. The Yassa was so influential that other cultures appropriated and adapted portions of it, or reworked it for ends of negative propaganda. (For instance, the number of offenses for which the death penalty was given was famous among contemporaries of the Yassa.) However, Harold Lamb's Genghis Khan: The Emperor of All Men quotes a translation by François Pétis de la Croix. Although unable to come upon a complete list of the laws, he compiled several from Persian and Arabic chroniclers, Fras Rubruquis, and Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, among other sources. Those laws are listed here:
Verkhovensky reports that the Yassa begins with an exhortation to honor men of all nations based on their virtues. This pragmatic admonition is borne out by the ethnic mixture created by Genghis Khan in the Mongolian medieval army for purpose of unity (Ezent Gueligen Mongolyn), the United Mongol Warriors. The origin of the word Mongol, "mong", means "brave". Thus, at the time, it may have meant as much an army of "the brave", as an army from or made up of people from Mongolia.
Ogedei Khan, the 3rd son of Genghis Khan and the second Great Khan, proclaimed the Great Yassa as an integral body of precedents, confirming the continuing validity of his father's commands and ordinances while adding his own. Ogedei codified rules of dress, conduct of the kurultais, the military council. His two immediate successors followed the tradition of the Yassa.
The Mongols who lived in various parts of the empire began to add laws that were more appropriate to their areas.
In the modern Turkish language (as used presently in Turkey), the word "law" is yasa, and the adjective "legal" is yasal. The word for a constitution, including the Constitution of Turkey, is Anayasa ("mother-law").
The word "Yasa" or "Yassa" is existent in both Mongolic and Turkic languages. It is believed that the word comes from the Mongolian verb "zas-" or "yas-" which means "to set in order". "Tsereg zasakh" is a phrase commonly found in old Mongolian texts like the Secret History that means "to set the soldiers in order" in the sense of rallying the soldiers before a battle. The supreme executive body of the present-day Mongolian government is called the "Zasag-in gazar" which means the "place of Zasag", the "place of order". Zasag during the Qing dynasty referred to native provincial governors in Mongolia. The local office called Zasag-in gazar served as a court of the first instance and included secretaries and other officials. The verb "zasaglakh" means "to govern" in Mongolian. The Turkic verb "yas-" which means "to spread", probably originated in Uighur Turkic and was firstly used by Uighur Turks.
Bornu Yassa is a town in Borno State, north-east Nigeria near Titiwa, some 80 kilometres south of the border with Niger. As of 2007 it had an estimated population of 5,987.Chagatai Khan
Chagatai Khan (Mongolian: Цагадай, Tsagadai; Chinese: 察合台, Chágětái; Turkish: Çağatay; Persian: جغتای, Joghatai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan. He was Khan of the Chagatai Khanate from 1226-1242 C.E. The Chagatai language and Chagatai Turks take their names from him. He inherited most of what are now the five Central Asian states after the death of his father. He was also appointed by Genghis Khan to oversee the execution of the Yassa, the written code of law created by Genghis Khan, though that lasted only until Genghis Khan was crowned Khan of the Mongol Empire. The Empire later came to be known as the Chagatai Khanate, a descendant empire of the Mongol Empire. Chagatai Khan was considered hot-headed and somewhat temperamental by his relatives, because of his attitude of non-acceptance of Jochi as Great Khan. He was the most vocal about this issue among his relations. Chaghatai is in some stories held responsible for the death of Jochi and Genghis Khan. At any rate, he was animated by the soldier-like spirit of his father, and succeeded in keeping order among as heterogeneous a population as a kingdom was ever composed of.Errol (song)
"Errol" is the second single by iconic Australian surf rock band Australian Crawl taken from their 1981 album Sirocco. The song was written by James Reyne and Guy McDonough, and is a lyrical biography about Australian-born actor Errol Flynn. It was produced by Peter Dawkins."Errol" was released in September, 1981 and reached #18 on the Australian Singles Charts in October, 1981. It was voted their third most popular song by listeners of Triple M in 2007.B-side, "Easy on Your Own" was written by Simon Binks and Brad Robinson of The Crawl together with Australian actress Kerry Armstrong. Robinson and Armstrong were married; Armstrong was later an Australian Film Institute Award winner.In December 1982, the then-nascent Australian new wave band This Is Serious Mum parodied the song as "Yassa Ara-Thin-A-Go-Go". The recording would be released on 29 July 2002.Gambian cuisine
Gambian cuisine is part of West African cuisine and includes the culinary practices and traditions of the nation of Gambia. Common ingredients include fish, rice, peanuts, tomato, black eyed peas, lemon, cassava, cabbage, salt, pepper, onion, chili, and various herbs. Oysters are also a popular food from the River Gambia, and are harvested by women.Guinea-Bissauan cuisine
Guinea-Bissauan cuisine is the food culture of Guinea-Bissau, a nation on Africa's west coast along the Atlantic Ocean. Rice is a staple in the diet of residents near the coast and millet a staple in the interior. Much of the rice is imported and food insecurity is a problem in large part due to coups, corruption and inflation. Cashews are grown for export. Coconut, palm nut, and olives are also grown.Fish, shellfish, fruits and vegetables are commonly eaten along with cereal grains, milk, curd and whey. The Portuguese encouraged peanut production. Vigna subterranea (Bambara groundnut) and Macrotyloma geocarpum (Hausa groundnut) are also grown. Black-eyed peas are also part of the diet. Palm oil is harvested.
Common dishes include soups and stews. Common ingredients include yams, sweet potato, cassava, onion, tomato and plantain. Spices, peppers and chilis are used in cooking, including Aframomum melegueta seeds (Guinea pepper).Lada (mythology)
Lada is a goddess in Baltic and Slavic mythology associated with beauty and fertility. Her masculine counterpart is called Lado. Lada and Lado are sometimes seen as divine twins, and at other times as a mother goddess and her son. They are commonly mentioned together in songs related to planting, harvesting, and weddings. Lada and Lado together form one aspect of a multiple deity, whose other names and aspects relate to the Sun, water, and grain, respectively.
Worship of Lada and Lado is attested in Russia between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries during springtime fertility rites, as well as in Polish church prohibitions on pagan rituals. Some scholars have suggested that Lada and Lado are not the names of deities, but simple refrains in songs and poetry. However, a number of songs and historical chronicles provide evidence for a cult of worship.
The origins of Lada in mythology are uncertain; she may derive from other Slavic or Baltic goddesses, or from the Greek Leto or Leda. The names Lada and Lado may be related to the Russian word lad, "harmony, peace, union".Mauritanian cuisine
The cuisine of Mauritania includes the culinary practices of Mauritania. Historically, what is now Mauritania has been influenced by Arab and African peoples who have lived in and traversed the "stark" landscape marked with Sahara desert dunes in caravans. There is an overlap with Moroccan cuisine in the north and Senegalese cuisine in the south. French colonial influence (Mauritania was a colony until 1960) has also played a role in influencing the cuisine of the relatively isolated land. Alcohol is prohibited in the Muslim faith and its sale is largely limited to hotels. Mint tea is widely consumed and poured from height to create foam. Traditionally, meals are eaten communally.Pax Mongolica
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilizing effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. The term is used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongols' vast conquests.
The conquests of Genghis Khan (r. 1206–1227) and his successors, spanning from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe, effectively connected the Eastern world with the Western world. The Silk Road, connecting trade centres across Asia and Europe, came under the sole rule of the Mongol Empire. It was commonly said that "a maiden bearing a nugget of gold on her head could wander safely throughout the realm". Despite the political fragmentation of the Mongol Empire into four khanates (Yuan dynasty, Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and Ilkhanate), nearly a century of conquest and civil war was followed by relative stability in the early 14th century. The end of the Pax Mongolica was marked by the disintegration of the khanates and the outbreak of the Black Death in Asia which spread along trade routes to much of the world in the mid-14th century.Piaparan
Piaparan, also known as pipaparan or piarun, is a Filipino cooking process consisting of meat (usually chicken) or seafood cooked in a coconut milk-based broth with grated coconut, garlic, onions, ginger, turmeric, white scallions (sakurab), labuyo chili, and various vegetables and spiced with palapa. It originates from the Maranao people of Lanao del Sur. Piaparan means "shredded coconut" in Maranao and is a type of ginataan.Piyanggang manok
Piyanggang manok, also spelled pyanggang manok, is a Filipino dish consisting of chicken braised in turmeric, onions, lemongrass, ginger, siling haba chilis, garlic, coconut milk, and ground burnt coconut. It originates from the Tausug people of Sulu and Mindanao. It is related to tiyula itum, another Tausug dish which uses burnt coconut. The dish is characteristically black in color. The chicken may also be grilled before adding the marinade. It is a type of ginataan.Rabah Yassa
Rabah Yassa is an Algerian football player. He is currently playing for JS Kabylie in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1.Ramzi Yassa
Ramzi Yassa (Arabic: رمزى يسى; born 1948) is an Egyptian pianist. An outstanding member of the first batch of musicians trained at the Cairo Conservatory, Yassa graduated in Moscow's Tchaikovsky Conservatory, taking part in the 1974 Tchaikovsky competition, where he earned an Honorary certificate. He then launched a concert career, settling in Paris. Three years later, he was the first Egyptian pianist to win a major piano competition—the 'Paloma O'Shea' Santander International Piano Competition.
The first Arab pianist to record Beethoven's piano concertos (Cairo Symphony Orchestra, Ahmed El Saedi), Ramzi Yassa has performed in halls as renowned as the Vienna's Musikverein, the Berliner Philharmonie, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the Barbican Centre, the Royal Albert Hall or the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, collaborating with conductors such as Zubin Mehta, Charles Groves and Vladimir Ashkenazy. A teacher in Paris' École Normale. He is a recipient of the Liszt Centennial Commemorative Medal as well as the 2007 Egyptian State Prize for Music, for the first time awarded to a performing musician.Senegalese cuisine
The cuisine of Senegal is a West African cuisine influenced by North African, French, and Portuguese cuisine and derives from the nation's many ethnic groups, the largest being the Wolof. Islam, which first penetrated the region in the 11th century, also plays a role in the cuisine. Senegal was a colony of France until 1960. Ever since its colonization, emigrants have brought Senegalese cuisine to many other regions.
Because Senegal borders the Atlantic Ocean, fish is very important in Senegalese cooking. Chicken, lamb, peas, eggs, and beef are also used, but pork is not due to the nation’s largely Muslim population. Peanuts, the primary crop of Senegal, as well as couscous, white rice, sweet potatoes, lentils, black-eyed peas and various vegetables, are also incorporated into many recipes. Meats and vegetables are typically stewed or marinated in herbs and spices, and then poured over rice or couscous, or eaten with bread.
Popular fresh juices are made from bissap, ginger, bouye (pronounced 'buoy', which is the fruit of the baobab tree, also known as "monkey bread fruit"), mango, or other fruit or wild trees (most famously soursop, which is called corossol in French). Desserts are very rich and sweet, combining native ingredients with the extravagance and style characteristic of the French impact on Senegal’s culinary methods. They are often served with fresh fruit and are traditionally followed by coffee or tea. Tea, known as Attaya, is served in a ritualistic fashion.The Dead Man
The Dead Man was a science fiction strip in the British comic 2000 AD by writer John Wagner and artist John Ridgway, published in black and white in 1989–90. Although it was not billed as a Judge Dredd story, it featured Dredd as the amnesiac protagonist known only as the Dead Man. It was part of a series of stories that set the scene for the main Judge Dredd story of 1990, "Necropolis".Ulfuls
Ulfuls (ウルフルズ, Urufuruzu) is a Japanese rock band from Osaka. The band name Ulfuls is derived from a misreading of the word "soulful," found on the cover of one of the band members' favorite records. They were signed by Toshiba-EMI in 1992, but after 15 years they transferred to Warner Music Group.Yasa (disambiguation)
Yasa, Yassa, or variants thereof, may refer to:
Yasa, a Buddhist bhikkhu
Yasa language, a Bantu language
YASA Motors, a British manufacturer of electric motors and generators
Yassa, a legal code created by Genghis Khan
Yassa (food), a spicy dish popular in Western AfricaYasa language
Iyasa (Yasa, Yassa) is a Bantu language of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea by Ndowe coastal fishing people. It is also spoken by Pygmies, perhaps Babongo, in Gabon.
Iyasa also goes by the names Bongwe, Lyaasa, and Maasa. Dialects are Bweko, Vendo, Bodele, Marry, One, Asonga, Bomui, Mogana, Mooma, Mapanga. It may in turn be a dialect of Kombe. Speakers report that Kombe and Iyasa are almost perfectly mutually intelligible.Yasak
Yasak or yasaq, sometimes iasak, (Russian: ясак; akin to Yassa) is a Turkic word for "tribute" that was used in Imperial Russia to designate fur tribute exacted from the indigenous peoples of Siberia.Yassa (food)
Yassa is a spicy dish prepared with onions and either marinated poultry or marinated fish. Originally from Senegal, yassa has become popular throughout West Africa. Chicken yassa (known as yassa au poulet), prepared with onions and lemon, is a specialty from the Casamance region in the south of Senegal.
Mongol Empire (1206–1368)