Yarmouth Castle is an artillery fort built by Henry VIII in 1547 to protect Yarmouth Harbour on the Isle of Wight from the threat of French attack. Just under 100 feet (30 m) across, the square castle was initially equipped with 15 artillery guns and a garrison of 20 men. It featured an Italianate "arrow-head" bastion on its landward side; this was very different in style from the earlier circular bastions used in the Device Forts built by Henry and was the first of its kind to be constructed in England.
During the 16th and 17th centuries the castle continued to be maintained and modified; the seaward half of the castle was turned into a solid gun platform and additional accommodation was built for the fort's gunners. A bulwark was built on the east side of the castle and an additional gun battery was placed on the town's quay, just to the west. For most of the English Civil War of the 1640s it was held by Parliament; following the Restoration, it was refortified by Charles II in the 1670s.
The fortification remained in use through the 18th and 19th centuries, albeit with a smaller garrison and fewer guns, until in 1885 these were finally withdrawn. After a short period as a coast guard signalling post, the castle was brought back into military use during the First and Second World Wars. In the 21st century, the heritage organisation English Heritage operates the castle as a tourist attraction.
|Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, England|
Yarmouth Castle, seen from the north-west
|Official name||Yarmouth Castle|
|Designated||9 October 1981|
Listed Building – Grade I
|Designated||28 March 1984|
Yarmouth Castle was built as a consequence of international tensions between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire in the final years of the reign of King Henry VIII. Traditionally the Crown had left coastal defences to the local lords and communities, only taking a small role in building and maintaining fortifications, and while France and the Empire remained in conflict with one another, maritime raids were common but an actual invasion of England seemed unlikely. Modest defences, based around simple blockhouses and towers, existed in the south-west and along the Sussex coast, with a few more impressive works in the north of England, but in general the fortifications were very limited in scale.
In 1533, Henry broke with Pope Paul III to annul the long-standing marriage to his wife, Catherine of Aragon, and remarry. This resulted in France and the Empire declaring an alliance against Henry in 1538, and the Pope encouraged the two countries to attack England. Henry responded in 1539 by ordering the construction of fortifications along the most vulnerable parts of the coast, through an instruction called a "device". The immediate threat passed, but resurfaced in 1544, with France threatening an invasion across the Channel, backed by her allies in Scotland. Henry therefore issued another device in 1544 to further improve the country's defences, particularly along the south coast.
The town of Yarmouth on the Isle of Wight may have been attacked by the French in 1543; if so, this raid probably encouraged the construction of a castle there as part of the second wave of Device Forts.[a] The fort functioned alongside the existing defences in the Solent and protected the main crossing from the west side of the island to the mainland. Yarmouth Castle was a square artillery fort built around a central courtyard with an angular, "arrow-head" bastion protecting the landward side. It was initially equipped with three cannons and culverins, and twelve smaller guns, firing from a line of embrasures along the seaward side of the castle. It was garrisoned by a small team of soldiers, consisting of a master gunner, a porter and 17 soldiers, commanded by Richard Udall, the castle's first captain. Udall lived in the castle, but the soldiers resided in the local town.
The castle was constructed by George Mills under the direction of Richard Worsley, the Captain of the Island, on land belonging to the Crown, possibly on the site of a church destroyed during the events of 1543. Henry had dissolved the monasteries in England a few years before, and stone from the local Quarr Abbey was probably reused in the construction of the castle. It was finished by 1547, when Mills was paid £1,000 for his work and to discharge the soldiers who had been guarding the site during the project.[b]
When the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I succeeded to the throne there were changes in the leadership on the Isle of Wight and the castle. Worsley was dismissed in favour of a Roman Catholic appointee in 1553 and Udall was executed in 1555 for his role in the Dudley conspiracy to overthrow the Queen. When the Protestant Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558, however, peace was made with France and military attention shifted towards the Spanish threat to England. Elizabeth reappointed Worsley to his post and he carried out an extensive redevelopment of the castle. Worsley filled in half of the castle's courtyard to produce a solid artillery platform able to hold eight heavy guns with an uninterrupted field of fire over the sea, and he probably also constructed the Master Gunner's House on the other side of the castle. Nonetheless, an inspection in 1586 showed that the fortification was in poor condition. Work costing £50 was done in 1587, including the erection of an earth bulwark alongside the castle to mount additional guns.[b] The next year saw the attempted invasion of England by the Spanish Armada, after which further repairs were carried out on the castle. By 1599 the Crown was informed that the castle, which was still considered an important defence for the Solent, needed expensive repairs.
Yarmouth Castle continued to be an important military fortification, used both as a fortress but also as a transport hub and a stores depot. The repairs recommended in 1599 were carried out in the first years of the 17th century and a further £300 was invested in Yarmouth Castle and nearby Sandown Castle in 1609, including adding two angular buttresses along the walls facing the sea.[b]
A survey in 1623 by the castle's captain, John Burley, reported that the garrison comprised only four gunners and the captain, with the buildings in a "ruinous" state and the defences in need of repair; similar concerns were raised in 1625 and 1629. Suggestions that a half-moon battery should be added to the defences were not progressed, but in 1632 the parapets were raised in height and further lodgings and a long room for stores were constructed within the castle. Some of the stone used for this may have been reused from nearby Sandown, whose walls had been destroyed by the sea; before it was used at Sandown, the stone appears to have been taken from the local monasteries.
Civil war broke out in 1642 between the followers of King Charles I and those of Parliament. Initially, Captain Barnaby Burley, a relative of John, and an ardent Royalist, held the castle on behalf of the King with a tiny garrison. Burley negotiated surrender terms, including that he initially be allowed to remain in the castle with armed protection, and the castle remained in the control of Parliament for the rest of the war. Early during the Interregnum it was decided to increase the size of the garrison at the castle from 30 to 70 soldiers, due to concerns about a potential Royalist attack from the island of Jersey. Most of the soldiers lived outside the castle itself. The annual cost of this force was around £78 and in 1655 the garrison was made smaller again to reduce costs.[b]
When Charles II returned to the throne in 1660, he demobilised most of the existing army and the following year the garrison at Yarmouth was given four days notice to leave the castle. The King announced that the castle's artillery would be sent to Cowes, unless the town of Yarmouth agreed to take over the financial responsibility of running the site themselves. The town declined to do so, but Charles repeated the offer in 1666; this time Yarmouth seems to have taken action, appointing four soldiers for a garrison, although the town did not assign an officer to command them, or apparently make any repairs to the now dilapidated castle.
The Crown took over the castle again in 1670, and Robert Holmes, the new Captain of the Isle of Wight, had some of the guns brought back from Cowes to the castle. The site was refortified and a new battery placed on the adjacent quay, but the older earthworks were demolished and the moat was filled in. Holmes built a mansion for himself alongside the castle, where on three occasions he hosted the King.
In 1688, Charles' brother, James II, faced widespread revolt and a potential invasion of England by William of Orange. Holmes was a supporter of James, but although he intended to control Yarmouth Castle on the monarch's behalf, the local inhabitants and the garrison at Yarmouth sided with William, preventing him from openly siding with the King.
Yarmouth Castle continued to be used, and records from 1718 and 1760 show it was equipped with eight 6-pound (2.7 kg) and five 9-pound (4.1 kg) guns along the castle and the quay platforms, respectively. Throughout this period it was probably staffed by a captain and six gunners, supported by the local militia. In the early 18th century, Holmes' mansion was rebuilt, forming its current appearance. By the 18th century, however, Yarmouth Harbour had gradually silted up and been destroyed by industrial developments, reducing the value of the anchorage, and the design of the castle had become outdated.
In 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars, work was carried out to alter the design of the parapet. The Crimean War sparked a fresh invasion scare and in 1855 the south coast of England was refortified. Yarmouth Castle underwent considerable repairs that year; four naval guns and traversing rails were installed on the castle platform, and a regular county army unit was put in place to garrison the fort. In 1881 a proposal was put forward to modernise the entire fortification, but this was rejected and in 1885 the garrison and the guns were withdrawn.
The coastguard began using the castle as a signalling station in 1898. In 1901, the War Department passed the castle to the Commissioners of Woods and Forests and in 1912 parts of the castle were leased to the Pier Hotel, which incorporated Robert Holmes's former mansion; the Pier Hotel eventually became the George Hotel and still occupies part of the old castle moat. The Office of Works took control of the castle in 1913, carrying out a programme of repairs, and it was used by the military in both the First and Second World Wars. It was finally retired from military use in the 1950s.
In the 21st century, Yarmouth Castle is run by the heritage organisation English Heritage as a tourist attraction, receiving 9,007 visitors in 2010. It is protected under UK law as a Grade I listed building and as a scheduled monument.
Yarmouth Castle is a square fortification, nearly 100 feet (30 m) across, with an arrow-head bastion protecting the landward side. The north and west walls face the sea, protected by angular buttresses, and a 10-metre (33 ft) wide moat originally protected the south and east side, although this has since been filled in. The castle's 16th-century bulwark, which originally covered the area to the west of Pier Street and the north of Quay Street, and its quay battery have also been destroyed.
The walls of the castle are mainly built from ashlar stone, with some red brick used on the south side. The walls are pierced by a small number of gunloops, including in the "ears" of the bastion, which would have overlooked the moat. When first built the interior of the castle formed a sequence of buildings around a courtyard, but the southern half of the castle was filled in shortly afterwards to produce a solid gun platform able to support heavy guns. It was later raised again in the 17th century to its current height. The parapet is now covered with turf, with 19th-century rounded corners, and the platform still has the rails on which the four naval guns would have traversed, dating from 1855. A small lodging room, built on the platform at the top of the stairs, has since been destroyed.
The arrow-head design of the castle's bastion reflected new ideas about defensive fortifications spreading out from Italy in the 16th century. Earlier Henrician castles had used the older European style of semi-circular bastions to avoid presenting any weak spots in the stonework, but an arrow-headed design enabled defenders to provide much more effective supporting fire against an attacking force. Yarmouth was among the first fortifications in Europe, and the first in England, to adopt this design.
The accommodation and other facilities are on the south side of the castle. On the ground floor, the entrance to the castle leads through to a courtyard, linked to four barrel-vaulted rooms in the south-west corner, originally 17th-century lodgings for the garrison. Two of these chambers were converted for use as magazines and the fittings of one of these still remains in place. In the south-east corner is the Master Gunner's House, comprising a parlour, hall and kitchen on the ground floor, and a chamber and attic on the floors above. The parlour and hall would have originally been separated by a screen; the chamber would also have been subdivided. On the first floor is a small chamber, supported on arches above the courtyard, which was used as a lodging. On the second floor, the Long Room runs on top of the barrel-vaulted chambers, its massive, original roof still intact.
Lieutenant-General Charles Griffiths (3 August 1763 – 31 May 1829) was a British soldier, foster brother to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Lieutenant-General and Captain of Yarmouth Castle, Isle of Wight.Chilean tugboat Janequeo
The Chilean tugboat Janequeo (ATF-65) was an Abnaki-class tug of the Chilean Navy that sunk on 15 August 1965 during a devastating storm in the Bay of Manquemapu, 60 nautical miles (110 km; 69 mi) south of Corral, Chile with the loss of 51 men as she helped Leucotón that had run aground.Don Quixote (album)
Don Quixote is Canadian singer Gordon Lightfoot's 8th original album, released in 1972 on the Reprise Records Label. The album reached #42 on the Billboard album chart.
The album contains little innovation on Lightfoot's trademark folk sound, although it is notable for containing Lightfoot's third seafaring song, "Christian Island (Georgian Bay)" (his first two being "Marie Christine" from Back Here on Earth and "Ballad of Yarmouth Castle" from Sunday Concert). Lightfoot would continually revisit nautical themes over the next ten years. Don Quixote also contains a rare Lightfoot foray into the protest song genre in the form of the longest track on the album, "The Patriot's Dream", a ballad describing the enthusiasm of soldiers on a troop train "riding off to glory in the spring of their years", followed by the pathos of a woman receiving news that her husband's aircraft had been shot down in combat.
"Beautiful" was released as a single and peaked at #58 on the Billboard singles chart.
On February 13, 1988, Lightfoot performed "Alberta Bound" in McMahon Stadium during the Opening Ceremonies for the 1988 Winter Olympics held in Calgary, Alberta.Fortifications of the Isle of Wight
Many forts and fortifications have been built to protect the Isle of Wight (South England) from foreign invasion. Throughout history the island has been a site of key military importance. Controlling both entrances to the Solent and the home of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth. This is a list of most of the fortifications on the island.Grade I listed buildings on the Isle of Wight
There are over 9,300 Grade I listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the county of Isle of Wight.
In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure officially designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance; Grade I structures are those considered to be "buildings of exceptional interest". Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In England, the authority for listing under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 rests with English Heritage, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport; local authorities have a responsibility to regulate and enforce the planning regulations.Great Stirrup Cay
Great Stirrup Cay is a 268-acre (108 ha) island that is part of the Berry Islands in the Bahamas. Norwegian Cruise Line purchased the island from the Belcher Oil Company in 1977 and developed it into a private island for their cruise ship passengers. The northern part of the island has a sandy beach surrounded by rocks with snorkeling areas. The southern part features a helicopter airfield (with a sign reading "Great Stirrup Cay International Airport"), a large area without vegetation, and numerous concrete blocks. These are all remnants of a previous U.S. military installation and satellite tracking station. The island's lighthouse was originally constructed in 1863 by the Imperial Lighthouse Service.
Great Stirrup Cay is adjacent to Little Stirrup Cay, Royal Caribbean Cruises' private island.Harry Burrard-Neale
Admiral Sir Harry Burrard-Neale, 2nd Baronet (born Burrard; 16 September 1765 – 7 February 1840) was a British officer of the Royal Navy, and Member of Parliament for Lymington.
He was the son of William Burrard, the governor of Yarmouth Castle on the Isle of Wight, and nephew of Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet, of Walhampton, whom he succeeded in 1791. In 1795, he adopted the additional name of Neale on his marriage to Grace, daughter of Robert Neale of Shaw House, Wiltshire. He died without issue in 1840 and was succeeded by his brother George.MV Bremerhaven
The MV Bremerhaven was a cruise ship originally built in Germany in 1960 for ferry services. She served under different guises and owners until she was scrapped in 2008.MV Pozarica (1945)
Pozarica was a 2,503 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1945 as Hermes by NV Scheepswerke Gebroeders Pot, Bolnes, Zuid Holland, Netherlands for the Koninklijke Nederlandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij. She was seized by the British in an incomplete state in May 1945. She was passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Dove. The ship was completed during 1946. She was sold into merchant service in 1949 and renamed Pozarica in 1953. In 1964, she was sold to Spain and renamed Blue Fin. On 27 November 1965, she lost her rudder in a storm in the Bay of Biscay. Although the ship was taken under tow, her cargo shifted the next day and she sank.SS Aenos (1944)
Aenos was a 1,935-gross register ton cargo ship that was built in 1944 as Rodenbek by Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg, Germany. In 1945, she was seized by the Allies at Flensburg, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and was renamed Empire Contyne. She was allocated to the United States in 1946 and sold into merchant service in 1948. In 1952, she was sold to Panama and renamed Aenos. In 1963, she was sold to Liberia and renamed Marlin, serving until 1965 when she foundered after her cargo shifted off North Carolina.SS Catala
SS Catala was a Canadian coastal passenger and cargo steamship built for service with the Union Steamship Company of British Columbia.SS Cedarville
SS Cedarville was a bulk carrier that carried limestone on the Great Lakes in the mid-20th century until it sank after a collision with another ship, SS Topdalsfjord.SS Santa Kyriaki
Santa Kyriaki was a 2,958 GRT cargo ship that was built in 1945 as Empire Crusoe by Ailsa Shipbuilding Co, Troon, Ayrshire, Scotland for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). She was sold in 1946 and renamed Greenland and a further sale in 1955 saw her renamed Heminge. In 1956, she was sold to Liberia and renamed Maria Luisa. A sale in 1963 to a Panamanian company saw her renamed Santa Kyriaki. She served until running aground off IJmuiden, Netherlands in 1965 and was scrapped in 1966.SS Yarmouth Castle
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K-33 was built at Factory No. 902 in Severodvinsk, Soviet Union, as a Hotel I-class submarine, launched on 6 August 1960 and was commissioned on 5 July 1961. In 1964 K-33 was repaired and modernized into 658M-standard (Hotel II), by installing a new missile complex giving her capability to fire missiles while submerged. She was decommissioned in 1990.
K-33 was involved in two incidents.Sunday Concert
Sunday Concert is Canadian singer Gordon Lightfoot's fifth album, released in 1969 on the United Artists label. Lightfoot's last recording for United Artists, it was also his first live album and until the release of a live DVD in 2002 remained Lightfoot's only officially released live recording. The album was recorded at Massey Hall in Toronto.
The album is notable as it includes performances of five previously unreleased tracks. It also contains the first recording of Lightfoot's hits "I'm Not Sayin'" and "Ribbon of Darkness" together as a medley. This medley would later feature on Gord's Gold and would become a concert staple. "Ballad of Yarmouth Castle" chronicles the fate of the SS Yarmouth Castle which caught fire and sank off the Bahamas in November, 1965.
A 1993 CD reissue on Bear Family Records includes five studio recordings as bonus tracks.Yarmouth, Isle of Wight
Yarmouth is a town, port and civil parish in the west of the Isle of Wight, off the south coast of England. The town is named for its location at the mouth of the small Western Yar river. The town grew near the river crossing, originally a ferry, which was replaced with a road bridge in 1863.
|Essex / Suffolk|
|Kent / Sussex|
|Isle of Wight / Solent|
|Cornwall / Devon / Dorset|
|Yorkshire and the Humber|