Yangzhou, postal romanization Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province, China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, Huai'an to the north, Yancheng to the northeast, Taizhou to the east, and Zhenjiang across the river to the south. Its population was 4,414,681 at the 2010 census and its urban area is home to 2,146,980 inhabitants, including three urban districts, currently in the agglomeration.
Historically, Yangzhou was one of the wealthiest cities in China, known at various periods for its great merchant families, poets, artists, and scholars. Its name (lit. "Rising Prefecture") refers to its former position as the capital of the ancient Yangzhou prefecture in imperial China. Yangzhou was one of the first cities to benefit from one of the earliest world bank loans in China, used to construct Yangzhou thermal power station in 1994.
Five Pavilion Bridge at the Slender West Lake
Yangzhou's location within Jiangsu province
Location in China
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|County-level divisions||6 (3 Districts, 2 County-level cities, 1 County)|
|• Communist Party Chief||Xie Zhengyi (谢正义)|
|• Mayor||Zhu Minyang (朱民阳)|
|• Prefecture-level city||6,678 km2 (2,578 sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|363 km2 (140 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,310 km2 (890 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,459,760|
|• Density||670/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
| • Urban|
|• Urban density||4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Includes only those with Hukou permits|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (Beijing Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-JS-10|
|Licence plate prefixes||苏K|
"Yangzhou" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Yang Prefecture"|
Currently, the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou administers six county-level divisions, including three districts, two county-level cities and one county. Accordingly, they are further divided into 98 township-level divisions, including 87 towns and townships, and 11 subdistricts.
|Subdivision||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)|
|Guangling District||广陵区||Guǎnglíng Qū||340,977||423.09||805.92|
|Hanjiang District||邗江区||Hánjiāng Qū||1,051,322||552.68||1,902.23|
|Jiangdu District||江都区||Jiāngdū Qū||1,006,780||1,329.90||757.03|
|Baoying County||宝应县||Bǎoyìng Xiàn||752,074||1,461.55||514.57|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
|In November 2011, Weiyang District (维扬区) was merged into Hanjiang District,|
while the former county-level Jiangdu City became Jiangdu District.
Guangling (Chinese: 廣陵; pinyin: Guǎnglíng; Wade–Giles: Kuang-Ling), the first settlement in the Yangzhou area, was founded in the Spring and Autumn period. After the defeat of Yue by King Fuchai of Wu, a garrison city was built 12 m (39 ft) above the water level on the north bank of the Yangtze c. 485 BC. This city in the shape of a three by three li square was named Hancheng. The newly built Han canal formed a moat around the south and east sides of the city. The purpose of Hancheng was to protect Suzhou from naval invasion from Qi. In 590, the city began to be called Yangzhou, which was the traditional name of what was the entire southeastern part of China then.
Under Emperor Yang of Sui (r. 604–617), Yangzhou was the southern capital of China. It was called Jiangdu upon the completion of the Grand Canal until the fall of the Sui dynasty. By the mid 610s, a combination of fruitless attempts to conquer the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo, together with natural disasters and provincial unrest, ensured many people Emperor Yang had lost the legitimacy of his monarchy. As revolts spread across China in 616, the Emperor abandoned the North and meanwhile withdrew to Jiangdu, where he remained until his assassination in 618.
The city has remained a leading economic and cultural center and major port of foreign trade and external exchange since the Tang dynasty (618–907). Many Arab and Persian merchants lived in the city in the 7th century, but they were massacred in the thousands in 760 during the An Lushan Rebellion by Tian Shengong's (Chinese: 田神功; pinyin: Tián Shéngōng; Wade–Giles: T'ien Shen-kung) rebel insurgents during the Yangzhou massacre (760).
During the Tang dynasty, many merchants from Silla also lived in Yangzhou.
Yangzhou was briefly the temporary seat of the Song dynasty government between 1128 and 1129, when most of North China had been conquered by the Jurchens during the Jin–Song Wars. The Song had retreated south to the city from their original capital in Kaifeng after it was captured by the Jurchen in the Jingkang Incident of 1127.
In 1280, Yangzhou was the site of a massive gunpowder explosion when the bomb store of the Weiyang arsenal accidentally caught fire. This blast killed over a hundred guards, hurled debris from buildings into the air that landed ten li away from the site of the explosion, and could be felt 100 li away as tiles on roofs shook (refer to gunpowder article).
Marco Polo claimed to have served the Yuan dynasty in Yangzhou under Kubilai Khan in the period around 1282–1287 (to 1285, according to Perkins). Although some versions of Polo's memoirs imply that he was the governor of Yangzhou, it is more likely that he was an official in the salt industry, if indeed he was employed there at all. Chinese texts offer no supporting evidence for his claim. The discovery of the 1342 tomb of Katarina Vilioni, member of an Italian trading family in Yangzhou, does, however, suggest the existence of a thriving Italian community in the city in the 14th century.
There were also Arabic inscriptions from the 13th and 14th centuries, indicating the presence of a Muslim community.
During the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) until the 19th century Yangzhou acted as a major trade exchange center for salt (a government regulated commodity), rice, and silk. The Ming were largely responsible for building the city as it now stands and surrounding it with 9 km (5.6 mi) of walls.
After the fall of Beijing and northern China to the Manchus in 1644, Yangzhou remained under the control of the short-lived Southern Ming based in Nanjing. Qing forces led by Prince Dodo reached Yangzhou in the spring of 1645, and despite the heroic efforts of its chief defender, Shi Kefa, the city fell on May 20, 1645, after a brief siege. The ten-day Yangzhou massacre followed, in which, as it was traditionally alleged, 800,000 people died. Shi Kefa himself was killed by the Manchus when he refused to switch his allegiance to the Qing regime.
The city's rapid recovery from these events and its great prosperity through the early and middle years of the Qing dynasty were due to its role as administrative center of the Lianghuai sector of the government salt monopoly. As early as 1655, the Dutch envoy Johan Nieuhof described the city (Jamcefu, i.e. Yangzhou-Fu, in his transcription) commented on the city's salt trade as follows:
This Trade alone has so very much enrich'd the Inhabitants of this Town, that they have re-built their City since the last destruction by the Tartars, erecting it in as great splendor as it was at first.
Famed at that time and since for literature, art, and the gardens of its merchant families, many of which were visited by the Kangxi and Qianling emperors during their Southern Tours, the Qing-era Yangzhou has been the focus of intensive research by historians.
The Yangzhou riot in 1868 was a pivotal moment of Anglo-Chinese relations during late Qing China that almost led to war. The crisis was fomented by the scholar-officials of the city, who opposed the presence of foreign Christian missionaries there. The riot that resulted was an angry crowd estimated at eight to ten thousand who assaulted the premises of the British China Inland Mission in Yangzhou by looting, burning and attacking the missionaries led by Hudson Taylor. No one was killed, however several of the missionaries were injured as they were forced to flee for their lives. As a result of the report of the riot, the British consul in Shanghai, Sir Walter Henry Medhurst took seventy Royal Marines in a man-of-war and steamed up the Yangtze to Nanjing in a controversial show of force that eventually resulted in an official apology from Viceroy Zeng Guofan and financial restitution made to the injured missionaries.
From the time of the Taiping Rebellion (1853) to the beginning of the Reform Era (1980) Yangzhou was in decline, due to war damage, neglect of the Grand Canal as railways replaced it in importance, and stagnation in the early decades of the PRC. During the Second Sino-Japanese War, it endured eight years of enemy occupation and was used by the Japanese as a site for internment camps. About 1200 civilians of Allied nationalities (mostly British and Australian) from Shanghai were transported here in 1943, and located in one of three camps (A, B, and C). Camps B and C were closed down in September, 1943, after the second American-Japanese prisoner exchange, and their inhabitants transferred back to Shanghai camps. Camp C, located in the former American Mission in the north-west of the city, was maintained for the duration of the war.
Among early plans for railways in the late Qing was one for a line that would connect Yangzhou to the north but this was jettisoned in favour of an alternative route. The city's status as a leading economic centre in China was never to be restored. Not until the 1990s did it begin to regain some semblance of prosperity, benefitting from national economic growth and a number of targeted development projects. With the canal now partially restored, and excellent rail and road connections, Yangzhou is once again an important transportation and market center. It also has some industrial output, chiefly in cotton and textiles. In 2004, a railway linked Yangzhou for the first time with Nanjing.
Yangzhou is located on a plain north of the Yangtze. The Grand Canal, also known as the Jing-Hang Canal, crosses the prefecture-level from the north to the south; its modern route passes through the eastern outskirts of Yangzhou's main urban area, while its old route runs through the city center. Other major bodies of water within the prefecture-level city include the Baoshe River, Datong River, Beichengzi River, Tongyang Canal, Xintongyang Canal, Baima Lake, Baoying Lake, Gaoyou Lake and Shaobo Lake.
Like much of the entire prefecture-level city, Yangzhou's main urban area (the "city proper") is criss-crossed by an intricate network of canals and small lakes. The historic city center (the former waled city) is surrounded by canals on all sides: the Old Grand Canal forms its eastern and southern boundaries; the City Moat Canal runs along the former walled city's northern edge, connecting the Old Grand Canal with the Slender West Lake; the Erdaohe Canal runs along the old city's western edge, from the Slender West Lake to the Lotus Flower Pond (Hehuachi), which in its turn is connected by the short Erdaogou canal with the Old Grand Canal. It is possible to sail a small water craft from the Thin West Lake, via the Erdaohe, the Hehua Pond, and the Erdaogou into the Old Grand Canal.
Yangzhou has a subtropical monsoon climate with humid changeable wind; longer winters for about 4 months, summers 3 months and shorter springs and autumns, 2 months respectively; frost-free period of 222 days and annual average sunshine of 2177 hours.
The average temperature is: 15 °C annually; the hottest in July of 40 °C and the coldest in January of -15 °C.
The annual average precipitation is 1,030 mm, and about 45 percent of rainfall is concentrated in the summer. The rainy season known as "plum rain season" usually lasts from mid-June to late July. During this season, the plums are ripening, hence the name plum rain.
Yangzhou has one Yangtze River crossing, the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge complex, which has one of the one of the longest suspension bridge spans in the world, and carries the G4011 Yangzhou–Liyang Expressway to Zhenjiang.
The Yangzhou Taizhou International Airport, completed in 2012 to serve Yangzhou and neighbouring Taizhou, is located in Jiangdu district. The Nanjing Lukou International Airport is over 100 km (62 mi) away; it takes one hour and 40 minutes to get there from central Yangzhou. Prior to the completion of the Yangzhou Taizhou Airport, Lukou Airport in Nanjing was the primary air gateway for passengers destined for Yangzhou. There are over 10 airline ticket offices in Yangzhou, providing convenient service for foreign and domestic tourists. domestic and international fight are available with 10 international airlines and more than 20 domestic ones
Until 2004, Yangzhou was not served by passenger rail. Yangzhou Railway Station began construction in 2003 and was completed a year later. It is located on the western outskirts of the city, and is a major station on the Nanjing–Qidong Railway, and provides direct passenger service to the provincial capital as well as a number of major cities to the west, north, and south (such as Xi'an, Wuhan, and Guangzhou), including an overnight Z-series express train to Beijing. Later, frequent high-speed (D-series) service has been introduced on this line as well.
There is no direct rail service between Yangzhou and Shanghai, however; to travel to Shanghai, or elsewhere in the Yangtze Delta regions, travelers cross the Yangtze over the new Runyang Bridge to Zhenjiang (frequent commuter bus service is available) and take a train from the Zhenjiang Railway Station, which is located on the main Nanjing-Shanghai rail line.
In 2016, construction work started on a new north-south rail line, the Lianyungan-Huai'an-Yangzhou-Zhenjiang Railway. The new Yangzhou station will be located on the east side on the city, between Yangzhou main urban area and Jiangdu District, 16.5 km (10.3 mi) east of the existing Yangzhou Railway Station. The new rail line is expected to open in 2020, while the new train station will gradually become the ciy's transportation hub, and its surrounding area, Yangzhou's new central business district.
Yangzhou harbour, 11.5 km (7.1 mi) south from the city center, is located at the junction of the Beijing–Hangzhou Canal and the Yangtze River. The average water depth is 15–20 meters. In 1992, the State Council approved it to become a first-grade open state harbour, and General Secretary Jiang Zemin inscribed its name. Now, it has developed into a comprehensive inland harbor, integrating passenger, freight, container transportation and harbour trade, and has become the main distribution center of northern Jiangsu province, eastern Anhui Province and southeast Shandong Province. There are several dozen categories of goods including iron and steel, timber, minerals, coal, grain, cotton, container, products of light industry and machinery. The passenger routes reach Nanjing, Wuhu, Jiujiang, Huangshi and Wuhan in the west, and Nantong and Shanghai in the east. Some well-known luxury international liners also anchor here. The harbour has greatly promoted the development of exports and the overall local economy.
The Ningyang (Nanjing–Yangzhou) Expressway crosses the southern part of Yangzhou's metropolitan area while the Ningtong (Nanjing–Nantong) Expressway is connected to Yangzhou at Liaojiagou. In recent years, local government have attached great importance to the development of the tourism, in conjunction with a greater effort dedicated to the improvement of the local road transport system. With a total investment of 680 million yuan, the Yangzhou section of the Ningyang Expressway was completed on December 18, 1998 and opened to traffic in June 1999. Stretching nearly 18 km (11 mi), the section of the expressway starts from the Bazi Flyover as the entry/exit, via the Yanggua Highway, the Tonggang Highway, an ancient canal, the Yangwei Highway, the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal and the Yangling Highway, to Liqojiagou Entry/Exit of Yangjiang Highway. It then passes the Jiangdu Flyover to directly link up with the Huaijiang Expressway. In addition, the section of Huaijiang Expressway within the territory of Yangzhou began construction on March 22, 1997, which will be commonly used by the state planned Tongjiang–Sanya and Beijing–Shanghai trunk lines. The section of Huaijiang Expressway in Yangzhou totals 112.04 km (69.62 mi)in length, starting from Jinghe Town of Baoying in the north to the entry/exist of Zhuanqiaozhen Flyover of Jiangdu in the south. It then links with Ningtong Expressway, passing by three counties (cities) such as Baoying, Gaoyou and Jiangdu and 26 towns, at a total cost of 3.7 billion yuan. It is expected to be open to traffic by the year 2000.
During the daytime, frequent bus service operates between Yangzhou and nearby cities. There are several bus stations on the city's outskirts; most of the buses from Nanjing (Nanjing West Bus Station) and Zhenjiang (where the bus station is adjacent to the Zhenjiang Railway Station) arrive to Yangzhou South Bus Station, located a few kilometers southwest from downtown. Most of the intercity bus service stops in the early evening.
The city is served by an extensive network of public bus routes.
Yangzhou's taxi industry began in 1982, and has developed rapidly since 1993. the city has over 40 taxi companies of various ownership structures, with a total of 1,571 vehicles. Parking lots were established at key stations and hotels, and eight taxi companies have opened round-the-clock telephone service. The construction department of the municipal government has strengthened the management of taxi services, providing education in the relevant laws, professional ethics and safety aspects.
In 2014, Yangzhou's government approved plans for the construction of a subway system, which will initially include two lines. Line 1 will run in the general east-west direction, from Yangzhou Railway Station in the west to the historic central city to the future high-speed railway station (east of the Grand Canal) to Jiangdu District. Line 2 will run in the general north-south direction.
To develop tourism in Yangzhou, sightseeing buses have been introduced in the city run by the Tianma travel agency under the Yangzhou Tourist Bureau. There is a tour guide on each bus. The route, starting from Yangzhou station, has eight stops, and passes by such scenic spots of the Slender West Lake, Daming Temple, Imperial Dock, Siwang Pagoda, Wenchang Pagoda and Shita Temple. Yangzhou Public Transit also operates No.1, No.5 and No.2 special tourist lines. No.1 bus departs from the bus station and goes by the Slender West Lake, Shigong Temple, Geyuan Garden and Heyuan Garden; No.5 bus starts from the bus station and goes by the Crane Temple, Wenchang Pagoda, Slender West Lake, Five-Pavilion Bridge, and Pingshan Hall. A sight-seeing route on Slender West Lake has opened, connecting Imperial Dock, Yichun Garden, Hong Garden, Dahong Bridge, Xiaojinshan, Diaoyutai, Five-Pavilion Bridge, and the 24-bridge, finally reaching Daming Temple and Pingshan Hall.
Yangzhhou is the site of Chengxi shipyard, large shipyard where bulk carriers and other types of large ships are built. Owned partly by the state owned CSSC holdings, through Jiangsu Xinrong shipyard, Chengxi Yangzhou shipyard builds ships from 25,000 dwt to 170,000 dwt in size.
Yangzhou dishes may be one of the reasons why the people of Yangzhou are so infatuated with their city. They have an appealing color, aroma, taste and appearance. The original color of each ingredient is preserved after cooking, and no oily sauce is added, so as to retain the fresh flavour of the food.
In Yangzhou all dishes, whether cheap or expensive, are elaborate. Cooks will not scrimp on their work, even with dazhu gansi (Chinese: 大煮干丝; pinyin: dàzhǔ gānsī), a popular dish that costs only a few yuan. Dry bean curd is made by each restaurant that serves it, so the flavor is guaranteed. The cook slices the 1-cm-thick curd into 30 shreds, each one paper-thin but none broken, and then stews them for hours with chopped bamboo shoots and shelled shrimps in chicken soup. In this way the dry bean curd shreds can soak up the flavor of the other ingredients, and the soup is clear but savory. Not only Yangzhou cooks, but also the ordinary people are conscientious about cooking.
The Yangzhou dialect (Chinese: 扬州话; pinyin: Yángzhōu huà) of Chinese is representative of Lower Yangtze Mandarin, and is particularly close to the official language of the Ming and Qing courts, which was based on the Nanjing dialect. However, it does differ considerably from modern Standard Chinese, although they are still moderately mutually intelligible.
Dialect has also been used as a tool for regional identity and politics in the Jiangbei and Jiangnan regions. While the city of Yangzhou was the center of trade, flourishing and prosperous, it was considered part of Jiangnan, which was known to be wealthy, even though Yangzhou was north of the Yangzi river. Once Yangzhou's wealth and prosperity were gone, it was then considered to be part of Jiangbei, the "backwater". After Yangzhou was removed from Jiangnan, its residents decided to replace Jianghuai Mandarin, which was the dialect of Yangzhou, with Taihu Wu dialects. In Jiangnan itself, multiple subdialects of Wu fought for the position of prestige dialect.
During a period of prosperity and Imperial favour, the arts of storytelling and painting flourished in Yangzhou. The innovative painter-calligrapher Shitao lived in Yangzhou during the 1680s and again from 1697 until his death in 1707. A later group of painters from that time called the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou are famous throughout China.
Former General secretary of CPC, President of China Jiang Zemin was born and raised in Yangzhou. His middle school is located right across from the public notary's office in Yangzhou.
Some of China’s most creative and eye catching dishes come from the Yangzhou school of cuisine called Huaiyang (also commonly known as the Weiyang school). Along with Sichuan cuisine, Cantonese cuisine, and Shandong cuisine, Huaiyang cuisine (淮扬菜) is a distinctive and masterful skill that locals are quite proud of.
The city was awarded Habitat Scroll of Honour in 2006.
Yangzhou is also very famous for its toy industry (especially stuffed animals). Many tourists from neighboring cities travel to the city for its good-quality and low-priced toys.
It is worth mentioning that the city is also famous for an ancient folk art called Yangzhou storytelling (扬州评话), which is like Xiangsheng—the traditional Chinese comedic performance. It rose as a performing act during the Ming Dynasty. In the performance, the artist details an interesting historical story to audiences, using Yangzhou dialect. These stories have been edited by artists, so they sound very soul-stirring and funny. The best known artist of Yangzhou storytelling was Wang shaotang. His most famous works are The 10 chapters of Wu Song (武十回), The 10 chapters of Song Jiang (宋十回), The 10 chapters of Lu Junyi (卢十回), and The 10 chapters of Shi Xiu (石十回).
Yangzhou was frequently referenced in Chinese literature. Poet Li Bai (c.700–762) wrote in Seeing Meng Haoran off to Yangzhou from Yellow Crane Pavilion:
The "green mansions" or "green/black lofts" (qinglou) refers to the pleasure districts for which Yangzhou became known.
Tourist sights include Slender West Lake and old residences in the moated town, such as the Wang Residence and the Daming temple. Yangzhou is famous for its many well preserved Yangzhou style gardens. Most of the Historic city is in the Guangling District.
Named after Hangzhou's famous West Lake, this long, narrow stretch of water which meanders through Yangzhou's western limits is a well-known scenic spot. A long bank planted with weeping willows spans the lake; at its midpoint stands a square terrace with pavilions at each of the corners and one in the center. Around the lake is a park in which are found several attractions: Lotus Flower Pagoda (Lianhua SO), a white structure reminiscent of the White Pagoda (Baita) in Beijing's Beihai Park; Small Gold Mountain (Xiao Jin Shan); and the Fishing Platform (Diaoyutai), a favorite retreat of the Qing emperor Qian Long. The emperor was so gratified by his luck in fishing at this spot that he ordered additional stipends for the town. As it turns out, his success had been augmented by local swimmers who lurked in the lake busily attaching fish to his hook.
Located on Shugang Hill, in the city's northwest, is Fajing Temple, formerly known as DaMing Temple. The original temple was built in Liu Song Dynasty (420–479). A nine-story pagoda, the Qilingta, was built on the temple grounds in the year of Sui Dynasty (589–618) . A recent addition to the temple complex is the Jianzhen Memorial Hall, built according to Tang Dynasty methods and financed with contributions raised by Buddhist groups in Japan. When Qing Emperor Qian Long visited Yangzhou in 1765, he was troubled by The temple's name DaMing (which literally means "Great Ming') fearing that it might revive nostalgia for the Ming Dynasty, which was overthrown by his Manchu predecessors. He had it renamed Fajing Temple. The temple was seriously damaged during the Taiping Rebellion at the beginning of the 20th century. The present structure is a reconstruction dating from the 1930s.
Built by the Song Dynasty writer Ouyang Xiu when he served as prefect of the city, this hall stands just west of Fajing Temple. Looking out from this hall, the mountains to the south of the Yangtze River appear as a line at the viewer's eye level, hence the name Flat Hills Hall. When Ouyang Xiu's student Su Dongpo moved to Yangzhou, he too served as prefect of the city. He had a hall built directly behind the one erected by his master, and called it Guling Hall.
This round, three-story pavilion in Yangzhou's eastern sector was built in 1585 and celebrates the city's rich cultural traditions. It is also the de facto center of the city.
Built during Ming dynasty, it is located on the cross of Wenchang Road and Wenhe Road. The whole building is about 79 foot high, and looks like Temple of Heaven in Beijing. Today, bordered by many shopping stores, Wenchange had been a symbol of commercial center to residents.
Standing west of the Pavilion of Flourishing Culture is a five-story Tang Dynasty pagoda (Chinese: 石塔; pinyin: Shítǎ). Built in 837, it is the oldest pagoda still standing in Yangzhou.
This is essentially a Ming Dynasty graveyard that includes the tomb of Puhaddin. According to information at the tomb, he was a 16th generation descendant of Muhammad, The Prophet. The tomb is on the eastern bank of the (Old) Grand Canal in the eastern sector of the city and is adjacent to a mosque which houses a collection of valuable materials documenting China's relations with Muslim countries.
The entrance to this typical southern style garden with its luxuriant bamboo groves, ponds, and rock grottoes is on Dongguan St. in the city's northeast section. Designed by the great Qing Dynasty landscape painter Shi Tao for Wang Yingtai, an officer of the Qing imperial court, this garden takes its name from the shape of bamboo leaves which resemble the Chinese character ge, meaning "a" or "an."
This garden, also called Jixiao Shan Zhuang, was built by He Zhidao, a 19th-century Qing government official, this garden home is famous for a 430 m (1,410 ft), two storied winding corridor, the walls of which are lined with stone tablets carved with lines of classical poetry, In the garden is also an open-air theater set on an island in the middle of a fish pond.
In this garden, which lies on the banks of the Xiading River at the city's northern limits, the Qing Dynasty poet Wang Yuyang and a circle of friends used to gather to recite their works. The thatched roofs of the pavilions in this garden give it a quaint, rustic air.
Situated on the west side of the Bright Moon Lake, the Yangzhou Chinese Block Printing Museum (扬州中国雕版印刷博物馆) and Yangzhou Museum (扬州博物馆) look into the distance of Yangzhou International Exhibition Centre and covers an area of 50,000 square meters, with a construction space of 25,000 square meters, and an exhibition area of 10,000 square metres. Its unique architectural form embodies the harmony of man nature, structure and natural environment. In August, 2003, over 300,000 ancient books blockings were collected from Guangling Press of Yangzhou and China Block Printing Museum was established under the approval of the State Council, over 300,000 ancient book blockings collected by Guangling Press of Yangzhou were included in the new museum.
Construction of this multiple-purpose water control project, the biggest in China, started in 1961 and was completed in 1975. The project includes facilities for irrigation, drainage, navigation, and power generation. It consists of four large modern electric pumping stations, six medium-sized check gates, thrice navigation locks, and two trunk waterways.
Probably by the 7th century Persians had joined with Arabs to create the foreign emporium on the Grand Canal at Yangchou mentioned by the New T'ang History. The same source records a disturbance there in 760 in which a thousand of the merchants were killed.
The wealth of the foreign merchants established in the big cities may have provoked the xenophobia that became apparent during rebellions. In 760 several thousand Arab and Persian merchants were massacred at Yangchow by insurgent bands led by T'ien Shen-kung, and a century later, in 879, it was also the foreign merchants who were attacked at Canton under the troops of Huang Ch'ao.
these manliao ( j§ w) [Southern barbarians] would pollute the Chinese culture through intermarriage and upset the land ownership system through land acquisition. . .For example, in AD 760, Yangzhou was attacked by a nearby garrison troop led by Tian Shengong (HJ^ff-w), who was ironically invited by the local authorities to help crush a local uprising. Consequently, a few thousand Arab and Persian merchants were robbed and killed (Jin Tangshu, ch. 110). In the 830s, a mandarin in Guangzhou took steps to control the Arab and Persian Muslims by ordering that Chinese and barbarians must live in separate quarters and must not intermarry; barbarins were also not allowed to own land and paddy fields (Jin Tangshu, ch. 177) Thereafter, Arab and Persian traders lived in designated quarters . . .they also enjoyed religious freedom and kept their Islamic lifestlye intact. . .the Arab and Persian Muslims were also contented to stay out of the Confucian Chinese world so long as the authorities concerned pledged to provide aman [security] for them to lead a peaceful life according to the Islamic doctrines.
en 760, varios millares de mercaderes árabes y persas fueron masacrados en Yangzhou por bandas insurgentes dirigidas por Tian Shengong; un siglo más tarde las tropas de Huang Chao la emprendieron también en Cantón con los mercaderes extranjeros.
Deng Jingshan fßJSlll , the governor of Yangzhou, ordered general Tian Shengong Ш to lead his forces to suppress the rebels. Shengong entered Yangzhou in 760 and sacked the city, plunderSino-Arab
But, Yangzhou was also a famous trade center with a large foreign community. Chinese sources record several thousand Arabs, Persians, and other foreigner merchants being killed in 760 AD when General Tian Shengong sacked the city during
Misalnya, pada 760, Yangzhou diserang oleh pasukan tentara di bawah pimpinan Tian Shengong (ffltt^d) yang ironisnya diminta oleh penguasa setempat untuk membantu menumpas pemberontakan daerah. Akibatnya, ribuan saudagar Arab dan Persia dirampok dan dibunuh.22 Pada tahun 830-an, seorang pejabat tinggi di Guangzhou mengambil langkah untuk mengawasi orang orang Muslim Arab dan Persian degan memerintahkan orang China dan orang barbar harus tinggal di pemukiman terpisah dan tidak boleh kawin campur; kaum barbar tidak boleh memiliki tanah dan ladang sawah.
milliers de marchands arabes et persans sont massacrés à Yangzhou par les bandes insurgées que mène Tian Shengong; un siècle plus tard, c'est aussi aux marchands étrangers que s'en prennent à Canton les troupes de Huang Chao en 879.
They dealt in a vast variety of commodities, and their numbers were not small.9 For example, Tian Shengong's soldiers killed thousands of Dashi and Bosi at Yangzhou in a Tang battle against local rebels. When Huang Chao's rebel army
Ouyang, Xin Tang Shu 182.6b--a records the order of Lu Jun, governor of Lingnan at Canton, that foreigners and Chinese could not intermarry (Ch. Fan Hua bu de tong hun), in order to prevent conflict.
With the exclusion of Yangzhou came the denigration of its dialect, a variant of Jianghuai "Mandarin" (guanhua). The various Wu dialects from the Lake Tai area became the spoken language of choice, to the point of replacing guanhua...
Baoying County (simplified Chinese: 宝应县; traditional Chinese: 寶應縣; pinyin: Bǎoyīng Xiàn) is under the administration of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China. It has a population of 919,900 (2004) and a land area of 1,483 square kilometres (573 sq mi). The northernmost county-level division of Yangzhou City, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Yancheng to the east and Huai'an to the north and west.G4011 Yangzhou–Liyang Expressway
The Yangzhou–Liyang Expressway (Chinese: 扬州—溧阳高速公路), commonly referred to as the Yangli Expressway (Chinese: 扬溧高速公路) is an expressway that connects Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China and Liyang, Jiangsu. It is a spur of G40 Shanghai–Xi'an Expressway and is completely in Jiangsu Province.It passes through the following cities, all of which are in Jiangsu:
Liyang, ChangzhouThe expressway crosses the Yangtze over the Runyang Yangtze River Bridge.Gaomin Temple
Gaomin Temple (Chinese: 高旻寺) is a Buddhist Temple in Hanjiang District of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province of China.
During the Qing dynasty, it was considered one of the eight great temples of Yangzhou.
The temple is situated in a semi-rural setting about 7 km south of downtown Yangzhou, on the western shore of the Old Channel of the Grand Canal of China, just south of its junction with the Yizheng-Yangzhou Canal.Guangling District
Guangling District (simplified Chinese: 广陵区; traditional Chinese: 廣陵區; pinyin: Guǎnglíng Qū) is one of three districts of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China. The district includes the eastern half of Yangzhou's main urban area (including Yangzhou's historic center within the former city wall), and the city's eastern suburbs. The other half of the city's main urban area is in Hanjiang District.Hanjiang District, Yangzhou
Hanjiang District (simplified Chinese: 邗江区; traditional Chinese: 邗江區; pinyin: Hánjiāng Qū) is one of three districts of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China. It is one of the two districts (along with Hanjiang District) that divide Yangzhou's main urban area. It includes roughly the western half of Yangzhou's central city (excluding, however, the historic center, which is in Hanjiang District), and adjacent suburbs. The Yangtze River and, in the northern suburbs, the Grand Canal of China, serve as the district's southern and eastern borders.
In the past, the northern part of Yangzhou's main urban area constituted a separate Weiyang District, but in the late 2011 Weiyang District was abolished and merged into Hanjiang District.Huang Minlon
Huang Minlon, Huang-Minlon, or Huang Minglong (simplified Chinese: 黄鸣龙; traditional Chinese: 黃鳴龍; 3 July 1898 – 1 July 1979) was a Chinese organic chemist and pharmaceutical scientist. Huang is considered as a pioneer and founder of modern pharmaceutical industries in China.Jiangdu District
Jiangdu District (simplified Chinese: 江都区; traditional Chinese: 江都區; pinyin: Jiāngdū Qū) is one of three districts of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China. It was a county-level city under the administration of Yangzhou until November 2011, when it was converted into a district.Yangzhou Taizhou Airport, which serves the cities of Yangzhou and Taizhou, is located in Dinggou town, Jiangdu.Jiangsu
Jiangsu (江苏; formerly Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third smallest, but the fifth most populous and the most densely populated of the 23 provinces of the People's Republic of China. Jiangsu has the highest GDP per capita of Chinese provinces and second-highest GDP of Chinese provinces, after Guangdong. Jiangsu borders Shandong in the north, Anhui to the west, and Zhejiang and Shanghai to the south. Jiangsu has a coastline of over 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) along the Yellow Sea, and the Yangtze River passes through the southern part of the province.
Since the Sui and Tang dynasties, Jiangsu has been a national economic and commercial center, partly due to the construction of the Grand Canal. Cities such as Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou and Shanghai (separated from Jiangsu in 1927) are all major Chinese economic hubs. Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1990, Jiangsu has become a focal point for economic development. It is widely regarded as China's most developed province, when measured by its Human Development Index (HDI).Jiangsu is home to many of the world's leading exporters of electronic equipment, chemicals and textiles. It has also been China's largest recipient of foreign direct investment since 2006. Its 2014 nominal GDP was more than 1 trillion US dollars, which is the sixth-highest of all country subdivisions.Wang Chuanyao
Wang Chuanyao (simplified Chinese: 王传耀; traditional Chinese: 王傳耀, March, 1931 - November 19, 2007) was a male table tennis player from China. From 1956 to 1961 he won several medals in singles, doubles, and team events in the World Table Tennis Championships.Yang Province
Yangzhou, Yangchow or Yang Province was one of the Nine Provinces of ancient China mentioned in historical texts such as the Tribute of Yu, Erya and Rites of Zhou.Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon
The Yangzhou Jianzhen International Half Marathon (Chinese: 扬州鉴真国际半程马拉松赛) is an annual road running competition over the half marathon distance 21.0975 kilometres (13.1094 mi) which takes place in April in Yangzhou, People's Republic of China.
The event is named in honour of Jianzhen, a Chinese monk from the city who propagated Buddhism in Japan in the 8th century. The event was first held in 2006 and grew exponentially in its first six years: it gained IAAF Silver Label Road Race status in 2010 and began to attract elite and amateur runners alike. Almost 3000 runners finished the half marathon in 2011, while the introduction of a 10K fun run that year saw 25,000 runners take part in the day's event. The race is predominantly Chinese, although 230 foreign athletes were present in 2011. East African athletes typically occupy the higher places in the elite races.The very flat, point-to-point course is certified by the Association of International Marathons and Distance Races. The city-centre course begins and ends at the Stadium of Yangzhou Sport Center and passes many of the city's landmarks, including the Wenchang Pavilion, Daming Temple and the Yangzhou Museum.The men's course record of 59:52 minutes (set in 2015 by Mosinet Geremew) is the fastest ever recorded in China. The women's record holder is Peres Jepchirchir, with her winning time of 1:07:21 from 2016.Yangzhou Taizhou International Airport
Yangzhou Taizhou International Airport (IATA: YTY, ICAO: ZSYA), often abbreviated to Yangtai Airport, is an airport serving the cities of Yangzhou and Taizhou in China's Jiangsu Province. It is located in the town of Dinggou in Jiangdu District, Yangzhou, 30 kilometers from the center of Yangzhou and 20 kilometers from Taizhou. Another major city, Zhenjiang, is also nearby across the Yangtze River.Yangzhou University
Yangzhou University (YZU; simplified Chinese: 扬州大学; traditional Chinese: 揚州大學; pinyin: Yángzhōu Dàxué) is a university in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. It grew out of a merger in 1992 of six local colleges. The university offers undergraduate and graduate programs.Yangzhou fried rice
Yangzhou fried rice or Yeung Chow fried rice (Traditional Chinese: 揚州炒飯; Simplified Chinese : 扬州炒饭; pinyin (Mandarin): Yángzhōu chǎofàn, Yale (Cantonese): Yèuhngjāu cháaufaahn, Jyutping: joeng4zau1 caau2faan6) is a popular Chinese-style wok fried rice dish in many Chinese restaurants throughout the world. It is commonly sold in the UK as special fried rice and in the US as house fried rice.Yangzhou riot
The Yangzhou riot of August 22–23, 1868 was a brief crisis in Anglo-Chinese relations during the late Qing dynasty. The crisis was fomented by the gentry of Yangzhou who opposed the presence of foreign Christian missionaries in the city, who claimed that they were legally residing under the provisions of the Convention of Peking. Threats against the missionaries were circulated by large character posters placed around the city. Rumors followed that the foreigners were stealing babies and killing them to make medicine.
The riot that resulted was an angry crowd of Chinese estimated at eight to ten thousand who assaulted the premises of the British China Inland Mission in Yangzhou by looting, burning and attacking the missionaries led by Hudson Taylor. No one was killed, however several of the missionaries were injured as they were forced to flee for their lives.
As a result of the report of the riot, the British consul in Shanghai, Sir Walter Henry Medhurst took seventy Royal marines in a man-of-war and steamed up the Yangtze to Nanjing in a controversial show of force that eventually resulted in an official apology from the Chinese government under Viceroy Zeng Guofan and financial restitution was offered to the C.I.M. but not accepted, to create goodwill among the Chinese. The house that they had purchased in the city was however restored to the mission. Hudson Taylor and other Christian missionaries in China at that time were often accused of using gunboats to spread the gospel. However, none of the missionaries had requested or desired the military intervention.Yaxing Coach
Yaxing Coach (Yangzhou Yaxing Motor Coach Co., Ltd) is a bus manufacturer based in Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China. It is a subsidiary of Jiangsu Yaxing that was founded in 1998. Buses are produced under the Yaxing, Yangtse（Yangzlv）, and more recently Asiastar brands.Yizheng
Yizheng (simplified Chinese: 仪征; traditional Chinese: 儀征; pinyin: Yízhēng) is a county-level city under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, Jiangsu province, China, with a population of about 600,000 (2007). It borders the prefecture-level divisions of Chuzhou (Anhui) to the north, Nanjing to the west, and Zhenjiang to the south.Zhou Shutao
Zhou Shutao (Chinese: 周叔弢) (July 18, 1891, Yangzhou – February 14, 1984, Tianjin) was a collector of rare books, an industrialist, and the deputy mayor of Tianjin.Zhu Wuhua
Zhu Wuhua (Chinese: 朱物华; January 1902 – March 1998) was a Chinese electronic engineer, an acoustic expert and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Cities along the Yangtze
Cities (from upper reaches to lower reaches)
Major cities along the Pearl River · Major cities along the Yellow River