Emperor Ming of (Western) Liang ((西)梁明帝) (542–585), personal name Xiao Kui (蕭巋), courtesy name Renyuan (仁遠), was an emperor of the Chinese Western Liang dynasty. He, like his father Emperor Xuan and his son Emperor Jing, controlled little territory and relied heavily on military support from Northern Zhou and Northern Zhou's successor state Sui dynasty.
|Emperor Ming of Western Liang|
|Emperor of the Western Liang Dynasty|
|Issue||Xiao Cong, Emperor Jing|
Xiao Huan, Prince of Yixing
Xiao Zhuan, Prince of Jinlin
Xiao Jing, Prince of Linhai
Xiao Xun, Prince of Nanhai
Xiao Yang, Prince of Yi'an/Marquess of Taoqiu
Xiao Yu, Prince of Xin'an/Duke of Song
Xiao, Empress Min of Sui
|House||Western Liang Dynasty|
|Father||Emperor Xuan of Western Liang|
Xiao Kui was born in 542, during the reign of his great-grandfather Emperor Wu of Liang. His father was Emperor Wu's grandson Xiao Cha the Prince of Yueyang, and his mother was Xiao Cha's concubine Lady Cao. Xiao Kui's grandfather Xiao Tong had been Emperor Wu's crown prince, but the succession was diverted away from Xiao Tong's line after Xiao Tong's death in 530—to Xiao Tong's younger brother Xiao Gang. Xiao Kui's father Xiao Cha was displeased about this development, and so prepared to contend for the throne eventually. After Liang was thrown into a state of confusion after the rebel general Hou Jing captured the capital Jiankang in 549, holding Emperor Wu and later Xiao Gang (Emperor Jianwen) as hostages, Xiao Cha feared that his uncle Xiao Yi, who appeared intent on eliminating actual or potential competitors for the throne, and so surrendered his realm of Yong Province (雍州, modern northwestern Hubei) to Western Wei, seeking Western Wei's protection. Xiao Yi claimed the throne in 552 after defeating Hou, but was himself defeated by Western Wei forces in 554 and executed in 555.
Western Wei declared Xiao Cha the Emperor of Western Liang (as Emperor Xuan), as a vassal of Western Wei. As Xiao Kui's older brother and Emperor Xuan's original heir apparent Xiao Liao (蕭嶚) had died earlier, Emperor Xuan created Xiao Kui crown prince. Emperor Xuan was, however, never able to gain much support among Liang's provinces and was only able to hold a small amount of territory around his capital Jiangling (江陵, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei). He relied on the support of Western Wei and its successor state Northern Zhou, and in turn had his authorities severely curtailed by the commandant of Jiangling that Western Wei/Northern Zhou stationed at Jiangling to defend him as well as to watch over him. He was said to die from his depression in 562, and Xiao Kui inherited the throne (as Emperor Ming), continuing to be a vassal of Northern Zhou.
Emperor Ming honored his grandmother Empress Dowager Gong as grand empress dowager, his father Emperor Xuan's wife Empress Wang as empress dowager, and his mother Consort Cao as consort dowager. (Grand Empress Dowager Gong and Consort Dowager Cao both died in 562, and Empress Dowager Wang died in 563.) For reasons unclear in historical records, Emperor Ming was not recorded as having created an empress, and while at some point during his reign he created his son Xiao Cong crown prince, it is not known when that occurred. He was said to be a learned ruler, writing some 14 different works on filial piety as well as on fortunetelling, but as his fortunetelling works suggested, he was also said to be highly superstitious. He was said to be filially pious and kind, and was also a capable administrator, being able to allow his war-weary subjects to rest and recover.
After Emperor Wen of Chen died in 566 and was succeeded by his young son Emperor Fei of Chen, the Chen Dynasty high level officials became locked in a power struggle, and in 567 Emperor Fei's uncle Chen Xu the Prince of Ancheng killed Liu Shizhi (劉師之) and Dao Zhongju (到仲舉) and took over power. The general Hua Jiao (華皎), the governor of Xiang Province (湘州, roughly modern Changsha, Hunan), apprehensive about Chen Xu's intentions toward him, secretly submitted to Western Liang and Northern Zhou, seeking aid from both. Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou and his regent Yuwen Hu commissioned Emperor Wu's brother Yuwen Zhi (宇文直) the Prince of Wei with an army, and Emperor Ming also gathered his own troops, commanded by his general Wang Cao (王操), to aid Hua. However, when their forces, along with Hua's, encountered the Chen forces, commanded by the generals Chunyu Liang (淳于量) and Wu Mingche at Dunkou (沌口, in modern Wuhan, Hubei), they were defeated by Chen forces, and both Hua and Yuwen Zhi were forced to flee to Jiangling. The Northern Zhou general Yuan Ding (元定) and the Western Liang general Li Guang (李廣) were captured. Wu took this opportunity to seize Western Liang's Hedong Commandery (河東, in modern Jingzhou) as well. Yuwen Zhi blamed the defeat on the Western Liang general Yin Liang (殷亮), and Emperor Ming, while knowing that Yin was not at fault, was unwilling to oppose Yuwen Zhi, and so executed Yin.
In spring 568, Wu put Jiangling under siege and redirected the waters to try to flood it. Emperor Ming, escorted by the Northern Zhou commandant Tian Hong (田弘), fled to the nearby fort of Ji'nan (紀南). The vice commandant Gao Lin (高琳) and Wang remained at Jiangling and defended it for over 100 days, until the Western Liang generals Ma Wu (馬武) and Ji Che (吉徹) counterattacked and defeated Wu, forcing him to withdraw and allowing Emperor Ming to return to Jiangling.
in fall 570, the Western Liang general Zhang Zhaoda (章昭達) put Jiangling under siege, while capturing the Northern Zhou-built fort of Anshu (安蜀, near the Three Gorges). Jiangling nearly fell, and only after Yuwen Zhi sent aid via forces commanded by Li Qianzhe (李遷哲) to relieve the city did Zhang withdraw.
In 571, Hua, who had served as an official under Emperor Ming since his defeat in 567, went instead to the Northern Zhou capital Chang'an. On the way, he met Yuwen Zhi at Yuwen Zhi's defense post of Xiangyang (襄陽, in modern Xiangfan, Hubei). He pointed out to Yuwen Zhi that Western Liang had lost so much territory that it was poor and unable to fend for itself, advocating that it would be sound policy for Northern Zhou to loan several provinces to Western Liang. Yuwen Zhi agreed and submitted the proposal to Emperor Wu; in response, Emperor Wu gave three provinces—Ji (基州), Ping (平州), and Ruo (鄀州) (together making up about modern Jingmen and Yichang, Hubei) to Western Liang.
In 577, after Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu conquered Northern Qi and seized its territory, Emperor Ming went to greet Emperor Wu at Northern Qi's former capital Yecheng. Initially, while Emperor Wu treated Emperor Ming with ceremonial respect, he did not consider Emperor Ming as an important vassal. Emperor Ming sensed this, and, at a feast, discussed how Emperor Ming's father Emperor Xuan owed much to Emperor Wu's father, Western Wei's paramount general Yuwen Tai, and in doing so was so emotional that he wept bitterly. Emperor Wu was impressed, and treated him with greater respect. Emperor Ming also spent much effort to flatter Emperor Wu—including comparing him to the mythical emperors Emperor Yao and Shun. Emperor Wu was flattered, and rewarded Emperor Ming with much treasure, as well as some of the Northern Qi emperor Gao Wei's concubines.
In 578, Northern Zhou's Emperor Wu died and was succeeded by his erratic and cruel son Emperor Xuan. In 580, Emperor Xuan died as well, and Emperor Xuan's father-in-law Yang Jian seized power as regent over Emperor Xuan's young son Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou. The Northern Zhou general Yuchi Jiong, suspicious of Yang's intentions, rose at Yecheng against Yang. Most Western Liang generals advised Emperor Ming to align himself with Yuchi—reasoning that if Yuchi were successful, he would be rewarded with being loyal to the imperial Yuwen clan, while if Yuchi were not successful, he could nevertheless take this opportunity to seize some territory. However, when Emperor Ming sent the official Liu Zhuang (柳莊) to Chang'an to observe the situation, Yang, citing that he had previously been a guest of Emperor Ming while he was stationed as a general at Jiangling (although historical records do not indicate when he was there), begged Western Liang's loyalty. Liu, believing that Yuchi would not succeed, returned to Jiangling and advised Emperor Ming to side with Yang. Emperor Ming agreed, and subsequently, when Yang defeated Yuchi, commented to Liu, "If I had listened to the others, the empire would have been destroyed."
In spring 581, Yang Jian had Emperor Jing yield the throne to him, ending Northern Zhou and establishing Sui Dynasty as its Emperor Wen. Soon thereafter, Emperor Ming sent his brother Xiao Yan (蕭巖) the Prince of Anping to Chang'an to congratulate Emperor Wen and to pledge loyalty.
In 582, Emperor Wen, to further honor Emperor Ming, offered to take one of his daughters as the wife to Emperor Wen's favored son Yang Guang the Prince of Jin. Emperor Ming, after trying to divine the fortunes, determined that all of his daughters were inappropriate choices—but then remembered that he had a daughter, who was born in the second month of the year and thus, by superstitions of the time, considered ill fortune and therefore was raised by her maternal uncle Zhang Ke (張軻). He summoned her back to the palace, and the diviners indicated that she would be a fit, and therefore she was married to Yang Guang. (Emperor Wen also wanted to give his own daughter Princess Lanling to Emperor Ming's son Xiao Yang (蕭瑒) the Prince of Yi'an, but for reasons unclear ultimately did not do so.) Because of this marital relationship, Emperor Wen decided to withdraw the Commandant of Jiangling from Jiangling. Thereafter, for a brief duration, Emperor Ming was able to rule his state with decreased interference from Sui. In 583, when Sui moved its capital from the old city of Chang'an to a nearby, newly constructed capital Daxing (大興), Emperor Ming sent his crown prince Xiao Cong to congratulate Emperor Wen. In spring 584, Emperor Ming himself went to the new capital to pay homage to Emperor Wen, and both of them dressed in imperial garbs, although Emperor Ming dressed slightly less impressively to show his status as a vassal.
In summer 585, Emperor Ming died. Xiao Cong succeeded him (as Emperor Jing).
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang
| Emperor of Western Liang dynasty
Emperor Jing of Western Liang
Not to be confused with the Yi Zhou Shu 逸周書, also called Book of Zhou.The Book of Zhou (Zhōu Shū) records the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. Compiled by the Tang Dynasty historian Linghu Defen, the work was completed in 636 CE and consists of 50 chapters, some of which have been lost and replaced from other sources.
The book was criticised by Liu Zhiji for its attempt to glorify the ancestors of Tang Dynasty officials of the time.Consort Dowager Cao
Consort Dowager Cao (曹太妃, personal name unknown) (died 562) was an imperial consort of the Chinese dynasty Western Liang. She was a concubine of Emperor Xuan, and she was the mother of his son and crown prince Xiao Kui.
Xiao Kui was not initially considered Emperor Xuan's heir, as Emperor Xuan had an older son Xiao Liao (蕭嶚), who was initially his heir apparent. However, by the time that Emperor Xuan took the throne with Western Wei support in 555, Xiao Liao had already died, and so Xiao Kui, as the next son, was created crown prince. When Emperor Xuan died in 562, Xiao Kui succeeded to the throne (as Emperor Ming). He honored Emperor Xuan's wife Empress Wang as empress dowager and honored Consort Cao as consort dowager. Consort Dowager Cao died in the fall of that year.Dong Zhen
Dong Zhen (born 27 August 1986) is a Chinese singer-songwriter and lyricist best known for performing the theme songs of many Chinese MMORPGs, including The Legend of Sword and Fairy series, Jade Dynasty and Zu Online.Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui (隋煬帝, 569 – 11 April 618), personal name Yang Guang (楊廣), alternative name Ying (英), nickname Amo (阿摩), Sui Yang Di or Yang Di (炀帝) known as Emperor Ming (明帝) during the brief reign of his grandson Yang Tong), was the second son of Emperor Wen of Sui, and the second emperor of China's Sui dynasty.
Emperor Yang's original name was Yang Ying, but was renamed by his father, after consulting with oracles, to Yang Guang. Yang Guang was made the Prince of Jin after Emperor Wen established Sui Dynasty in 581. In 588, he was granted command of the five armies that invaded the southern Chen dynasty and was widely praised for the success of this campaign. These military achievements, as well as his machinations against his older brother Yang Yong, led to him becoming crown prince in 600. After the death of his father in 604, generally considered, though unproven, by most traditional historians to be a murder ordered by Yang Guang, he ascended the throne as Emperor Yang.
Emperor Yang, ruling from 604 to 618, committed to several large construction projects, most notably the completion of the Grand Canal. He commanded the reconstruction of the Great Wall, a project which took the lives of nearly six million workers. He also ordered several military expeditions that brought Sui to its greatest territorial extent, one of which, the conquest of Champa in what is now central and southern Vietnam, resulted in the death of thousands of Sui soldiers from malaria. These expeditions, along with a series of disastrous campaigns against Goguryeo (one of the three kingdoms of Korea), left the empire bankrupt and a populace in revolt. With northern China in turmoil, Emperor Yang spent his last days in Jiangdu (江都, in modern Yangzhou, Jiangsu), where he was eventually strangled in a coup led by his general Yuwen Huaji.
Despite his accomplishments, Emperor Yang was generally considered by traditional historians to be one of the worst tyrants in Chinese history and the reason for the Sui Dynasty's relatively short rule. His failed campaigns against Goguryeo, and the conscriptions levied to man them, coupled with increased taxation to finance these wars and civil unrest as a result of this taxation ultimately led to the downfall of the dynasty.Empress Dowager Gong
Empress Dowager Gong (龔太后, personal name unknown) (died 562), formally Empress Dowager Yuan (元太后, literally "the discerning empress dowager") was an empress dowager of the Chinese dynasty Western Liang dynasty. She was the mother of Emperor Xuan of Western Liang (Xiao Cha) who founded the Western Liang with the support of Western Wei.
Lady Gong was a concubine of Xiao Tong, the first crown prince of Liang dynasty's founder Emperor Wu. Her rank was the second rank for a concubine of the crown prince, Baolin (保林). She gave birth to Xiao Cha in 519. (It is not known whether any of Xiao Tong's other four known sons were her sons as well, although his oldest son Xiao Huan (蕭歡) was not, as he was the son of Xiao Tong's wife Crown Princess Cai.) Little is known about her background, including her birth family, and Xiao Cha himself appeared to be closer to Crown Princess Cai's nephew Cai Dabao (蔡大寶) than he was with any cousins he might have had through his mother.
Historical references to Lady Gong were not numerous. In 549, while Liang was in a state of disarray after the fall of the capital Jiankang to the rebel general Hou Jing and the imperial princes were battling each other, Xiao Cha, then the Prince of Yueyang, was leading an army against his uncle Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong to try to save his brother Xiao Yu (蕭譽) the Prince of Hedong (whom Xiao Yi's forces were besieging), when he left his headquarters Xiangyang in the hands of Cai Dabao and Lady Gong (who was at that time still referred to as Baolin, not as princess dowager), and they defended the city against a surprise attack by the general Du An (杜岸), who served under Xiao Cha but had defected to Xiao Yi. Subsequently, in order to fend of Xiao Yi's attacks, Xiao Cha became a Western Wei vassal and was created the Prince of Liang.
In 555, after Western Wei forces had defeated and killed Xiao Yi, Western Wei created Xiao Cha the emperor of (Western) Liang (as Emperor Xuan). While Emperor Xuan posthumously honored Xiao Tong as an emperor and Xiao Tong's wife Crown Princess Cai as an empress, he honored his mother as an empress dowager. After he died in 562 and was succeeded by his son Xiao Kui (as Emperor Ming), Emperor Ming honored her as grand empress dowager. She died about three months after her son.Empress Wang (Xiao Cha)
Empress Wang (王皇后, personal name unknown) (died 563), formally Empress Jing (靜皇后, literally "the meek empress"), was an empress of the Chinese dynasty Western Liang. Her husband Emperor Xuan of Western Liang (Xiao Cha) founded the Western Liang with the support of Western Wei.
It is not known when she married Xiao Cha, but it is known that she was his wife, not his concubine, and that while he carried the title Prince of Yueyang, she was the Princess of Yueyang. It is not known whether she was the mother of any of Xiao Cha's five known sons, although she was not the mother of his eventual heir Xiao Kui, whose mother was Xiao Cha's concubine Consort Cao. In 549, when the Liang dynasty was in a state of disarray after the capital Jiankang had fallen to the rebel general Hou Jing, Xiao Cha, then with his headquarters at Xiangyang (襄陽, in modern Xiangfan, Hubei), feared an attack from his uncle Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, and therefore became a Western Wei vassal. In order to show his loyalty, he sent Princess Wang and his heir apparent Xiao Liao (蕭嶚) to Western Wei as hostages. At some point, Western Wei allowed her to return to Xiao Cha.
In 555, after Western Wei forces had defeated and killed Xiao Yi, Western Wei created Xiao Cha the emperor of (Western) Liang (as Emperor Xuan). He created Princess Wang empress. In 562, after Emperor Xuan died and was succeeded by Xiao Kui (who had been created crown prince because Xiao Liao died before Emperor Xuan's ascension) as Emperor Ming, Emperor Ming honored her as empress dowager. She died in 563.Guizotia
Guizotia is a genus of African herbs in the sunflower family. They are often known as sunflecks. The species G. abyssinica is occasionally found outside of cultivation in Europe, North America and Asia.The closest relatives of Guizotia within the tribe Heliantheae (sensu lato) are not clear.
SpeciesList of Chinese monarchs
This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese: 王; pinyin: wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin: huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.
Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.
These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.
Follow these links to see how they are related:
Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors → Chinese emperors family tree (early) → Chinese emperors family tree (middle) → Chinese emperors family tree (late)List of Emperors of China's Southern Dynasties
The Southern dynasties (南朝 pinyin: náncháo) describe a succession of Chinese empires that coexisted alongside a series of Northern Dynasties. The era is generally described as the Southern and Northern Dynasties, lasting from 420–589 AD after the Jin and before the Sui Dynasty.
The Southern Dynasties were as follows:
Liu Song (420–479 AD)
Southern Qi (479–502 AD)
Liang (502–557 AD)
Chen (557–589 AD)
Some historians also consider there to be fifth Southern Dynasty called the Nan Liang Dynasty (555-587 AD), but the accuracy of this assertion is contested.Ma Su (actress)
Ma Su (Chinese: 马苏, born 17 February 1981) is a Chinese actress.Temple name
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon dynasties), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) monarchs. They should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.
Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to a ruler, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:
an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (孝). The founders are almost always either "High" (高) or "Grand" (太).
"emperor": either zǔ (祖) or zōng (宗).
Zu ("forefather") implies a progenitor, either a founder of a dynasty or a new line within an existing one. Zu is also given to monarchs with great accomplishment. The equivalent in Korean is jo (조), and tổ in Vietnamese.
Zong ("ancestor") is used in all other rulers. It is rendered as jong (종) in Korean, and tông in Vietnamese.The "temple" in "temple name" refers to the "grand temple" (太廟), also called "great temple" (大廟) or "ancestral temple" (祖廟), where crown princes and other royalty gathered to worship their ancestors. The ancestral tablets in the grand temple recorded the temple names of the rulers.
In earlier times, only rulers had temple names, such as Taihao (太昊). Temple names were assigned sporadically from the Shang dynasty and regularly from the Tang dynasty. Some Han emperors had their temple names permanently removed by their descendants in 190 AD. Temple names are the usual way to refer to emperors from the Tang dynasty up to the Ming dynasty. For the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty (from 1368 AD), era names are often used instead.
In Korea, temple names are used to refer to kings of the early Goryeo (until 1274 AD), and kings and emperors of Joseon. For the Korean Empire, era names should be used, but the temple names are often used instead. In Vietnam, most rulers are known by their temple names, with the exception of Tây Sơn and Nguyễn monarchs, who are better known by their era names.
Numerous individuals who did not serve as monarch during their lifetime were posthumously promoted to "emperor" or "king" by their descendants and given temple names.The Mystic Nine
The Mystic Nine (Chinese: 老九门; pinyin: Lǎo Jiǔ Mén, lit. Old Nine Gates) is a prequel to the Chinese television series The Lost Tomb based on the internet novel Daomu Biji. It aired on Dragon TV and was broadcast online via iQiyi from 4 July to 17 October 2016.
The drama is a commercial success in China. It is one of the most watched Chinese dramas, with over 12 billion views in total.Western Liang (555–587)
The Liang (555–587), later called the Western Liang (西梁) or Later Liang (後梁) to distinguish it from the Liang dynasty (502–557), was a small puppet state during the Northern and Southern dynasties period, located in the middle Yangtze region in today's central Hubei province. From 555 to 557 it was subservient to the Western Wei, from 557 to 581 to the Northern Zhou (which replaced Western Wei), and from 581 to 587 to the Sui dynasty (which replaced Northern Zhou) before the Sui annexed it.
The Western Liang's founding emperor Xiao Cha was a grandson of the Liang dynasty founder Emperor Wu of Liang, as a result Western Liang is usually considered a rump state of the Liang dynasty after 557. From 555 to 557 the two states existed simultaneously: Xiao Cha ruled from Jiangling, while the Liang dynasty emperors Xiao Yuanming and Xiao Fangzhi ruled from Jiankang. Before 555, Emperor Yuan of Liang also ruled from Jiangling before he was captured and executed by Xiao Cha and his Western Wei backers, but he is considered a Liang dynasty emperor rather than a Western Liang emperor because, among other things, he (at least nominally) controlled a much larger territory.
The Western Liang had 3 emperors, Xiao Cha (Emperor Xuan), Xiao Kui (Emperor Ming), and Xiao Cong (Emperor Jing). From 617 to 621, Xiao Cha's great-grandson Xiao Xian occupied the former Western Liang territory (and more) and proclaimed himself King of Liang, but his short-lived state is usually considered separate.Xiao Cha
Emperor Xuan of (Western) Liang ((西)梁宣帝; 519–562), personal name Xiao Cha (蕭詧), courtesy name Lisun (理孫), was the founding emperor of the Chinese Western Liang dynasty. He took the Liang throne under support from Western Wei after Western Wei forces had defeated and killed his uncle Emperor Yuan in 554, but many traditional historians, because he controlled little territory and relied heavily on military support by Western Wei and Western Wei's successor state Northern Zhou, did not consider him and his successors true emperors of Liang. Instead, their state is traditionally considered separate, as Western Liang (or Later Liang).Xiao Yu
Xiao Yu (574–647), courtesy name Shiwen, posthumously known as Duke Zhenbian of Song, was an imperial prince of the Western Liang dynasty who later became an official under the Sui and Tang dynasties. He served as a chancellor during the reigns of the emperors Gaozu and Taizong in the early Tang dynasty.