Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: /ˌʃɪnˈhwɑː/) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China. Xinhua is the biggest and most influential media organization in China, as well as the largest news agency in the world in terms of correspondents worldwide. Xinhua is a ministry-level institution subordinate to the Chinese central government, and is the highest ranking state media organ in the country alongside the People's Daily. Its president is a member of the Central Committee of China's Communist Party.
Xinhua operates more than 170 foreign bureaux worldwide, and maintains 31 bureaux in China—one for each province, autonomous region and directly-administered municipality plus a military bureau. Xinhua is the sole channel for the distribution of important news related to the Communist Party and Chinese central government, and its headquarters in Beijing are strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Republic of China.
Xinhua is a publisher as well as a news agency—it owns more than 20 newspapers and a dozen magazines, and it publishes in several languages, besides Chinese, including English, German, Spanish, French, Russian, Portuguese, Arabic, Japanese and Korean, also publishing in cyberspace.
|Xinhua News Agency|
|Type||Broadcast radio, television and online|
|Slogan||“新华社要把世界管起来，让全世界都能听到中国发出的声音。(English: "Let Xinhua News Agency span the globe, let the whole world hear our voice.")|
|Mainland China, Satellite, Internet|
|Owner||People's Republic of China (state-owned institution)|
(Editor-in-chief) Liu Zhengrong
|Red China News Agency (1931–1937)|
|Affiliation||State Council of the People's Republic of China|
|Xinhua News Agency|
|Literal meaning||New China News Agency|
|Literal meaning||New China Agency|
Xinhua was founded in November 1931 as the Red China News Agency and changed to its current name in 1937. During the Pacific War the agency developed overseas broadcasting capabilities and established its first overseas branches. It began broadcasting to foreign countries in English from 1944. Following the conclusion of the Chinese Civil War, the agency represented the People's Republic of China in countries and territories with which it had no diplomatic representation, such as Hong Kong.
The agency was described by media scholars as the "eyes and tongue" of the Party, observing what is important for the masses and passing on the information. A former Xinhua director, Zheng Tao, noted that the agency was a bridge between the Party, the government and the people, communicating both the demands of the people and the policies of the Party. People's Daily, for example, uses Xinhua material for about a quarter of its stories.
Xinhua delivers its news across the world in eight languages: Chinese, English, Spanish, French, Russian, Portuguese, Arabic, and Japanese, as well as news pictures and other kinds of news. It has made contracts to exchange news and news pictures with more than eighty foreign news agencies or political news departments. Xinhua is also responsible for handling, and in some cases, censoring reports from foreign media destined for release in China. By 2010, the agency had begun converging its news and electronic media coverage and increasing its English coverage through its wire service. Xinhua acquired commercial real estate on New York's Times Square and is developing its English-language reporting staff. Xinhua has also started an English-language satellite news network.
The Chinese media's internal publication system, in which certain journals are published exclusively for government and party officials, provides information and analysis which are not generally available to the public. The State values these internal reports because they contain much of China's most sensitive, controversial, and high-quality investigative journalism.
Xinhua produces reports for the "internal" journals. Informed observers note that journalists generally like to write for the internal publications because they can write less polemical and more comprehensive stories without making the omissions of unwelcome details commonly made in the media directed to the general public. The internal reports, written from a large number of countries, typically consist of in-depth analyses of international situations and domestic attitudes towards regional issues and perceptions of China.
The Chinese government's internal media publication system follows a strict hierarchical pattern designed to facilitate party control. A publication called Reference News—which includes translated articles from abroad as well as news and commentary by Xinhua reporters—is delivered by Xinhua personnel, rather than by the national mail system, to officials at the working level and above. A three-to-ten-page report called Internal Reference (Neibu Cankao) is distributed to officials at the ministerial level and higher. One example was the first reports on the SARS outbreak by Xinhua which only government officials were allowed to see. The most classified Xinhua internal reports are issued to the top dozen or so party and government officials.
The Xinhua headquarters is located in Beijing, strategically located within close proximity to Zhongnanhai, which houses the headquarters of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the office of the President of the People's Republic of China. The Xinhua News Agency established its first overseas affiliate in 1947 in London, with Samuel Chinque as publisher. Now it distributes its news in Asia, Middle East, Latin America, Africa through more than 150 affiliates, with regional headquarters in Hong Kong, Moscow, Cairo, Brussels, New York City, Mexico City and Nairobi, plus a United Nations bureau.
Xinhua's branch in Hong Kong was not just a press office, but served as the de facto embassy of the PRC in the territory when it was under British administration. It was named a news agency under the special historic conditions before the territory's sovereignty was transferred from Britain to China, because the People's Republic did not recognise British sovereignty over the colony, and could not set up a consulate on what it considered to be its soil.
Despite its unofficial status, the directors of the Xinhua Hong Kong Branch included high-ranking former diplomats such as Zhou Nan, former Ambassador to the United Nations and Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs, who later negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the future of Hong Kong. His predecessor, Xu Jiatun, was also vice-chairman of the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee, before fleeing to the United States in response to the military crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests, where he went into exile.
It was authorized by the special administrative region government to continue to represent the central government after 1997, and it was renamed "The Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Hong Kong SAR" on January 18, 2000, retaining branch chief Jiang Enzhu as inaugural director. The State Council appointed Gao Siren (高祀仁) as the director in August 2002. After the Liaison Office was established, Xinhua Agency was reconstituted as a bona fide press office.
Both foreign and domestic anti-government critics have routinely criticized Xinhua for its political correctness and favorable portrayal of China's state policies. In 2005, Reporters Sans Frontieres called Xinhua "The World's Biggest Propaganda Machine", pointing out that Xinhua's president held the rank of a minister in the government. The report further stated that the news agency was “at the heart of censorship and disinformation put in place” by the government.
In a 2007 interview with the Times of India, then Xinhua president Tian Congming affirmed the problem of "historical setbacks and popular perceptions". Newsweek criticized Xinhua as "being best known for its blind spots" regarding controversial news in China, although the article acknowledges that "Xinhua's spin diminishes when the news doesn't involve China".
During the 2003 SARS outbreak, Xinhua was slow to release reports of the incident to the public. However, its reporting in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake was seen as more transparent and credible as Xinhua journalists operated more freely. After the Beijing Television Cultural Center fire, cognizant of Xinhua's "tardy" reporting in contrast to bloggers, China announced the investment of 20 billion yuan to Xinhua. The vice president of the China International Publishing Group commented on this, saying that quantity of media exposure would not necessarily help perceptions of China. Rather, he said, media should focus on emphasizing Chinese culture and the Chinese way of life "to convey the message that China is a friend, not an enemy".
Xinhua for its own part has criticized foreign media bias and inaccurate reporting, citing an incident during the 2008 Tibetan unrest when Western media outlets used scenes of Nepalese police arresting Tibetan protesters as evidence of Chinese state brutality with commentary from CNN's Jack Cafferty calling the Chinese "goons and thugs". CNN later apologized for the comments, but Richard Spencer of The Sunday Telegraph defended what he conceded was "biased" Western media coverage of the riots, blaming Chinese authorities for not allowing foreign media access to Tibet during the conflict.
Xinhua staff struggled to find the "right line" to use in covering the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Although more cautious than People's Daily in its treatment of sensitive topics during that period – such as how to commemorate reformist Communist Party leader Hu Yaobang's April 1989 death and then ongoing demonstrations in Beijing and elsewhere – Xinhua gave some favorable coverage to demonstrators and intellectuals supportive of the movement. Conflict between journalists and top editors over the censorship of stories about the Tiananmen Square crackdown lasted for several days after the military's dispersal of demonstrators on June 4, with some journalists going on strike and demonstrating inside the agency's Beijing headquarters. Government oversight of the media increased after the protests – top editors at the agency's bureaux in Hong Kong and Macau were replaced with appointees who were pro-Beijing.
In 2011, CBC reported on leaked "flirtatious" emails sent by Canada's Conservative MP and parliamentary secretary to the minister of justice Bob Dechert to married Xinhua Toronto correspondent Shi Rong, which prompted both sexual harassment and security breach allegations from opposition members. Dechert apologized, while the Chinese embassy in Ottawa responded to the matter by saying that is "in no position to comment on domestic disputes and privacy of those involved."
In 2012, Xinhua's Ottawa correspondent Mark Bourrie resigned after Ottawa bureau chief Zhang Dacheng allegedly requested him to report on the Dalai Lama for Xinhua's internal media, which Bourrie felt amounted to gathering intelligence for a foreign power. Zhang denied the allegation, telling the Canadian Press that Xinhua's policy is to "cover public events by public means" and his bureau's job is to cover news events and file the stories to Xinhua's editing rooms, who would then decide which stories would be published. Bourrie, who had a press pass providing him access to the Parliament of Canada, had previously tried to consult the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) in 2009 on the matter of writing for Xinhua, but was ignored by CSIS.
On 7 pm, 28 April 2014, vice-president and chief editor of Xinhua's Anhui provincial branch Song Bin was found dead in the newsroom in an apparent suicide. The author for some award-winning reports on social and economic issues, the senior editor had been battling depression before ending his own life by hanging himself.
During the 2017 China–India border standoff, Xinhua's English-language new media program The Spark released a satirical video named the "Seven Sins of India" on 16 August 2017, where presenter Di'er Wang spoke of Indians having "thick skin" and "pretending to sleep" on the matter of the border dispute. Wang went on to claim India was physically threatening Bhutan, and compared India to a "robber who breaks into a house and does not leave". An actor in the video portraying "India" with a turban, beard and accent sparked allegations of racism and anti-Indian sentiment. The video has received strong backlash on Twitter as well as from Indian and Western media.
In January 2018, The New York Times published an investigative report on social media promotions, alleging that the US-based company Devumi was providing "Twitter followers and retweets to celebrities, businesses and anyone who wants to appear more popular or exert influence online." The article goes on to allege an unnamed Xinhua editor was among the many celebrities and organizations implicated in a transaction with Devumi, in which the company boosted the news agency's English-language Twitter account with followers and retweets.
In November 2018, Xinhua News Agency and the Associated Press (AP) of the United States signed an memorandum of understanding to expand cooperation with the U.S. news service, which worried some lawmakers in the US congress, demanding AP to release the text of its memorandum of understanding with Xinhua. In respond, AP spokeswoman Lauren Easton said to Washington Post that AP's agreement with Xinhua is to allow it to operate inside China and has no bearing on AP’s independence. Xinhua has no access to AP's sensitive information and no influence over AP's editorial products.
The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (commonly referred to as Shíjiǔ Dà; Chinese: 十九大) was held at the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, between 18 and 24 October 2017. 2,280 delegates represented the party's estimated 89 million members. Preparations for the 19th National Congress began in 2016 and ended with a plenary session of the Central Committee a few days prior to the Congress. In 2016, local and provincial party organizations began electing delegates to the congress as well as receiving and amending party documents.
During the congress, a new guiding ideology, labelled Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, was written into the party's constitution. It marked the first time since Mao Zedong Thought that a living party leader has enshrined into the party constitution an ideology named after himself. The Congress also emphasized strengthening socialism with Chinese characteristics, party-building, and socialist rule of law, and setting concrete timelines for achieving development goals, such as building a moderately prosperous society and achieving "socialist modernization." It was also noted for rallying China to play a more substantial role internationally.
The 19th National Congress endorsed the membership list of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and elected the Central Committee, which in turn approved the members of the Politburo and its Standing Committee. Five members of the 18th Politburo Standing Committee left the body due to having reached retirement age, and five new members joined the 19th Standing Committee: Li Zhanshu, Wang Yang, Wang Huning, Zhao Leji, and Han Zheng.2013 Lushan earthquake
The Lushan earthquake or Ya'an earthquake (Tibetan: Yak-ngai Sayom གཡག་རྔ་ཡི་ས་ཡོམ་) occurred at 08:02 Beijing Time (00:02 UTC) on April 20, 2013. The epicenter was located in Lushan County, Ya'an, Sichuan, about 116 km (72 mi) from Chengdu along the Longmenshan Fault in the same province heavily impacted by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. The magnitude of the earthquake was placed at Ms 7.0 by China Earthquake Data Center, Ms 7.0 by Russian Academy of Sciences, Mw 7.0 by Geoscience Australia, Mw 6.6 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Mw 6.6 by the European Alert System (EMSC) and Mj 6.9 by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). 1,815 aftershocks have been recorded as of 00:00 (UTC+8h) April 22.CNC World
CNC World (simplified Chinese: 中国新华新闻电视网英语电视台; traditional Chinese: 中國新華新聞電視網英語電視台; pinyin: Zhōngguó Xīnhuá Xīnwén Diànshì Wǎng Yīngyǔ Diànshìtái) is a 24-hour global English-language news channel, launched on July 1, 2010. It is 51% owned by the China Xinhua News Network Corporation, and 49% by private investors, including Chinese home appliances maker Gree.CNC World's mission is to provide comprehensive coverage of world affairs while explaining matters of direct concern to the Chinese leadership in a perspective its producers consider appropriate.The venture is part of Beijing's effort to "present an international vision with a Chinese perspective," Xinhua President Li Congjun said at the press conference announcing the launch of CNC World.Xinhua has leased a newsroom in New York on top of a skyscraper in Times Square to provide CNC World with prominent exposure in the United States.On December 16, 2010 CNC World agreed a deal with Eutelsat for coverage on Eutelsat 28A, 36B and Hot Bird 13B from January 1, 2011. CNC World launched on the Sky satellite television platform in the United Kingdom and Ireland on July 21, 2011 from Eutelsat 28A.Cai Mingzhao
Cai Mingzhao (Chinese: 蔡名照; born June 1955) is a Chinese journalist and politician. He was appointed President of the Xinhua News Agency in December 2014, succeeding Li Congjun, who had retired. Cai formerly served as deputy director of the State Council Information Office from 2001 to 2009, Editor-in-Chief of the People's Daily from September 2012 to April 2013, and director of the State Council Information Office from April 2013 to December 2014.Cai was born in June 1955 in Rizhao, Shandong province. He joined the People's Liberation Army in 1970, and the Communist Party of China in 1974. He graduated from Nanjing Normal University in 1983, majoring in Chinese. He worked for the Xinhua News Agency, specializing in science reporting.Cai is a member of the 18th and 19th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China.Central Organization and Propaganda Leading Group
The Central Organization and Propaganda Leading Group (Chinese: 中央组织宣传领导小组; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Zǔzhī Xuānchuán Lǐngdǎo Xiǎozǔ) was an agency under the Politburo of the Communist Party of China that existed during the Cultural Revolution.
The COPLG was officially established in 1970 by decision of the CPC Central Committee as a body "under the leadership of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee", whose jurisdiction included the CPC Organization Department, the Central Party School, the People's Daily, the Red Flag magazine, the Xinhua News Agency, the Guangming Daily, the Central Broadcasting Administration and the CPC Bureau for the Translation of Marx–Engels–Lenin–Stalin Works. In addition to those bodies, which continued to have their own leadership structures, the COPLG controlled directly the CPC Propaganda Department, the Political Studies Office and the May 7 Cadre Schools.
The COPLG included Kang Sheng as group leader, and Jiang Qing, Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, Ji Dengkui and Li Desheng as group members.China Media Group
China Media Group (Chinese: 中央广播电视总台; literally: 'Central Radio-Television General Station') and IPA pronunciation [ʈʂʊ́ŋ.jáŋ.kwàŋ.pwó.tjɛ̂n.ʂɻ̩̂.tsʊ̀ŋ.tʰǎi], also known as Voice of China, is the predominant state media company by means radio and television broadcasting in the People's Republic of China. It was founded on 21 March 2018, and it's the combination of China Central Television, China National Radio, and China Radio International.China News Service
The China News Service (simplified Chinese: 中国新闻社; traditional Chinese: 中國新聞社; pinyin: Zhōngguó Xīnwénshè) is the second largest state-owned news agency in China, after the Xinhua News Agency. It serves mainly overseas Chinese and residents of Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
The CNS was established in 1952. It has news offices and stations in every province in mainland China, as well as in Hong Kong and Macau. CNS also has news offices in foreign countries, including the United States, Japan, France, Thailand, and Australia. The incumbent editor-in-chief of CNS is Liu Beixian.China Xinhua News Network Corporation
The China Xinhua News Network Corporation (CNC, Chinese: 中国新华新闻电视网; pinyin: zhōng guó xīn huá xīn wén diàn shì wǎng) is a state-owned, international communication platform affiliated to the Xinhua News Agency.
CNC owns and operates a TV news network and new media services. They are regarded as an attempt by China to enhance its global communications, develop its influence abroad and counter foreign media. It plays a part in the Chinese government's attempt to show an international vision with a Chinese perspective.Guo Chaoren
Guo Chaoren (Chinese: 郭超人; October 31, 1934 - June 15, 2000) was a president of Xinhua News Agency of China.
Guo was born in Guangji County (now Wuxue), Hubei Province. His also used the name Lan Ting (蓝汀). From 1952 to 1956, he studied in the department of Chinese literature at Peking University, majoring in journalism. After graduation, he volunteered to work as a journalist at Xinhua News Agency in Tibet, and spent 14 years there. In spring of 1970, he became a journalist at Xinhua News Agency in Shaanxi. In Autumn of 1978, he transferred to Xinhua News Agency in Sichuan, and became a journalist and the vice director at that branch. In January 1983, he entered Xinhua News Agency headquarter and became secretary general as well as a member of Party group. In May 1984, he was appointed as vice president of Xinhua News Agency. He was promoted to vice secretary of CPC group and vice president of Xinhua News Agency in March 1986. Since November 1992, he had been serving as the president and the party chief at Xinhua until his death.He was a member of 13th, 14th and 15th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China.Hu Qiaomu
Hu Qiaomu (4 June 1912 – 28 September 1992) was a revolutionary, sociologist, Marxist philosopher and prominent politician of People's Republic of China. In the age of economic reform that followed the death of Mao Zedong, Hu was one of the reform's most prominent opponents.
He was the first president of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, member of Politburo of the Communist Party of China, permanent member of Central Advisory Commission, and the former president of Xinhua News Agency. He was an academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences.Li Congjun
Li Congjun (Chinese: 李从军; born October 1949) is the former President of China's Xinhua News Agency. He retired in December 2014 and was replaced by Cai Mingzhao.List of newspapers in China
This is a list of newspapers in China. The number of newspapers in China has increased from 42—virtually all Communist Party papers—in 1968 to 382 in 1980 and more than 2,200 today. In 2006, China was the largest market for daily newspapers, with 96.6m copies sold daily, followed by India with 78.7m, Japan with 69.7m, the US with 53.3m, and Germany with 21.5m. China newspaper advertisement revenues increased by 128% from 2001 to 2006.
Between 1950 and 2000, the number of Chinese newspapers increased nearly ten-fold. In 2004, over 400 kinds of daily newspapers were published in China, their circulation reaching 80 million, the highest figure of any country in the world. Targeted at different reader groups, newspaper formats are becoming increasingly diverse. Recent years have seen an important trend of newspaper reorganization. To date, 39 newspaper groups have been established, such as Beijing Daily Newspaper Group, Wenhui Xinmin Associated Newspaper Group and Guangzhou Daily Newspaper Group.
In 2003, trans-regional cooperation among the print media became a new trend. New Beijing Newspaper, invested and run by Guangming Daily Newspaper Group and Nanfang Daily Newspaper Group, was the first to receive formal approval from the Chinese government to publish trans-regionally. Also Orient-Observation Weekly came out in Shanghai, its largest shareholder being the Beijing-based Xinhua News Agency.Malaysia–Venezuela relations
Malaysia–Venezuela relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Venezuela; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–ۏنزويلا; Spanish: Relaciones entre Malasia y Venezuela) are foreign relations between Malaysia and Venezuela. Malaysia has had an embassy in Caracas since 1990, while Venezuela has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Diplomatic relations were established on 18 December 1986. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77.Reference News
Reference News (simplified Chinese: 《参考消息》; traditional Chinese: 《參考消息》; pinyin: Cānkǎo Xiāoxī) is a newspaper daily which has the largest circulation in China.Reference News was first published on 7 November 1931. It is published by Xinhua News Agency (formerly Red China News Agency, 1931–1937). As the Chinese government's official news agency, Xinhua carefully selects articles from world's major news agencies and news journals and translates them into Chinese. Before the 1980s, it was the only official channel for the Chinese public to have a glimpse of the outside world. The paper is also published in the Uighur, Kazakh, Korean, and Mongolian languages for ethnic minority groups in China.
Reference News was at first available only to cadres and their families, but it was made available to the entire Chinese public after competition from news sources had started, and subsequently its circulation dropped from 11 million in 1980 to 4 million in 1985.Shenzhou 6
Shenzhou 6 (Chinese: 神舟六号 Shénzhōu lìuhào) was the second human spaceflight of the Chinese space program, launched on October 12, 2005 on a Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. The Shenzhou spacecraft carried a crew of Fèi Jùnlóng (费俊龙) and Niè Hǎishèng (聂海胜) for five days in low Earth orbit. It launched three days before the second anniversary of China's first human spaceflight, Shenzhou 5.
The crew were able to change out of their new lighter space suits, conduct scientific experiments, and enter the orbital module for the first time, giving them access to toilet facilities. The exact activities of the crew were kept secret but were thought by some to include military reconnaissance, however this is likely untrue given that similar experiments in the US and USSR determined that humans are not suited for military reconnaissance. It landed in the Siziwang Banner of Inner Mongolia on October 16, 2005, the same site as the previous manned and unmanned Shenzhou flights.Xinhua News Agency Macao Branch
Xinhua News Agency Macao Branch (Chinese: 新華通訊社澳門分社) referred to as the Xinhua Macao Branch (新華社澳門分社) or Macao Branch (澳門分社), refers to the Xinhua News Agency in Macau branch, was established in September 21, 1987.Yang Jisheng (journalist)
Yang Jisheng (born November 1940) is a Chinese journalist and author of Tombstone (墓碑; Mubei), a comprehensive account of the Great Chinese Famine during the Great Leap Forward. Yang joined the Communist Party in 1964 and graduated from Tsinghua University in 1966. He promptly joined Xinhua News Agency, where he worked until his retirement in 2001. His loyalty to the party was destroyed by the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre. Although he continued working for the Xinhua News Agency, he spent much of his time researching for Tombstone. As of 2008, he was the deputy editor of the journal Yanhuang Chunqiu in Beijing. Yang Jisheng is also listed as a Fellow of China Media Project, a department under Hong Kong University.Yeren
The Yeran (Chinese: 野人; pinyin: yěrén; literally: 'wild-man'), variously referred to as the Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman (Chinese: 神农架野人; pinyin: Shénnóngjiàyěrén; literally: 'The Wildman of Shennongjia') or Man-Monkey (Chinese: 人熊; pinyin: Ren Xiong; literally: 'Man Bear'), is a legendary creature said to reside in the remote mountainous forested regions of western Hubei.The Xinhua News Agency estimates that there have been around 400 sightings reported in the last few decades.Zhu Muzhi
Zhu Muzhi (25 December 1916 − 23 October 2015) was a politician of the People's Republic of China. Zhu was a member of the 10th, 11th and 12th CPC Central Committee. Zhu served as president of the Xinhua News Agency, deputy head of the Propaganda Department of the Communist Party of China, Minister of Culture, and chairman of the State Council Information Office.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Xīnhuá Tōngxùnshè|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Xīnhuá Shè|
|State Council (Cabinet)|
(Plenary meeting) members
the State Council
the State Council
the State Council
and steering Committees