Yandex N.V. (/ˈjʌndɛks/; Russian: Яндекс, IPA: [ˈjandəks]) is a Russian multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related products and services, including search and information services, eCommerce, transportation, navigation, mobile applications, and online advertising. Yandex provides over 70 services in total.[4][5] Incorporated in the Netherlands, Yandex primarily serves audiences in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The company founders and most of the team members are located in Russia. The company has 18 commercial offices worldwide.[6][7]

It is the largest technology company in Russia[8] and the largest search engine on the internet in Russian, with a market share of over 52%.[9] The home page is the 4th most popular website in Russia.[10] It also has the largest market share of any search engine in the Commonwealth of Independent States and is the 5th largest search engine worldwide after Google, Baidu, Bing, and Yahoo!.

Yandex's main competitors on the Russian market are Google,, and Rambler.

According to the company, one of its biggest advantages for Russian-language users is the ability to recognize Russian inflection in search queries.[11]

Yandex has invested in companies including Vizi Labs,, Blekko, Seismotech, Multiship, SalesPredict, and Doc+.[12]

Yandex N.V.
Native name
Public company
Search engine
Founded1997 (Yandex search launched by CompTek)
2000 (Yandex company founded)
FounderArkady Volozh
Arkady Borkovsky
Ilya Segalovich
Headquartersul. Lva Tolstogo, 16, Moscow, Russia, 119021
Area served
Russia, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Israel
Key people
Arkady Volozh, CEO
ProductsAlisa (virtual assistant)
Yandex Search
Yandex Disk
Yandex Browser
Yandex Maps
Yandex News
Yandex Video
Yandex.Map editor
Yandex Money
Yandex Panoramas
Yandex Taxi
Revenue$1.61 billion[1] (2017)
$223 million[1] (2017)
$150 million[1] (2017)
Total assets$2.23 billion[1][2] (2017; 2018)
Total equity$1.42 billion[1][2] (2017; 2018)
Number of employees
7,445 (2017),
Footnotes / references


Yandex has offices in 17 countries.[13]

Yandex launched Yandex Labs in Silicon Valley in 2008,[14] and also in Istanbul in 2011.[15]

Yandex opened a sales office in Lucerne in 2012 to serve its European advertising clients.[16] In 2014, they also opened a research and development office in Berlin.[17]

Yandex opened its first office in Shanghai during 2015 to work with Chinese companies that work on the Russian language market.[18]


Yandex traces its roots to 1990, when Arkady Volozh and Arkady Borkovsky founded Arkadia, a company that developed MS-DOS software for use in patents and goods classification. Their software featured a full-text search with Russian morphology support. In 1993, Arkadia became a subdivision of Comptek International, another company founded by Volozh in 1989.

In 1993, Arkady Volozh and Ilya Segalovich, friends since their school days and by then working together to develop search software,[19] invented the word "Yandex" to describe their search technologies. The name initially stood for "Yet Another iNDEXer".[20] The Russian word "Я" ("Ya") corresponds to the English personal pronoun "I", making "Яndex" a bilingual pun on "index". Another pun is based on the yin and yang contrast (Russian: инь – индекс, ян – яндекс).

Between 1993 and 1996, the company continued developing its search technologies and released software for searching through the Bible.[20]

The search engine was launched on September 23, 1997, and was publicly presented at the Softool exhibition in Moscow.[21] Initially, the search engine was developed by Comptek. In 2000, Yandex was incorporated as a standalone company by Arkady Volozh.[20]

In 1998, Yandex launched contextual advertisement on its search engine. In 2001, it launched the Yandex.Direct online advertising network.[20]

The company became profitable in November 2002. In 2004, Yandex sales increased to $17 million, up 1000% in 2 years. The net income of the company in 2004 was $7 million. In June 2006, the weekly revenue of Yandex.Direct context ads system exceeded $1 million. The company's accounting has been audited by Deloitte since 1999.

In September 2005, Yandex opened an office in Ukraine[22] and launched[23] In 2007, Yandex introduced a customized search engine for Ukrainian users;[24] Yandex also opened its development center in Kiev in May 2007. In 2008, Yandex extended its presence in Ukraine by increasing bandwidth between Moscow data centers and UA-IX in Ukraine fivefold.[25] In 2009, all services of were localized for the Ukrainian market.[26] In 2010, Yandex launched its "Poltava" search engine algorithm for Ukrainian users, based on its MatrixNet technology.[27]

In March 2007, Yandex acquired, a Russian social networking service.[28]

On June 16, 2008, Yandex acquired SMILink, a Russian road traffic monitoring agency, to merge it with Yandex. Maps services.[29]

On June 20, 2008, Yandex announced the formation of Yandex Labs in Silicon Valley. The main objective of the division is to foster "innovation in search and advertising technology".[14]

In September 2008, Yandex acquired the rights to the Punto Switcher software program, an automatic Russian to English keyboard layout switcher.[30]

In January 2009, Mozilla Firefox 3.5, replaced Google with Yandex as the default search provider for Russian-language builds.[31]

In August 2009, Yandex introduced a player of free legal music in its search results. In September 2010, Yandex launched the Yandex. Music service and significantly extended its music catalogue to 800,000 tracks from 58,000 performers.[32]

On May 19, 2010, Yandex launched an English-only web search engine.[33][34][35]

In September 2010, Yandex invested in a $4.3 million financing round by[36] The company was acquired by Facebook in 2012.

In December 2010, Yandex launched Yandex.Start to find startups and to work with them systematically. As a result of the program, Yandex purchased WebVisor's behavior analysis technology in December 2010.[37][38]

On January 26, 2011, Yandex introduced premium placement opportunity in its Business directory; advertisers' local small businesses are highlighted on a map for relevant queries.[39]

On January 27, 2011, the company acquired single sign-in service Loginza.[40]

On May 3, 2011, as part of a disclosure on the "legal and political risks" of investing in Russia, before the listing on NASDAQ, Yandex revealed that it had passed private customer information to the Federal Security Service, including that of users who had donated money via Yandex to an anti-corruption website set-up by Alexei Navalny.[41]

On May 24, 2011, Yandex raised $1.3 billion in an initial public offering on NASDAQ. It was the biggest initial public offering for a dot-com company since Google's offering in 2004.[42] Among the largest investors in Yandex were Baring Vostok Capital Partners, which owned a 30% stake, and Tiger Management, which owned a 15% stake.[43]

In August 2011, Yandex acquired The Tweeted Times, a news delivery startup.[44]

In September 2011, Yandex launched a search engine and a range of other services in Turkey. The company also opened an office in Istanbul.[15]

In September 2011, the company invested in Blekko as part of a $30 million financing round.[45][46]

In November 2011, Yandex acquired SPB Software, a software developer, for $38 million.[47][48]

In June 2012, Yandex acquired a 25% stake in Seismotech, a company that provides services in the area of interpretative processing of seismic data and software development, for $1 million.[49][50]

In March 2013, the company added an English user interface to its translation mobile app.[51]

In July 2013, Mail.Ru started placing Yandex.Direct ads on its search result pages.[52]

In October 2013, Yandex acquired KinoPoisk, the biggest Russian movie search engine.[53][54][55]

In 2013, Yandex became the largest media property in Russia by revenue.[56]

In February 2014, Yandex invested several million dollars in MultiShip.[57][58]

In March 2014, Yandex acquired Israeli geolocation startup KitLocate and opened a research and development office in Israel.[59][60][61]

In April 2014, a movie called Startup, about the history of Yandex was released.[62]

In June 2014, Yandex acquired, an online marketplace and classified advertising website for automobiles, for $175 million.[63][64]

In December 2015, Yandex acquired Agnitum, an internet security company.[65]

On June 1, 2017, Yandex closed its offices in Kiev and Odessa, Ukraine after the Security Service of Ukraine raided the offices and accused the company of illegally collecting Ukrainian users’ data and sending it to Russian security agencies.[66]

On June 6, 2017, the company invested in a $5 million financing round by Doc+.[67]

In August 2017 all Yandex services were banned in Ukraine by Presidential Decree No. 133/2017 [68]

On October 10, 2017, Yandex introduced its intelligent personal assistant, Alisa (Alice) for Android, iOS, and Microsoft Windows.[69][70][71]

In December 2017, the company acquired Foodfox, a food delivery service.[72]

In 2017, within the framework of a joint anti-phishing project of the Bank of Russia and search engine Yandex, a special check mark (a green circle with a tick and 'Реестр ЦБ РФ' (Bank of Russia Register) text box) appeared in the search results, informing the consumer that the website is really owned by a legally registered company licensed by the Bank of Russia.[73][74]

On February 7, 2018, Uber and Yandex NV merged their businesses in Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus and Georgia. Uber invested $225 million and owns 36.6% stake in the venture while Yandex invested $100 million and owns a 59.3% stake.[75]

On February 16, 2018, the company showed off the first tests of its autonomous cars in Moscow.[76][77]

In May 2018, Sberbank and Yandex completed joint venture deal to develop a B2C eCommerce ecosystem.[78]

In Oct 2018 Yandex acquired "Edadil" (Russian: Едадил, lit. "grocery deals"), a deal aggregator service.[79]

See also


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  5. ^ "Все сервисы Яндекса". Яндекс.
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  15. ^ a b "Yandex Launches in Turkey" (Press release). Yandex. September 20, 2011.
  16. ^ "Yandex Opens Offices in Europe" (Press release). GlobeNewswire. March 12, 2012.
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  49. ^ "Yandex Supports Geophysical Exploration" (Press release). Yandex. June 22, 2012.
  50. ^ Peak, Krystal (June 22, 2012). "Yandex buys 25% stake in seismic data processing biz". Vator.
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  52. ^ ", Yandex agree to place ads from Yandex.Direct on search engine". Interfax. July 25, 2013.
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  68. ^ УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ №133/2017 — Офіційне інтернет-представництво Президента України (in Ukrainian). Office of the President of Ukraine. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
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External links

Alice (virtual assistant)

Alice (Russian: Алиса (Alisa)) is a Russian intelligent personal assistant for Android, iOS and Windows operating systems developed by Yandex. Alice was officially introduced on 10 October 2017. Aside from common tasks, such as internet search or weather forecasts, it can also run applications and chit-chat. Alice is also the virtual assistant used for the Yandex Station smart speaker. is a Russian website chronicling the films, people and studios of the animation industry in Russia, the former Soviet Union and (to a lesser extent) the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). It also includes a forum, a news block, a photo-gallery and an animators labour exchange. The database is available in Russian and English, while the other sections are Russian-language only.

It was founded with the financial support of the Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of Russia.

Its earliest records come from 1912 (the films of Ladislas Starevich). Much of the information in it is not documented by bigger English-language film databases such as IMDB.

The website has a Yandex citing index of 1700.

Cocaine (PaaS)

Cocaine (Configurable Omnipotent Custom Applications Integrated Network Engine) is an open-source PaaS system for creating custom cloud hosting apps that are similar to Bluemix, Google App Engine or Heroku. Several services have already been implemented this way, including a service for detecting a user's region or language, a service for accessing MongoDB storage, and a URL fetcher.

Comparison of web search engines

Search engines are listed in tables below for comparison purposes. The first table lists the company behind the engine, volume and ad support and identifies the nature of the software being used as free software or proprietary. The second table lists privacy aspects along with other technical parameters, such as whether the engine provides personalization (alternatively viewed as a filter bubble).

Defunct or acquired search engines are not listed here.

Comparison of webmail providers

The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of notable webmail providers who offer a web interface in English.

The list does not include web hosting providers who may offer email services as a part of hosting package.

DT1 multiple unit

DT1 multiple unit is a train, developed at Torzhoksky car-building factory in Russia in 2007.

The train has electric and diesel draught, and is intended for maintenance of suburban transportations on railways of a track of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) with low and high passenger platforms in macroclimatic areas with a temperate climate.The diesel engine-electric train can accelerate momentum to 110 kilometres per hour (68 mph).

Quantity of places for sitting 370, nominal density of population 878 peoples.


Elliptics is a distributed key-value data storage with open source code. By default it is a classic distributed hash table (DHT) with multiple replicas put in different groups (distributed hashes). Elliptics was created to meet requirements of multi-datacenter and physically distributed storage locations when storing huge amount of medium and large files (1kb up to gigabytes in size, thousands to billions of objects).


KinoPoisk, KinoPoisk.Ru (Russian: КиноПоиск, КиноПоиск.Ru, Кино is movie and Поиск is search) is a Russian website about cinematography. The site provides information about movies, TV shows, actors, directors, producers, screenwriters, composers, editors etc. It also has some features of social networks. At the moment it is one of the most popular movie portals of Runet, it occupies the 18th line in Alexa rating of Russian websites as of July 2016. It was often compared to IMDb.

In 2013, Kinopoisk was purchased by Yandex, one of Russia's largest IT companies. In 2015, Kinopoisk underwent a total redesign. However, the new design was met with strong criticism by both users and the media for its inferior functionality and slower loading time. Within four days Yandex reverted the site to its former design that remains in use to this day. At approximately the same time Kinopoisk introduced an online cinema theater feature, providing some of the movies for free and reserving others for subscribers. is a collaborative community activity with a mission to "create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond." Webmasters use this shared vocabulary to structure metadata on their websites and to help search engines understand the published content, a technique known as search engine optimization.

Sputnik (search engine)

Sputnik is a web search engine owned by the Russian state-owned telecommunications company Rostelecom. It markets itself as an engine geared towards "local services". At the end of the week of the launch, it was responsible for 0.01% of the search engine traffic in Russia, compared with 62% for Yandex and 28% for Google. It went through the maximum in February 2016, with 11 thousands hits (compared with 121 million hits of Yandex). In January 2017, Sputnik was the 15th most popular search engine in Russia, with 1 / 32,000 times the hits of Yandex. The experts generally consider Sputnik as a failed project and note that it only exists because of the state funding.


Yandex.Direct is an automated, auction-based system for placement of text-based advertising in Russia. Yandex.Direct was launched in 2001. Its rivals, Begun and Google AdWords, began their operations in Russia in 2002.

The service is the largest of its kind in Russia. According to Yandex, Direct processes millions of auctions every day.The service operates in five countries: Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Advertisers may access Yandex.Direct through interfaces in Russian, Turkish, Ukrainian and English.

Most of Yandex revenues are generated from text-based ads. The significant majority of said ads are placed through Yandex.Direct platform. Yandex.Direct display ads on Yandex search engine results pages and at participant sites of Yandex ad network.

In addition to targeting ads on the basis of user queries and website content, ads can be targeted on the basis of users’ demographics as well as behavioral patterns, characteristics and locations. Direct provides two kinds of interface to work with: so called Professional and Easy. The latter is oriented for novice advertisers.

Yandex.Direct served ads for more than 127,000 advertisers in the first quarter of 2011, compared with 92,000 in the first quarter of 2010, 180,000 in the full year 2010 and 131,000 in the full year 2009.

Since 2007, Yandex.Direct provides advertisers with a Yandex.Metrica web analytics service to appraise site audience quality and measure conversion ratio for keyword advertising.

Similar to Google Ads Editor Yandex offers its own campaign editing platform known as Yandex Direct Commander which helps to make large-scale changes.


Yandex.Drive is a Russian carsharing service owned by Yandex. The service in Moscow and Moscow Oblast launched in February 2018. The vehicle park consists of Kia Rio, Kia Rio X-Line, Renault Kaptur, Audi A3, Audi Q3 and Porsche Macan. As of April 2019 its vehicle fleet is over 9500 cars. It is the largest carsharing company in Russia by car fleet, second largest in Europe and third largest in the world after car2go and Zipcar.


Yandex.Money (Russian: Яндекс.Деньги) is Russia’s largest electronic payment service according to a 2016 survey by TNS. It is an online payment service that works with two types of clients — individual users and merchants.

The service is the joint venture of Russia's leading search engine Yandex (NASDAQ: YNDX), and Russia's largest bank Sberbank. In 2013, Sberbank, one of the largest banks in Eastern Europe, bought a major stake in Yandex.Money. Currently, Sberbank owns a 75% stake in the company, the remaining 25% plus one ruble is owned by Yandex. With new stakeholders, Yandex.Money obtained access to a broad payment infrastructure of Sberbank. Users obtained an opportunity to top up their e-wallets through the chain of Sberbank’s ATMs and terminals, and online banking.

Yandex.Money has a b2b service Yandex.Checkout — a payment aggregator for online stores and other businesses that need payments on their online platforms. Yandex.Checkout was launched by Yandex.Money in 2013. Yandex.Checkout is currently the leading service for accepting online payments in Russia, according to a 2016 survey by MARC. With this payment solution, merchants from all over the world can offer Russian consumers the online payment methods most popular among Russians and CIS-citizens just in one button ‘Pay with Yandex’: bank cards, direct debit (online banking), e-wallets, mobile phones, and cash via mobile retailers and payment kiosks (there are over 250 thousand cash-acceptance points all over CIS).

Currently more than 76,000 online stores across the globe use Yandex.Checkout, including such partners as Skype, AliExpress (Alibaba), and BlaBlaCar.Yandex.Money also has an e-wallet, which is the original product of the company. Yandex.Money offers consumers easy, safe, and reliable methods of paying online on its own site and mobile app. The service hosts about 30 million user accounts with about 15,000 new accounts opened daily. Recent TNS research showed that Yandex.Money is the most popular e-wallet in Russia: every third user of the Internet in Russia pays by Yandex.Money e-wallet. Using Yandex.Money, gamers also can pay on Nintendo, top up an account on Steam (software), Wargaming, Riot Games, buy codes for Apple (iTunes) and Xbox. Yandex.Money became the official sales operator of the popular game publisher Electronic Arts. Russian users can now buy FIFA 17 for PC and Xbox through the service. Yandex.Money also distributes Blizzard Entertainment virtual cards, which provide users with a convenient payment option for Blizzard’s online games: World of Warcraft, Overwatch (video game), Heroes of the Storm, StarCraft, Hearthstone (video game), and Diablo (series).

Customers can also use Yandex.Money cards as a form of payment: both plastic and virtual MasterCards are available for issuing. In 2015 Yandex.Money received MasterCard Principal Member status. By the 2016 Yandex.Money has issued more than 500,000 plastic cards and 11 million virtual MasterCards. Yandex.Money was among the first to bring its users Apple Pay in Russia, which is transforming mobile payments with an easy, secure and private way to pay in stores, apps and on the web. Customers can pay via Apple Pay by adding their plastic or virtual prepaid Yandex.Money cards to Apple Wallet. Online stores and other merchants, which accept payments via Yandex.Checkout, can also offer consumers fast and convenient contactless payment via Apple Pay. With Touch ID there is no need to manually fill out lengthy payment forms or repeatedly type in billing information.

More than 4 million users have downloaded the Yandex.Money mobile app. 35% of them use an iOS device. Using the app, they can transfer funds via iMessage, pay bills — such as utilities, internet, mobile services — make loan payments, access their most frequent payments, and more. Users can also download the Yandex.Money app on Apple Watch. Yandex.Money mobile application Yandex.Fines for iOS implemented a new feature, which enables paying for traffic fines via Apple Pay.According to a June 2015 public opinion survey, Yandex.Money is widely known in Russia. In a survey conducted by TNS, 92 percent of Russians are familiar with the service, and 44 percent regularly use Yandex.Money to make payments.The company’s headquarters are in Moscow, Russia. It has branch offices in Saint Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Ivan Glazachev is Yandex.Money Chief Executive Officer. He became the head of the company on 1 March 2017.


Yandex.Taxi (Russian: Яндекс.Такси) is an international IT company that operates ride-hailing and food tech businesses across Russia, CIS, Central Europe, the EU, Africa and the Middle East. The company is among the world’s leading developers of self-driving technology.Yandex.Taxi was founded by Yandex N.V., a multinational company incorporated in the Netherlands that operates a search engine, an Internet portal, and about 70 other online services in multiple countries. Sometimes described as the «Russian Google, Amazon, Uber and Spotify», Yandex has been listed on the NASDAQ since 2011. The company focuses on developing machine learning-based technologies. Yandex.Taxi is a separate, private limited liability company within Yandex Group, incorporated in the Netherlands as Yandex.Taxi B.V.

The ride-hailing service is a key business for Yandex.Taxi so far, operating in more than 300 large cities across Russia, Belarus, Moldova, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Serbia, Israel, Ivory Coast, and Finland. In the latter three countries, it operates under a brand called Yango. More than 36 million people have used the service since it launched. By September 2018, the number of total rides exceeded 1 billion. More than 400,000 drivers are connected to the network.

The food tech arm of the company includes food delivery service Yandex.Eats and meal kit service Partiya Edi. As of December 2018, these services are only available in Russia.

Users interact with the company’s ride hailing and food tech services via mobile apps and online.

Tigran Khudaverdyan has run the company since 2014.


Yandex.Translate (previously Yandex.Translation) is a web service provided by Yandex, intended for the translation of text or web pages into another language.

The service uses a self-learning statistical machine translation, developed by Yandex. The system constructs the dictionary of single-word translations based on the analysis of millions of translated texts. In order to translate the text, the computer first compares it to a database of words. The computer then compares the text to the base language models, trying to determine the meaning of an expression in the context of the text.

The translation page first appeared in 2009, utilizing PROMT, and was also built into Yandex Browser itself, to assist in translation for websites. From September 2017 forwards, Yandex has switched to a neural network to provide better translation.

This service is also built into the Russian Wikipedia to provide translation services from Russian to English..

Yandex Browser

Yandex Browser (Яндекс браузер in Russian) is a freeware web browser developed by the Russian web search corporation Yandex that uses the Blink web browser engine and is based on the Chromium open source project. The browser checks webpage security with the Yandex security system and checks downloaded files with Kaspersky anti-virus. The browser also uses Opera Software's Turbo technology to speed web browsing on slow connections.The browser is available for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS. In October 2014 a Linux beta version was introduced.Yandex is facing web search competition in Russia from Google Search. Google Chrome, Russia's most popular web browser, uses Google Search as its default search engine. In June 2012, Mozilla Firefox, the world's third most popular web browser, signed a deal to replace its default search engine Yandex Search with Google Search. As Yandex Browser's "Smartbox" uses Yandex Search as its default search engine, the browser will help Yandex compete for Russian search market share.

Yandex Disk

Yandex.Disk (Russian: Яндекс.Диск) is a cloud service created by Yandex that lets users store files on “cloud” servers and share them with others online. The service is based on syncing data between different devices. Yandex.Disk was launched in English in June 2012.

Yandex Maps

Yandex Maps is a Russian web mapping service developed by Yandex. The service provides detailed maps of the whole world. It includes a search, information about traffic jams, routing and street panoramas. The service was launched in 2004.Yandex Maps is the most popular cartographic service in Russia. It has about 11.5 million users in Russia per month, and over 20 million worldwide.

Yandex Search

Yandex Search is a web search engine owned by Russian corporation Yandex. It is the core product of Yandex. In January 2015 Yandex Search generated 51.2% of all search traffic in Russia according to LiveInternet.

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