Yantai, formerly known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China. Lying on the southern coast of the Korea Bay, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan, and Laishan.


The name Yantai (lit. "Smoke Tower") derives from the watchtowers constructed on Mount Qi in 1398 under the reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty. The towers were used to light signal fires and send smoke signals, called langyan from their supposed use of wolf dung for fuel. At the time, the area was troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" (Wokou), initially raiders from the warring states in Japan but later principally disaffected Chinese. It was also formerly romanized as Yen-tai.[1]

The major district of Yantai is Zhifu, which used to be the largest independent city in the area. It was variously romanized as Chefoo,[2] Che-foo,[1] Chi-fu,[3] and Chih-fou. Although this name was used for the city by foreigners prior to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, the locals referred to the settlement as Yantai throughout.[1][3]


Moon Bay in Yantai

During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the region was inhabited by indigenous peoples vaguely known to the Chinese as the "Eastern Barbarians" (Dongyi). Under the Zhou, they were colonized and sinicized as the state of Lai. Lai was annexed by Qi in 567 BC. Under the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi), the area was administered as the Qi Commandery. Under the Han, this was renamed as the Donglai Commandery (). Following the Three Kingdoms Period, the area was organized by the Jin as the Donglai Kingdom or Principality, later returning to prefecture status as a jùn and then zhōu. Under the Tang and during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, it was known as Deng Prefecture and organized with the Henan Circuit. It was then organized as the Laizhou () and then, under the Qing, Dengzhou Commandery ().

Up to the 19th century, however, the Zhifu area consisted of nothing but small unwalled fishing villages of little importance.[1] Under the Ming, these were first troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" and then by the overreacting "Sea Ban", which required coastal Chinese to give up trading and most fishing and relocate inland upon pain of death.

Following the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire was obliged to open more treaty ports by the unequal 1858 Treaty of Tianjin, including Tengchow (now Penglai). Its port being found inadequate, Zhifu—about 30 miles (48 km) away—was selected to act as the seat of the area's foreign commerce.[1] The mooring was at considerable distance from shore, necessitating more time and expense in loading and unloading, but the harbor was deep and expansive and business grew rapidly.[1] The harbor opened in May 1861, with its status as an international port affirmed on 22 August. The official decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Pass (東海).[4] It quickly became the residence of a circuit intendant ("taotai"), customs house, and a considerable foreign settlement located between the old native town and the harbor.[1] Britain and sixteen other nations established consulates in the town.[4] The town was initially expanded with well-laid streets and well-built stone houses, even for the poorer classes, a Catholic and a Protestant church were erected, and a large hotel did business with foreigners who employed the town as a summer resort.[1]

Yantai - Old German Post Office
Original German Post Office in Yantai's old town

The principal traders were the British and Americans, followed by the Germans and Thais.[a] In the 1870s, the principal imports were woolen and cotton goods, iron, and opium and the principal exports were tofu, soybean oil, peas, coarse vermicelli, vegetables, and dried fruit from Zhifu itself, raw silk and straw braid from Laizhou, and walnuts from Qingzhou. The town also traded Chinese liquors and sundries for the edible seaweed grown in the shallows of the Russian settlements around Port Arthur (now Dalian's Lüshunkou District).[1] In 1875, the murder of the British diplomat Augustus Margary in Tengchong, Yunnan, led to a diplomatic crisis that was resolved in Zhifu by Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang the next year.[5] The resultant Chefoo Convention gave British subjects extraterritoriality throughout China and exempted the foreign merchants' enclaves from the likin tax on internal commerce. Its healthy situation and good anchorage made it a favorite coaling station for foreign fleets, giving it some importance in the conflicts over Korea, Port Arthur, and Weihaiwei.[5]

Along with much of the rest of Shandong, Yantai was under German influence for about 20 years.[6] In the run-up to the First World War, its trade continued to grow[b] but was limited by the poor roads of the area's hinterland and the necessity of using pack animals for portage.[5] The trade items remained largely the same as before.[5] After the Germans were defeated by Allied forces in World War I, Qingdao and Yantai were handed over to the Japanese, who turned Yantai into a summer station for their Asian fleet. They also set up a trading establishment in the town.[7] The different foreign influences that shaped this city are explored at the Yantai Museum, which used to be a guild hall. However, the city's colourful history has not left a distinctive architectural mark, there has never been a foreign concession, and though there are a few grand 19th-century European buildings, most of the town is of much more recent origin.[8] After 1949, the town's name was changed from Chefoo to Yantai, and it was opened to the world as an ice-free trade port in 1984.[9]

On 12 November 1911, the eastern division of Tongmeng Hui declared itself a part of the revolutionary movement. The next day, it established the Shandong Military Government (山東軍政府) and, the day after that, renamed itself the Yantai Division of the Shandong Military Government (山東煙台軍政分府). In 1914, Jiaodong Circuit (膠東道) was established with Yantai as the capital. Jiaodong Circuit was renamed Donghai Circuit (東海道) in 1925. On 19 January 1938, Yantai participated as part of an anti-Japanese revolutionary committee.

After the creation of the People's Republic of China, Yantai was officially awarded city status with the outlying towns of Laiyang and Wendeng tacked on as "Special Regions" (专区) in 1950. Wendeng was merged into Laiyang six years later, and this larger Laiyang Special Region was combined with Yantai City to become Yantai Prefecture (烟台地区). Yantai is of strategic importance to China's defense, as it and Dalian, directly across the Bohai Sea from it, are primary coastal guard points for Beijing. In November 1983, the prefecture became a prefecture-level city.[10]


Yantai is located along the north coast of the Shandong Peninsula, south of the junction of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and parallel to the southern coast of Liaoning. The topographical breakdown consists of:

  • 36.62% mountainous
  • 39.7% hilly
  • 50.23% plain
  • 2.90% basin

About 2,643.60 km2 (1,020.70 sq mi) is urbanized. Only Qixia City is located entirely inland. All other county-level entities are coastal, with Changdao consisting entirely of islands. The total coastline of the prefecture is 909 kilometers (565 mi).

The summits in the hill country vary from 100–300 meters (330–980 ft); the average peak in the mountainous region is 500 meters (1,600 ft), and the highest point of elevation is the summit of Mount Kunyu () at 922.8 meters (3,028 ft).

There are 121 rivers over 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) in length, the largest being:

  • Wulong River (五龙河)
  • Dagu River (大沽河)
  • Dagujia River (大沽夹河)
  • Wang River (王河)
  • Jie River (界河)
  • Huangshui River (黄水河)
  • Xin'an River (辛安河)

The core of the old town of Zhifu was located above the mouth of the Yi (, Yí Hé).[1]


Climate data for Yantai (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2
Record low °C (°F) −12.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.5
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.4 5.0 4.7 6.2 6.2 8.5 11.7 10.3 7.1 6.2 6.2 7.5 86.0
Source: Weather China[11]


The prefecture-level city of Yantai administers 12 county-level divisions, including four districts, seven county-level cities, one county, and one development zone. (开发区)

These are further divided into 148 township-level divisions, including 94 towns, six townships, and 48 subdistricts.



Yantai is currently the second largest industrial city in Shandong, next to Qingdao. However, the region's largest industry is agriculture. It is famous throughout China for a particular variety of apple and Laiyang pear, and is home to the country's largest and oldest grape winery, Changyu.[12]

Modern day Chateau Changyu, Yantai, Shandong

The county-level city of Longkou is well known throughout China for its production of cellophane noodles.


Yantai derives most of its energy from a large coal power plant using bituminous coal, and fitted with coal gasification technology to minimize pollution.[13] The plant is located close to Yantai port.[14]

Industrial Zones

  • Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state-level economic development zones in China. It now has a planned area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula facing the Yellow Sea. It adjoins downtown Yantai, merely 6 kilometers away from Yantai Port, 6 kilometers away from Yantai Railway Station (not to be confused with Yantai South Railway Station), and a 30-minute drive to Yantai International Airport.[15]

  • Yantai Export Processing Zone

Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 km2 (1.61 sq mi), in which the initial zone covers 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, with standard workshops of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft) and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft). Up to now, owing to an excellent investment environment, YTEPZ has attracted investors from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc., as well as domestic investors, to operate in the zone.[16]

Average height

The people of Yantai are known to be one of the tallest in China. As the economy prospered, height increased. The average height for 16-18 year old male students in 2010 was 176.4 cm (5 ft 9.4 in).[17]


The following is a list of prominent Yantai higher education institutions.

It houses a Korean international school, Korean School in Yantai.

Chefoo School previously educated foreign children.


Yantai Penglai International Airport provides scheduled flights to major airports in China as well as Seoul, Osaka, and Hong Kong.[18]


Yantai Ship Mast
Yantai Ship Mast
Yantai Temple of Sea Goddess
Temple of the Sea Goddess

Penglai City's Dan Cliffs (丹崖) is said to be the departure point of the Eight Immortals on their trip to the Conference of the Magical Peach. It is important to note that Penglai is around 80Km from the city centre of Yantai.

Twin cities of Yantai

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Country City
United States San Diego
Japan Beppu
New Zealand Tauranga
Japan Miyako
Russia Vladivostok
South Korea Gunsan
Thailand Phuket
United Kingdom Angus
South Korea Wonju
South Korea Ulsan
Sweden Örebro
Bulgaria Burgas
France Quimper
France Angers
South Korea Incheon
Hungary Szombathely
South Korea Ansan
United States Omaha
Australia Mackay Isaac Whitsunday
Spain Alcala De Henares

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ In 1872, 233 British vessels entered the port with 97,239 tons of cargo valued at £144,887 and 348 ships of all other nationalities entered with 149,197 tons of cargo valued at £177,168.[1]
  2. ^ Total imports and exports were valued at £2,724,000 in 1880, £4,228,000 in 1899, and £4,909,908 in 1904. The 905 vessels in 1895 had a total tonnage of 835,248; the 1842 in 1905 held 1,492,514 tons.[5]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k EB (1878).
  2. ^ Postal Map Romanization.
  3. ^ a b EB (1911), p. 132.
  4. ^ a b "烟台概览:烟台名称源于烟台山", 腾讯新闻, 19 June 2008. (in Chinese)
  5. ^ a b c d e EB (1911), p. 133.
  6. ^ Zhou, Yingjie (24 July 2006), "开放,三次保全了近代烟台(下)", Sina Finance. (in Chinese)
  7. ^ Jin, Long (24 July 2006). 东炮台现日军侵占烟台罪证 大理石上留印记(图). Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  8. ^ Wang, Xin (24 July 2006). 郭显德:把西方文化传播到烟台. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  9. ^ Liu, Xinguo (24 July 2006). 中国首批沿海开放城市之一—烟台(图). Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  10. ^ 优越的地理环境及人文历史造成就旅游圣地烟台. 24 July 2006. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Will Lyons (5 April 2013). "Indulge in China's Latest Export". Wall Street Journal.
  13. ^ "A report- China's coal future and public permissions for building power plants". http://www.mep.gov.cn/home/rdq/hjyxpj/jsxmhjyxpj/xmslqk/201605/W020160522142498799849.pdf. Shandong university and Shandong provincial government. Retrieved 17 July 2018. External link in |website= (help)
  14. ^ Fairley, Peter (1 January 2007). China's coal future. USA: MIT Technology review. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  15. ^ RightSite.asia | Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area
  16. ^ RightSite.asia | Yantai Export Processing Zone
  17. ^ "Yantai average height". 2015.
  18. ^ Yantai Chaoshui International Airport project


External links

Chefoo Convention

The Chefoo Convention, known in Chinese as the Yantai Treaty, was an "unequal treaty" between the Qing and British Empires, signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Zhifu (now a district of Yantai) on 21 August 1876. The official reason for the treaty was to resolve the "Margary Affair," but the final treaty included a number of items that had no direct relation to the killing of Margary the year earlier.

Fushan District

Fushan (Chinese: 福山; pinyin: Fúshān) is a district of the city of Yantai, Shandong province, near the shore of the Bohai Gulf.

To the east is Zhifu District and Laishan District, to the southeast is Muping District, to the southwest Qixia City, to the northwest is Penglai City, and to the north is the Yantai Economic and Technological Development Zone.

The District of Fushan was mentioned in the Jackie Chan action film Police Story 3.

Korean School in Yantai

Korean School in Yantai (Korean: 연대한국학교, simplified Chinese: 烟台韩国学校; traditional Chinese: 煙臺韓國學校; pinyin: Yāntái Hánguó Xuéxiào) is a Korean international school in Laishan District, Yantai, Shandong, China.It was established on March 5, 2001. It serves levels kindergarten through senior high school.Its campus was previously elsewhere in Chenjia Village (陈家村), Chujia Town (初家镇), Laishan District.

Laishan District

Laishan District (simplified Chinese: 莱山区; traditional Chinese: 萊山區; pinyin: Láishān Qū) is a district of the city of Yantai, Shandong province. It has an area of 258 square kilometres (100 sq mi) and around 181,200 inhabitants (2003).


Laiyang city (simplified Chinese: 莱阳; traditional Chinese: 萊陽; pinyin: Láiyáng) is a county-level city within Yantai bordering Qingdao, located in the middle of the Shandong Peninsula, in Shandong province, China. The majority (70%) of its population are farmers and it is famous for producing the Laiyang pear. As of 2010, it had a population of 923,000.


Laizhou, formerly romanized as Laichow, is a county-level city in Yantai Prefecture, Shandong Province, China. As of 2008, Laizhou had a population of 902,000, out of which 188,000 are urban residents.

Laizhou traditionally boasts strong economy due to its abundant natural resources, such as gold, magnesium, granite, and salt. Laizhou produces about 15% of the gold production of the whole nation, around 55,000 pounds annually. It is ranked 37th among the similar size cities in the nation and the top 10 in Shandong Province. In 2010, the GDP of Laizhou reached $7.3 billion USD. Laizhou Port is one of the major ports in the Yellow River Delta.

Laizhou embraces Bohai Bay to its west border and is famous for swimming crabs and razor clams. Claimed as the Capital of the Chinese Rose, Laizhou hosts Chinese Rose Festival on May 25 every year, attracting thousands of visitors. Laizhou is also well known for its creative straw handmade crafts, one of Laizhou's main exporting commodities. Li Denghai, a Laizhou native, is called Godfather of Compact Planting Hybrid Maize for his contribution. Apple orchards and apple seedling nursery are popular in eastern part of Laizhou, led by one of the best apple seedling nurseries in China, Laizhou All Nature Horticultural Nursery in Xiao Caogou Village.

Laizhou No. 1 High School ranks among the top 100 high schools in China, has sent thousands of graduates to top universities all over the nation. Laizhou Martial Arts Institute was selected to participate in the 2008 Beijing Olympic Opening Ceremony.

Over the years, Laizhou has been awarded including:

Top Longevity Cities of China,

Excellent Tourist City in China,

The Happiest City in China,

Nation's Cleanest City,

Best Corn Seed Region in China,

Capital of Handmade Straw Crafts in China,


Longkou (simplified Chinese: 龙口; traditional Chinese: 龍口; pinyin: Lóngkǒu), formerly Huang County (simplified Chinese: 黄县; traditional Chinese: 黃縣; pinyin: Huáng Xiàn), is a port city in northeastern Shandong province, China, facing the Bohai Sea to the north and the Laizhou Bay to the west. Longkou, a county-level city, is administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai. The total population of Longkou is 620,000.

Muping District

Muping District (Chinese: 牟平区; pinyin: Mùpíng Qū), formerly also known as Ninghai or Ninghaichow, is a district administered by the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong province, People's Republic of China, and is the easternmost county-level division of Yantai.

Penglai, Shandong

Penglai, formerly known as Dengzhou or Tengchow, is a county-level city belonging to the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, in the People's Republic of China. It lies on the northwest corner of the Shandong Peninsula on the southern coast of the Gulf of Bohai. The city is famous for its mirages out at sea, which are frequent during May and June.

Port of Yantai

The Port of Yantai is a seaport on the Bohai Sea in the vicinity of Yantai, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

As of December 14, 2011 the port had handled 200 million tonnes of cargo, becoming the 10th port in China that has a throughput of more than 200 million tonnes. The port's volume is estimated to hit 300 million tones by 2015. During the period from 2001 to 2005, Yantai invested US$2 billion on port construction, building 40 new berths, raising the percentage of 10,000-tonne berths from 27% at the end of 2000.In 2011 the Port of Yantai, together with three other Chinese ports in East China's Shandong province, signed a strategic alliance with the largest port of the Republic of Korea (ROK). The alliance is jointly formed by Shandong's Qingdao Port, Port of Yantai, Port of Rizhao, Port of Weihai and the ROK's Port of Busan, aiming to build a shipping and logistics center in Northeast Asia.

Qixia, Shandong

Qixia (simplified Chinese: 栖霞; traditional Chinese: 棲霞; pinyin: Qīxiá) is a landlocked county-level city of the Shandong Peninsula, and is under the administration of Yantai City, Shandong province.

The population was 664,510 in 1999. It borders Penglai to the north, Fushan District to the northeast, Muping District to the east, Haiyang and Laiyang to the south, Zhaoyuan to the west, and Longkou to the northwest.


Shandong (山东; formerly romanised as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.

Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, and Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, and was later established as the center of Confucianism.

Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous (95,793,065 inhabitants at the 2010 Census) and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.

Yantai Laishan Airport

Yantai Laishan Airport is a military airport in Yantai in Shandong, China. It formerly also served as the civil airport of Yantai, until it was replaced by Yantai Penglai International Airport which was opened on 28 May 2015. It is about 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from the city center and covers an area over 45.79 acres (185,300 m2).Laishan Airport was originally a military airport operated by the People's Liberation Army Navy. In June 1984, the Chinese government and Central Military Commission agreed to open the airport to civil flights, which began operation in October 1984 with flights to Beijing and Shanghai. During the 31 years of its commercial operation, traffic grew significantly, and the airport served flights between Yantai and more than 70 Chinese cities, as well as several international destinations including Seoul and Busan in South Korea. As the existing facilities could not meet the growing demands of the city, the Yantai government began construction of Penglai International Airport in September 2011. In 2014, its last full year as a civil airport, Laishan served more than four million passengers.

Yantai Penglai International Airport

Yantai Penglai International Airport (IATA: YNT, ICAO: ZSYT) is an airport serving the city of Yantai in Shandong Province, China. It is located 43 kilometres (27 mi) from the city center, near the town of Chaoshui in Penglai, a county-level city administered by Yantai.Construction officially started on December 26, 2009, and the airport was opened on 28 May 2015, when all flights serving Yantai were transferred from the old Laishan Airport. The first flight, China Eastern Airlines MU5136, landed at the airport from Beijing at 00:05 on 28 May. Originally called Yantai Chaoshui International Airport (Chinese: 烟台潮水国际机场), the airport adopted the current name in April 2014.

Yantai Shimao No.1 The Harbour

Yantai Shimao No. 1 The Harbour is a 323-metre (1,060 ft) 59-story supertall skyscraper under construction in the city of Yantai, Shandong, China. Construction started in 2008 and is slated to finish in 2015. There are three other towers part of the project completed in 2011 and built in the same plot, ranging from 54–59 stories high and 175 to 190 meters.

Yantai University

Yantai University (Chinese: 烟台大学) is a public university founded in 1984 with the assistance of Peking University and Tsinghua University in Yantai, Shandong, China.

Zhaoyuan, Shandong

Zhaoyuan (Chinese: 招远) is a county-level city within the prefecture-level city of Yantai, Shandong Province, China located on the seashore of the Bohai Sea. Zhaoyuan is well known for its abundant gold deposit and production. In 2002 Zhaoyuan was named "China's Gold City" by China's gold association.

Zhejiang Yiteng F.C.

Zhejiang Yiteng Football Club (simplified Chinese: 浙江毅腾; traditional Chinese: 浙江毅騰; pinyin: Zhèjiāng Yìténg), or Yiteng Football Club (Simplified Chinese: 毅腾足球俱乐部, for official ownership reasons) is a professional Chinese football club that participates in the China League One division under licence from the Chinese Football Association (CFA). The team is based in Shaoxing, Zhejiang and their home stadium is the Shaoxing City Sports Centre Stadium that has a seating capacity of 20,000. Their majority shareholder is Cui Yi (崔毅) and the Yiteng Group.

They were founded as an amateur team in 1988 and called Dalian Tielu (Railway). They took part in China's national leagues before becoming a professional team when the Yiteng Group gained ownership of the club. After years of stagnation the club was moved to Harbin where they have since predominantly remained and gained their first silverware, which was the 2011 China League Two title. Since then, they gradually improved their league standing and gained promotion to China's top tier when they came second within the 2013 China League One division.

Zhifu District

Zhifu District is an urban district of the prefecture-level city of Yantai in Shandong Province, China.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.