The Yamuna (Hindustani: pronounced [jəmʊnaː]), also known as the Jumna or Jamna (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh), is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft) on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Prayagraj (Prayagraj), which is a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years.

It crosses several states: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and later Delhi, and meeting its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest tributary, Chambal, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. From Uttaranchal, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga (Ganges) at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad (Uttar Pradesh). It helps create the highly fertile alluvial Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna's waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres (cbm; 8.1 billion acre⋅ft) and usage of 4,400 cbm (of which irrigation constitutes 96 per cent), the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi's water supply. Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is highly venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. In Hindu mythology she is the daughter of the Sun Deva, Surya, and the sister of Yama, the Deva of Death, hence also known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death.[2][3]

At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, and by the highly polluted Hindon River near Noida, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.[4] The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad barrage in Delhi, about 375 kilometres (233 mi); below this, the discharge of wastewater through 15 drains between Wazirabad barrage and Okhla barrage renders the river severely polluted.

One official described the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content.[5] There are three main sources of pollution in the river: household and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture, and resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites. The Yamuna from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage is called the Upper Yamuna.[6]

Yamunarithike_native =
Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna, Vrindavan, 1789
Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna at Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, 1789: the river has shifted further away since then.
StateUttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi
CitiesYamuna Nagar, Delhi, Faridabad, Mathura, Agra, Etawah, Prayagraj (Allahabad)
Physical characteristics
 ⁃ locationBanderpooch peaks, Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand, India
 ⁃ coordinates31°01′0.12″N 78°27′0″E / 31.0167000°N 78.45000°E
 ⁃ elevation3,293 m (10,804 ft)
MouthTriveni sangam
 ⁃ location
Prayagraj (Allahabad), India
 ⁃ coordinates
25°25′11.44″N 81°53′5.80″E / 25.4198444°N 81.8849444°ECoordinates: 25°25′11.44″N 81°53′5.80″E / 25.4198444°N 81.8849444°E
 ⁃ elevation
74 m (243 ft)
Length1,376 km (855 mi)
Basin size366,223 km2 (141,399 sq mi)
 ⁃ locationmouth[1]
 ⁃ average2,950 m3/s (104,000 cu ft/s)
Basin features
 ⁃ leftHindon, Tons, Giri, Rishiganga, Hanuman Ganga, Sasur Khaderi
 ⁃ rightChambal, Betwa, Ken, Sindh, Baghain


Himalayas at dusk from Mussoorie, Uttarakhand
Banderpoonch peak, the source of Yamuna, as seen from Mussoorie
Yamunotri temple and ashram
The Yamunotri temple on the river, dedicated to Goddess Yamuna


The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna.[7] Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth's crust caused by plate tectonics.[7]


The source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres (20,955 ft), on the south-western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand.[2] Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, and part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Also standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre (8 mi) trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana.[8][9]

Current course

The river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres (120 mi), through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches, gorges and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres (900 sq mi), lies in Himachal Pradesh. The Tons, Yamana's largest tributary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from the Hari-ki-dun valley and merges after Kalsi near Dehradun. The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal, also draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag (6,387 metres [20,955 ft]) is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Kunta, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin.[10]

Chandigarh river
Yamuna river between Saharanpur and Yamunanagar

From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district (named after the river) of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) crosses Yamuna Nagar, Karnal and Panipat before reaching the Haiderpur treatment plant, which contributes to Delhi's municipal water supply. The Yamuna receives wastewater from Yamuna Nagar and Panipat cities; beyond this it is replenished by seasonal streams and groundwater accrual. During the dry season, the Yamuna remains dry in many stretches between the Tajewala dam and Delhi, where it enters near the Palla barrage after traversing 224 kilometres (139 mi).

The Yamuna defines the state borders between Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand, and between Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. When the Yamuna reaches the Indo-Gangetic plain, it runs almost parallel to the Ganges, the two rivers creating the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region. Spread across 69,000 square kilometres (27,000 sq mi), one-third of the alluvial plain, the region is known for its agricultural output, particularly for the cultivation of basmati rice. The plain's agriculture supports one-third of India's population.[11]

Indo-Gangetic Plain
Course of Yamuna, in the Indo-Gangetic Plain

Subsequently, the Yamana flows through the states of Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh] before merging with the Ganges at a sacred spot known as Triveni Sangam in Prayagraj (Allahabad). Pilgrims travel by boats to platforms erected in midstream to offer prayers. During the Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, large congregations of people immerse themselves in the sacred waters of the confluence.[12] The cities of Baghpat, Delhi, Noida, Mathura, Agra, Firozabad, Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur, and Prayagraj lie on its banks. At Etawah, it meets it another important tributary, Chambal, followed by a host of tributaries further down, including, Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken.[3][13]

Important tributaries

Jamuna catchment
Catchment boundary of the Yamuna

Along its 1,376-kilometre (855 mi) length, the Yamuna has many notable tributaries:


Krishna carried over river yamuna
Vasudev carrying baby Lord Krishna across the Yamuna, an important legend of Bhagavata Purana.

The name Yamuna seems to be derived from the Sanskrit word "yama", meaning 'twin', and it may have been applied to the river because it runs parallel to the Ganges. The Yamuna is mentioned at many places in the Rig Veda, which was composed during the Vedic period c. 1700–1100 BCE, and also in the later Atharvaveda, and the Brahmanas including Aitareya Brahmana and Shatapatha Brahmana.[15] In the Rigveda, the story of the Yamuna describes her "excessive love" for her twin, Yama, who in turn asks her to find a suitable match for herself, which she does in Krishna.[16]

The tale is further detailed in the 16th century Sanskrit hymn, Yamunashtakam, an ode by the philosopher Vallabhacharya. Here the story of her descent to meet her beloved Krishna and to purify the world has been put into verse. The hymn also praises her for being the source of all spiritual abilities. And while the Ganges is considered an epitome of asceticism and higher knowledge and can grant Moksha or liberation, it is Yamuna, who, being a holder of infinite love and compassion, can grant freedom, even from death, the realm of her elder brother. Vallabhacharya writes that she rushes down the Kalinda Mountain, and describes her as the daughter of Kalinda, giving her the name Kalindi, the backdrop of Krishna Leela. The text also talks about her water being of the colour of Lord Krishna, which is dark (Shyam).[17][18] The river is referred to as Asita in some historical texts.[19]

It is mentioned as Iomanes (Ioames) in the surveys of Seleucus I Nicator, an officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi, who visited India in 305 BCE. Greek traveller and geographer Megasthenes visited India sometime before 288 BCE (the date of Chandragupta's death) and mentioned the river in his Indica, where he described the region around it as the land of Surasena.[20] In Mahabharata, the Pandava capital of Indraprastha was situated on the banks of Yamuna, considered to be the site of modern Delhi.

Geological evidence indicates that in the distant past the Yamuna was a tributary of the Ghaggar River (identified by some as the Vedic Sarasvati River). It later changed its course eastward, becoming a tributary of the Ganges. While some have argued that this was due to a tectonic event, and may have led to the Sarasvati River drying up, the end of many Harappan civilisation settlements, and creation of the Thar desert,[21][22][23] recent geological research suggests that the diversion of the Yamuna to the Ganges may have occurred during the Pleistocene, and thus could not be connected to the decline of the Harappan civilisation in the region.[24]

Most of the great empires which ruled over a majority of India were based in the highly fertile Ganges–Yamuna basin, including the Magadha (c. 600 BCE), Maurya Empire (321–185 BCE), Shunga Empire (185–73 BCE), Kushan Empire (1st–3rd centuries CE), and Gupta Empire (280–550 CE), and many had their capitals here, in cities like Pataliputra or Mathura. These rivers were revered throughout these kingdoms that flourished on their banks; since the period of Chandragupta II (r. 375–415 CE), statues both the Ganges and Yamuna became common throughout the Gupta Empire. Further to the South, images of the Ganges and Yamuna are found amidst shrines of the Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas (753–982), and on their royal seals; prior to them, the Chola Empire also added the river into their architectural motifs. The Three River Goddess shrine, next to the Kailash rock-cut Temple at Ellora, shows the Ganges flanked by the Yamuna and Saraswati.[25]

Religious significance

Yamuna, personificazione del fiume sacro yamuna, IX sec
The goddess Yamuna

The goddess of the river, also known as Yami, is the sister of Yama, the god of death, and the daughter of Surya, the Sun god, and his wife Saranyu.[26] Yamuna, referred to respectfully as Yamunaji, holds a very important position in Pushti Marga, a large sect of Hinduism based on the ShuddhAdvaita, in which Shri Krishna is the main deity, propagated by VallabhAcharya / MahaPrabhuji.

The river Yamuna is connected to the religious beliefs surrounding Krishna and various stories of the two are found in Hindu religious texts, especially the Puranas. One such story is Kaliya Daman about the subduing of Kaliya, a Nāga which had inhabited the river and terrorised the people of Braja.[27][28] Yamuna, according to the legends, is closely related to Lord Krishna and Mahabharata. Krishna was taken across the Yamuna on the night of his birth. Krishna's maternal uncle Kansa had planned to kill all his nephews, as his eighth nephew was predicted to be his Kāla. When Vasudeva, carrying Krishna in a basket, reached the river Yamuna, on the stormy night of Krishna's birth, Yamuna is said to have parted to make way for Vasudeva. Krishna and the Gopis also used to play on the banks of the Yamunaji as children.

Taj Mahal-11
Taj Mahal is situated on the banks of river Yamuna.


The stretch of the river from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage in Delhi is called "Upper Yamuna". A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed amongst the five basin states (Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Delhi) on 12 May 1994 for sharing of its waters. This led to the formation of Upper Yamuna River Board under India's Ministry of Water Resources, whose primary functions are: regulation of the available flows amongst the beneficiary states and monitoring the return flows; monitoring conservation and upgrading the quality of surface and groundwater; maintaining hydro-meteorological data for the basin; overviewing plans for watershed management; and monitoring and reviewing the progress of all projects up to and including Okhla barrage.[29]

Flood forecasting systems are established at Poanta Sahib, where Tons, Pawar and Giri tributaries meet. The river take 60 hours to travel from Tajewala to Delhi, thus allowing a two-day advance flood warning period.[2][30][31] The Central Water Commission started flood-forecasting services in 1958 with its first forecasting station on Yamuna at Delhi Railway Bridge.[32]


Yamuna has the following six functional barrages (eight including old replaced barrages, nine including a new proposed barrage), from north-west to south-east:[33][34][35][36]

  • Dakpathar Barrage in Uttarakhand, managed by the Uttarakhand govt.
  • Hathni Kund Barrage in Haryana, 172 km (107 mi) from the source of Yamuna, built in 1999 and managed by Haryana govt.[37][38]
  • Wazirabad barrage in north Delhi, 244 km (152 mi) from Hathni Kund barrage, managed by the Delhi govt.[39]
    • "New Wazirabad barrage", proposed in 2013, to be built 8 km north of the Wazirabad barrage.
  • ITO barrage (Indraparstha barrage) in central Delhi, managed by the Haryana govt.[39]
  • Okhla barrage is 22 km from Wazirabad to south Delhi, managed by the Uttar Pradesh (UP) government.[39]
  • Gokul barrage (a.k.a. Mathura barrage) is at Gokul in Uttar Pradesh, managed by the UP govt.


Agra canal headworks1871a
Agra Canal headworks at Okhla barrage, Delhi, 1871.

Use of the Yamuna's waters for irrigation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains is enhanced by its many canals, some dating to the 14th century Tughlaq dynasty, which built the Nahr-i-Bahisht (Paradise) parallel to the river. The Nahr-i-Bahisht was restored and extended by the Mughals in the first half of the 17th century, by engineer Ali Mardan Khan, starting from Benawas where the river enters the plains and terminating near the Mughal capital of Shahjahanabad, the present city of Delhi.[40]

Eastern Yamuna Canal

As the Yamuna enters the Northern Plains near Dakpathar at an elevation of 790 metres (2,590 ft), the Eastern Yamuna Canal commences at the Dakpathar Barrage and pauses at the Asan and Hathnikund Barrages before continuing south.[37][38]

Western Yamuna Canal

The Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) was built in 1335 CE by Firuz Shah Tughlaq. Excessive silting caused it to stop flowing c. 1750, when the British Raj undertook a three-year renovation in 1817 by Bengal Engineer Group. The Tajewala Barrage dam was built in 1832–33 to regulate the flow of water, and was replaced by the modern Hathni Kund Barrage in 1999.[41]

The main canal is 86 kilometres (53 mi) long.[41] When including its branches and many major and minor irrigation channels, it has a total length of 325 km (202 mi)[42] The WYC begins at the Hathni Kund Barrage about 38 kilometres (24 mi) from Dakpathar and south of Doon Valley. The canals irrigate vast tracts of land in the region in Ambala, Karnal, Sonepat, Rohtak, Jind, Hisar and Bhiwani districts.[41]

The major branch canals are:

The Sutlej–Yamuna Link

A proposed heavy freight canal, the Sutlej–Yamuna Link (SYL), is being built westwards from near the Yamuna's headwaters through the Punjab region near an ancient caravan route and highlands pass to the navigable parts of the SutlejIndus watershed. This will connect the Ganges, which flows to the east coast of the subcontinent, with points west (via Pakistan). When completed, the SYL will allow shipping from India's east coast to the west coast and the Arabian sea, shortening important commercial links for north-central India's large population. The canal starts near Delhi, and is designed to transfer Haryana's share of 4.3 km3 (3,500,000 acre⋅ft) from the Indus Basin.


Yamuna is one of the National Waterways of India, designated as NW110 in Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh. Some of its sections are being developed for navigation:[47][48]


Yamuna river near the Himalayas
The Yamuna near the Himalayas, just as it reaches the plains, beyond Dehradun in Uttarakhand

In 1909, the waters of the Yamuna were distinguishable as clear blue, when compared to the silt-laden yellow of the Ganges.[49] However, due to high-density population growth and rapid industrialisation, Yamuna has become one of the most polluted rivers in the world.[50] The Yamuna is particularly polluted downstream of New Delhi, the capital of India, which dumps about 58% of its waste into the river. A recent study shows that there is 100% urban metabolism of River Yamuna as it passes through the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi.[51] The most pollution comes from Wazirabad, from where Yamuna enters Delhi [52] Yamuna is also one of the most polluted rivers in India.[53]


New Delhi generates 1,900 million litres (500,000,000 US gal) per day (MLD) of sewage. Though many attempts have been made to process it, these efforts have proven futile. Although the government of India has spent nearly $500 million to clean up the river, the Yamuna continues to be polluted with garbage while most sewage treatment facilities are underfunded or malfunctioning. In addition, the water in the river remains stagnant for almost nine months a year, aggravating the situation. Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 MLD of sewage to the river. The government of India over the next five years has prepared plans to rebuild and repair the sewage system and the drains that empty into the river.

To address river pollution, measures have been taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 12 towns of Haryana, 8 towns of Uttar Pradesh, and Delhi, under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP) which has been implemented since 1993 by the MoEF's National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD). The Japan Bank for International Cooperation is participating in the YAP in 15 of the towns (excluding 6 towns of Haryana included later on the direction of the Supreme Court of India) with soft loan assistance of 17.773 billion Japanese yen (equivalent to about 700 crore [7 billion rupees]) while the government of India is providing the funds for the remaining 6 towns. In 2007, the Indian government's plans to repair sewage lines were predicted to improve the water quality of the river 90% by the year 2010.[54][55][56]

The last barrage across the Yamuna river is the Mathura barrage at Gokul for supply of drinking water to that city. Downstream of this barrage, many pumping stations are constructed to feed the river water for irrigation needs.[57] These pumping stations are near Pateora Danda 25°55′09″N 80°13′27″E / 25.91917°N 80.22417°E, Samgara 25°41′13″N 80°46′27″E / 25.68694°N 80.77417°E, Ainjhi 25°43′35″N 80°49′33″E / 25.72639°N 80.82583°E, Bilas Khadar 25°31′35″N 81°02′43″E / 25.52639°N 81.04528°E, and Samari 25°27′19″N 81°11′43″E / 25.45528°N 81.19528°E. Depletion of the base flows available in the river during the non-monsoon months by these pump houses is exacerbating river pollution from Mathura to Prayagraj in the absence of adequate fresh water to dilute the polluted drainage from habitations and industries.

In 2009, the Union government announced to the Lok Sabha (Indian Parliament), the failure of the Ganga Action Plan and the YAP, saying that "rivers Ganga and Yamuna are no cleaner now than two decades ago" despite spending over 1,700 crore (17 billion rupees) to control pollution. According to a Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) official, these plans adopted the Thames model, based on a centralised sewage treatment system. This meant that a huge sum of money and a 24-hour power supply were needed to manage the treatment plants, while only an 8-hour power supply was available, contributing to the failure.[58]

In August 2009, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) initiated its plan for resuscitating the Yamuna's 22-kilometre (14 mi) stretch in Delhi by constructing interceptor sewers, at the cost of about 1,800 crore (18 billion rupees).[59]

Conservation zone

On 25 April 2014, the National Green Tribunal Act (NGA) recommended the government to declare a 52-kilometre (32 mi) stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone. A report prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) panel was submitted to the NGA on the same day.[60] Under the Yamuna Action Plan (YAP-I and YAP-II), pollution cleanup of Yamuna was conducted in line with the biological oxygen demand of Yamuna. Under these two phases, 286 schemes, including 39 sewage treatment plants, were completed in 21 towns of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana at a cost of 1,453.17 crore (14.5 billion rupees). Sewage treatment capacity of 767.25 million litres per day was created by these efforts.

The High Court in the northern Indian state of Uttarakhand ordered in March 2017 that the Ganges and its main tributary, the Yamuna, be assigned the status of legal entities. The rivers would gain “all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person.” This decision meant that polluting or damaging the rivers is equivalent to harming a person. The court cited the example of the New Zealand Whanganui River, which was also declared to possess full rights of a legal person.

This development of environmental personhood has been met with scepticism as merely announcing that the Ganges and Yamuna are living entities will not save them from significant, ongoing pollution.[61]



The Yamuna, seen from the Taj Mahal at Agra in Uttar Pradesh

Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna, Vrindavan, 1789

Madan Mohan temple, on the Yamuna at Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, 1789; the river has since shifted further away

Keshighat Vrindavan

'Keshi Ghat' on the Yamuna at Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh

Yamuna River Near Allahabad

The Yamuna near Prayagraj in Uttar Pradesh, just a few kilometres before it meets the Ganges

Yamuna river, Allahabad

The Yamuna near Prayagraj in Uttar Pradesh, in the rainy season

View of yamuna from okhla bird sanctuary

View of Yamuna from Okhla Sanctuary

Yamuna (Kesi Ghata)

View of Yamuna from Kesi Ghata

Hanthnikund Barrage

The Yamuna view from Hathni Kund Barrage

Quotes on Yamuna

  • "Simply by bathing in the Yamuna, anyone can diminish the reactions of his sinful activities." (Krishna Book, Chap 38)
  • "By taking bath in the Yamuna River people are liberated and become Krishna conscious." (Caitanya Caritamrita Antya 4.98 purport)
  • "There are many devotees in Vrindavana who regularly bathe in the Yamuna, and this cleanses all the contamination of the material world." (Srimad Bhagavatam 5.8.31)
  • "One should not give up the process of austerity. If possible, one should bathe in the water of the Yamuna. This is an item of austerity. Therefore, our Krishna consciousness movement has established a center in Vrindavana so that one may bathe in the Yamuna, chant the Hare Krishna mantra and then become perfect and return back to Godhead." (Srimad Bhagavatam 6.5.28 purport)
  • "The Yamuna River washed Krishna's lotus feet when the Lord appeared in Vrindavana five thousand years ago. Lord Krishna sported daily with His boys and girlfriends in the Yamuna River and consequently, that river is also caranamrita." (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.6.19)
  • "According to the Varaha Purana as quoted by Srila Jiva Gosvami, there is no difference between the water of the Ganges and the Yamuna, but when the water of the Ganges is sanctified one hundred times, it is called the Yamuna. Similarly, it is said in the scriptures that one thousand names of Vishnu are equal to one name of Rama and three names of Lord Rama are equal to one name of Krishna." (Srimad Bhagavatam 1.19.6 purport)

See also


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  6. ^ 2015, INDIA 2015, New Media Wing.
  7. ^ a b PALAEOCHANNELS OF NORTH WEST INDIA, Central Ground Water Board, last page of prefce.
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  12. ^ At the Three Rivers TIME, February 23, 1948.
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External links

Betwa River

The Betwa or Betravati is a river in Northern India, and a tributary of the Yamuna. It rises in the Vindhya Range (Raisen) just north of Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh and flows north-east through Madhya Pradesh and Orchha to Uttar Pradesh. Nearly half of its course, which is not navigable, runs over the Malwa Plateau. The confluence of the Betwa and the Yamuna rivers is Hamirpur town in Uttar Pradesh, in the vicinity of Orchha.The Indian navy named one of its frigates INS Betwa in honour of the river Betwa.

Blue Line (Delhi Metro)

The Blue Line (Line 3 & Line 4) of the Delhi Metro system in Delhi consists of 50 metro stations from Dwarka Sector 21 to Noida Electronic City, (Line 3), with a length of 56.61 kilometres (35.18 miles) and a branch line consisting of 8 stations from Vaishali to Yamuna Bank, (Line 4), with a length of 8.74 kilometres (5.43 miles).

Chambal River

The Chambal River is a tributary of the Yamuna River in central India, and thus forms part of the greater Gangetic drainage system. The river flows north-northeast through Madhya Pradesh, running for a time through Rajasthan, then forming the boundary between Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh before turning southeast to join the Yamuna in Uttar Pradesh state.It is a legendary river and finds mention in ancient scriptures. The perennial Chambal originates at janapav, south of Mhow town, near manpur Indore, on the south slope of the Vindhya Range in Madhya Pradesh. The Chambal and its tributaries drain the Malwa region of northwestern Madhya Pradesh, while its tributary, the Banas, which rises in the Aravalli Range, drains southeastern Rajasthan. It ends a confluence of five rivers, including the Chambal, Kwari, Yamuna, Sind, Pahuj, at Pachnada near Bhareh in Uttar Pradesh state, at the border of Bhind and Etawah districts.

The Chambal River is considered pollution free, and hosts an amazing riverine faunal assemblage including 2 species of crocodilians – the mugger and gharial, 8 species of freshwater turtles, smooth-coated otters, gangetic river dolphins, skimmers, black-bellied terns, sarus cranes and black-necked storks, amongst others.


Doab (English: ) is a term used in South Asia for the "tongue," or tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "(Persian do-āb: a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers (esp. that between the Ganges and Yamuna)."

East Delhi

East Delhi (a.k.a. Trans Yamuna) is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India. It is bounded by the Yamuna River on the west, North East Delhi to the north, Ghaziabad District of Uttar Pradesh state to the east, and Gautam Buddha Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh to the south.

East Delhi has a population of 1,448,770 (2001 census) and an area of 64 km², with a population density of 22,639 persons per km².

Administratively, the district is divided into three subdivisions: Gandhi Nagar, Preet Vihar, and Shahdara

Hathni Kund Barrage

The Hathni Kund is a concrete barrage located on the Yamuna River in Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana state, India. It was constructed between October 1996 and June 1999 for the purpose of irrigation. It replaced the Tajewala Barrage 3 km (2 mi) downstream which was constructed in 1873 and is now out of service. The barrage diverts water into the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals. The small reservoir created by the barrage also serves as a wetland for 31 species of waterbird.Plans to replace the Tajewala Barrage had been in the works since the early 1970s but an agreement between the governments of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh (which share the water it diverts) was not made until July 1994. Although the barrage was completed in late 1999, it was not operational until March 2002 because of work delays. The barrage is 360 m (1,181 ft) long and its spillway is composed of ten main floodgates along with five undersluices on its right side and three on its left. The maximum discharge of the barrage is 28,200 m3/s (995,874 cu ft/s) (1 in 500 year flood).

Najafgarh drain

The Najafgarh drain or Najafgarh nalah (nalah in Hindi means rivulet or storm water drain), which also acts as Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary, is another name for the northernmost end of River Sahibi, which continues its flow through Delhi, where it is channelized, and then flows into the Yamuna. Within Delhi, due to its channelization for flood control purposes, it is now erroneously called "Najafgarh drain" or "Najafgarh nullah." It gets this name from the once famous and huge Najafgarh Jheel (lake) near the town of Najafgarh in southwest Delhi and within urbanized Delhi. It is the Indian capital’s most polluted water body due to direct inflow of untreated sewage from surrounding populated areas. A January 2005 report by the Central Pollution Control Board classifies this drain, with 13 other highly polluted wetlands, under category ‘‘D’’ for assessing the water quality of wetlands in wildlife habitats.This drain was widened as a flood control drain linking the Najafgarh lake to the river Yamuna, thus completely draining the once huge and ecologically rich Najafgarh Lake, famous for its wetland ecosystem, waterbirds and wildlife.

Palla barrage

The Palla barrage is a barrage located in Palla on the Yamuna-Faridabad canal in Faridabad district of Haryana state in India. This irrigation canal runs to the west of Yaumna through Fridabad, Palwal, Mathura and Agra districts where it terminates in the farms. Palla, Faridabad is not to be confused with Palla, Delhi, a Yamuna pollution monitoring station 23 km upstream of Wazirabad barrage.

Pathrala barrage

Pathrala Barrage (Hindi: पथराला बांध) is a barrage across the Somb river, located in Yamuna Nagar District, in the state of Haryana, India.

Sahibi River

The Sahibi river, also called the Sabi River , is an ephemeral, rain-fed river flowing through Rajasthan, Haryana (where its canalised portion is called the "Outfall Drain No 8") and Delhi states in India. It drains into Yamuna in Delhi, where its channeled course is also called the Najafgarh drain, which also serves as Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary. Sahibi is a seasonal river which is 300 km long and flows from Aravalli hills in Rajasthan to Haryana, of which 100 km is in Haryana.

The current and paleochannels of Sahibi river have several important wetlands that lie in series, including the Masani barrage wetland, Matanhail forest, Chhuchhakwas-Godhari, Khaparwas Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary, Outfall Drain Number 6 (canalised portion in Haryana of Sahibii river), Outfall Drain Number 8 (canalised portion in Haryana of Dohan river which is a tributary of Sahibi river), Sarbashirpur, Sultanpur National Park, Basai Wetland, Najafgarh lake and Najafgarh drain bird sanctuary, and The Lost lake of Gurugram, all of which are home to endangered and migratory birds, yet largely remain unprotected under extreme threat from the colonisers and builders.

Several Ochre Coloured Pottery culture sites (also identified as late Harappan phase of Indus Valley Civilisation culture) have been found along the banks of Sahibi river and its tributaries such as Krishnavati river, Dohan river (originates near Neem Ka Thana in Alwar district) and Sota River (merges with Sahibi river at Behror in Alwar district and its canalised portion in Haryana is called the "Outfall Drain No 6"). The drainage pattern for all these rivers is dendritic.

Sun TV (India)

Sun TV is an Indian Tamil language cable and satellite television channel launched on 14 April 1993. It is the flagship channel of the Chennai-based Sun TV Network. It was founded and is owned by Kalanithi Maran. Sun TV launched its HD version on 11 December 2011. Sun TV was the most viewed entertainment channel in India. BARC reports say Sun TV as No.1

Entertainment Channel Sun TV on 14 April 2019 completes 26 years in TV industry with Silver Jubilee. Sun TV launched its second GEC, Sun Life Channel which telecasted retro songs and movies is repositioned as Sun TV second GEC channel by 7 October 2018, The channel will focus more on urban and youth related contents.

Tajewala Barrage

Tajewala Barrage is a now decommissioned but existing old barrage across the Yamuna River, located in Yamuna Nagar District, in the state of Haryana, India. Completed in 1873, it regulated the flow of the Yamuna for irrigation in Uttar Pradesh and Haryana through two canals originating at this place namely Western Yamuna Canal and Eastern Yamuna Canal, as well as the municipal water supply to Delhi.

Yamuna Bank metro station

The Yamuna Bank Metro Station is located on the Blue Line of the Delhi Metro. This station is a transfer point between the Noida and Vaishali branches of the Blue Line. Cross-platform transfer is provided in the same direction of travel through two island platforms.

Yamuna Bridge railway station

Yamuna Bridge railway station is on the Tundla-Agra branch line. It is located in Agra district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It serves Etmaddoula and surrounding neighbourhoods in Agra.

Yamuna Expressway

Yamuna Expressway or Taj Expressway is a 6-lane (extendable to 8 lanes), 165 km long, access controlled expressway, connecting Greater Noida with Agra in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is one of India's longest six-lane controlled-access expressway stretches. The total project cost was ₹128.39 billion (US$1.9 billion).The expressway project was inaugurated on 9 August 2012 by the then Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav. The project was started to decongest the older Delhi-Agra (NH 2) or Mathura Road which is already over congested.

The expressway starts from Greater Noida and ends at Kuberpur on NH-2 towards Kanpur. In addition, a total of 13 service roads of about 168 km have been built for local commuters to access the expressway. Yamuna Expressway will be connected with Eastern Peripheral Expressway via an interchange which is being built near Jaganpura –Afzalpur village at Yamuna Expressway in Gautam Budh Nagar district.

Yamuna Sports Complex

The Yamuna Sports Complex is a sports complex located in New Delhi, India. Inaugurated in 1999, it hosts table tennis. It is owned by the Delhi Development Authority. It was a venue for the 2010 Commonwealth Games


Yamunanagar (pronunciation ) , previously known as Abdullahpur, is a city and a municipal corporation in Yamunanagar district in the Indian state of Haryana. This town is known for the cluster of plywood units and paper industries. It is also known for providing fine timber to larger industries. The older town is called Jagadhri. The Yamunanagar-Jagadhri railway station (YJUD) services the city. Despite its name, Jagadhri Railway Station is situated in Yamunanagar. There is also another railway station called Jagadhri Workshop in Yamunanagar. It used to be a green, clean and prosperous industrial city. Major Industries like BILT, Sarswati Sugar Mill, ISGEC, and Bharat Starch Mill are situated in Yamunanagar. However, the recent spur in Industrial units in and around the city have resulted in severe air, water and soil pollution issues.

The city is turning up rapidly with the opening of multiplexes and various high end brand stores.

Yamunanagar district

Yamunanagar district is one of the 22 districts of the Indian state of Haryana. The district came into existence on 1 November 1989 and occupies an area of 1,756 square kilometres (678 sq mi). Yamunanagar town is the district headquarters.

Yamunanagar’s average rainfall in Monsoon is 892 mm , whereas it is 462 mm for Haryana . Which is very high than the state average .

The district is bounded by Himachal Pradesh state in the north, by Uttar Pradesh state in the east, by Karnal district in the south, by Kurukshetra district in the southwest and Ambala district in the west.


Yamunotri is the source of the Yamuna River and the seat of the Goddess Yamuna in Hinduism. It is situated at an altitude of 3,293 metres (10,804 ft) in the Garhwal Himalayas and located approximately 30 kilometers (19 mi) North of Uttarkashi, the headquarters of the Uttarkashi district in the Garhwal Division of Uttarakhand, India. It is one of the four sites in India's Chhota Char Dham pilgrimage.

The sacred shrine of Yamunotri, source of the river Yamuna, is the westernmost shrine in the Garhwal Himalayas, perched atop a flank of Bandar Poonch Parvat. The chief attraction at Yamunotri is the temple devoted to the Goddess Yamuna and the holy thermal springs at Janki Chatti (7 km. Away).

The actual source, a frozen lake of ice and glacier (Champasar Glacier) located on the Kalind Mountain at a height of 4,421 m above sea level, about 1 km further up, is not frequented generally as it is not accessible; hence the shrine has been located on the foot of the hill. The approach is extremely difficult and pilgrims therefore offer puja at the temple itself.

The temple of Yamuna, on the left bank of the Yamuna, was constructed by Maharaja Pratap Shah of Tehri Garhwal. The deity is made of black marble. The Yamuna, like the Ganges, has been elevated to the status of a divine mother for the Hindus and has been held responsible for nurturing and developing the Indian civilization.

Close to the temple are hot water springs gushing out from the mountain cavities. Surya Kund is the most important kund. Near the Surya Kund there is a shila called Divya Shila, which is worshipped before puja is offered to the deity. Devotees prepare rice and potatoes, tied in muslin cloth, to offer at the shrine by dipping them in these hot water springs. Rice so cooked is taken back home as prasadam. The pujaris of Yamunotri come from the village of Kharsali near Janki Chatti. They are the administrators of the sacred place and perform religious rites. They are well-versed in the Shastras.

State Catchment area (km2) % of catchment area
Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand 74,208 21.5
Himachal Pradesh 5,799 1.6
Haryana 21,265 6.5
Rajasthan 102,883 29.8
Madhya Pradesh 140,230 40.6
Delhi 1,485 0.4
North Haryana Rivers
South Haryana Rivers
Seasonal Waterfalls
Hot Water Springs
Dams, Barrages
Hydrography of surrounding areas
Dams and barrages
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Hydrography of
surrounding areas
Dams/ Barrages
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Hydrography of surrounding areas
Indus River Basin
Ganges River Basin
Godavari River Basin
Krishna River Basin
Pennar River Basin
Kaveri River Basin
Tapi River Basin
Mahi River Basin
Sabarmati River Basin
Meghna River Basin
Costal rivers
Other major rivers
Hydrography of the Indian subcontinent
Inland rivers
Inland lakes, deltas, etc.


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