Yasa language

Iyasa (Yasa, Yassa) is a Bantu language of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea by Ndowe coastal fishing people. It is also spoken by Pygmies, perhaps Babongo, in Gabon.

Iyasa also goes by the names Bongwe, Lyaasa, and Maasa. Dialects are Bweko, Vendo, Bodele, Marry, One, Asonga, Bomui, Mogana, Mooma, Mapanga. It may in turn be a dialect of Kombe. Speakers report that Kombe and Iyasa are almost perfectly mutually intelligible.[4]

Iyasa
Bongwe
Native toCameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
EthnicityYasa and Pygmies[1]
Native speakers
2,400 in Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea (2000–2011)[1]
unknown number in Gabon[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3yko
Glottologyasa1242[2]
A.33a[3]

Classification

Dieu and Renaud (1993) classify Iyasa as a Sawabantu language (A.30 in Guthrie classification).[5]

Geographic Distribution

Iyasa is spoken along the coast of Cameroon south of Kribi, including in the city of Campo. It is also spoken across the Ntem River in Equatorial Guinea.[6] The northernmost Iyasa village is Lolabe, 31 km south of Kribi.[4]

Sounds/Phonology

Iyasa has a seven-vowel system:[4]

Monophthong phonemes
  Front Central Back
Close i   u
Near-close  
Close-mid e   o
Mid    
Open-mid ɛ   ɔ
Open a

It also has 22 phonemic consonants:[4]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar(Palato-

alveolar)

Palatal Velar Labialized

Velar

Glottal
Plosive p t d ɟ k ɡ
Implosive ɓ ɗ
Affricate
Fricative v s h
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant j w
Lateral approximant l

Grammar

Noun classes

Iyasa has 12 noun classes, as outlined in the table below (adapted from Bôt 2011 and Bouh Ma Sitna 2004):[6][4]

Class number Prefix Allomorphs Example (IPA) Translation (French) Translation (English)
1 mù- mʷ- mù-tʃɛ́tʃɛ́

mw-ánà

le bébé

l'enfant

baby

child

2 wà- w- wà-dó les femmes women
3 mò- m-, mʷ-, ŋ- mò-ló

ŋ-kɔ́jɛ́

la fête

le pannier

party

basket

4 mè- m-, mʲ- mè-kɔ les panniers baskets
5 ɗì- ɗ-, i-, dʒ- ɗì-lɔ̂

ì-dàkà

l'oreille

la maladie

ear

illness

6 mà- m- mà-lɔ̂ les oreilles ears
7 è- èj- è-lɛ́mi la langue tongue
8 ɓè- ɓèj- ɓè-kòndà

ɓèj-ìmà

les souliers

les choses

shoes

things

9/10 N- m-, n-, ŋ-, ɲ-, ø m-bàdì

n-dómì

ø-sɔ̀kù

maison(s)

père(s)

éléphant(s)

house(s)

father(s)

elephant(s)

13 lì- l- lì-ɲɔ̀ní

l-éjì

les oiseaux

les soleils

birds

suns

14 ɓù- ɓʷ- ɓù-dù

bʷ-àló

l'âne

la pirogue

donkey

canoe

19 vi- v- vì-ɲɔ̀ní l'oiseau bird

References

  1. ^ a b c Iyasa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yasa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ a b c d e Bouh Ma Sitna, Charles Lwanga (2004). Le Syntagme Nominal du Yasa. University of Yaoundé I: Master's thesis.
  5. ^ Dieu, Michel, and Patrick Renaud. 1993. Situation linguistique en Afrique centrale, inventaire pre@liminaire: Le Cameroun. In Atlas Linguistique du Cameroun. Yaounde@: ACCT-CERDOTOLA-DGRST.
  6. ^ a b Bôt, Dieudonné Martin Luther (2011). "Le Préfixe Nominale Yasa". Journal of West African Languages. 38 (1): 99–122.

External links

List of endangered languages in Africa

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of biboy washere

, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native people, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":

Vulnerable

Definitely endangered

Severely endangered

Critically endangeredAfrica is the world's second-largest and second most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km² (11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area. With about 922 million people (as of 2005) in 61 territories, it accounts for about 16.1% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Suez Canal and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. There are 64 countries, including Madagascar and all the island groups.

Yasa (disambiguation)

Yasa, Yassa, or variants thereof, may refer to:

Yasa, a Buddhist bhikkhu

Yasa language, a Bantu language

YASA Motors, a British manufacturer of electric motors and generators

Yassa, a legal code created by Genghis Khan

Yassa (food), a spicy dish popular in Western Africa

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