X (company)

X Development LLC. (formerly Google X) is an American semi-secret research and development facility and organization founded by Google in January 2010,[1][2] which now operates as a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.[3] X has its headquarters about a mile and a half from Alphabet's corporate headquarters, the Googleplex, in Mountain View, California.[4][5]

Work at X is overseen by entrepreneur scientist Astro Teller, as CEO and "Captain of Moonshots".[6][7][8] The lab started with the development of Google's self-driving car.[8]

On October 2, 2015, after the complete restructuring of Google into Alphabet, Google X became an independent Alphabet company and was renamed to X.

On 25 October 2018, The New York Times published an exposé entitled, "How Google Protected Andy Rubin, the ‘Father of Android’". The company subsequently announced that "48 employees have been fired over the last two years" for sexual misconduct.[9] A week after the article appeared, Google X executive Rich DeVaul resigned pursuant to a complaint of sexual harassment.[10]

X Development LLC.
Google X (2010–2015)
Subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.
IndustryResearch and development
Key people


X's mission is to invent and launch "moonshot" technologies that aim to make the world a radically better place.[11] A moonshot is defined by X as the intersection of a big problem, a radical solution, and breakthrough technology.[12]


Google Glass with frame
Google Glass with black frames for prescription lenses.

Project Glass is a research and development program by Google to develop an augmented reality head-mounted display (HMD).[13] The intended purpose of Project Glass products would be the hands-free displaying of information currently available to most smartphone users,[14] and allowing for interaction with the Internet via natural language voice commands.[15] One Google Glass costs $1500.


Makani is a current project that was acquired by X in May 2013 designed to produce wind energy using kites.[16] The T-shaped planes are 85 feet wide and contain 8 turbines tethered to the ground.[17] Compared to wind turbines, Makani's kites require 90% less material.[18] In December 2016, Makani's kite became the first energy kite in the world to generate electricity.[19]


X is currently conducting tests of free-space optical communication (FSOC) in rural areas of India.[20] The technology uses light beams which are developed by X's office in Visakhapatnam.[21] As of December 2017, X had set up 2,000 of these units in India, through a partnership with Andhra Pradesh State FiberNet Limited.[22]


In October 2013, the existence of four Google barges was revealed, with the vessels registered under the dummy corporation By And Large. Two of the barges have a superstructure whose construction has been kept under the utmost secrecy, while speculations indicate they could be used as marketing for, and stores for, Google Glass. However, these are merely speculations. Others have suggested that it might be used as a floating data center.[23]

Graduated projects

Waymo (self-driving car)

Waymo self-driving car side view.gk
A Waymo self-driving car on the road in Mountain View.

Waymo was a project by Google that involves developing technology for driverless cars. In December 2016, Google transitioned the project into a new company called Waymo, housed under Google's parent company Alphabet. The project was led by Google engineer Sebastian Thrun, director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and co-inventor of Google Street View. Thrun's team at Stanford created the robotic vehicle Stanley which won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge and its US$2 million prize from the United States Department of Defense.[24] The team developing the system consisted of 15 engineers working for Google, including Chris Urmson, Mike Montemerlo, and Anthony Levandowski, who had worked on the DARPA Grand and Urban Challenges.[25]

The U.S. state of Nevada passed a law in June 2011 concerning the operation of driverless cars in Nevada. Google had been lobbying for driverless car laws.[26][27][28] The license was issued to a Toyota Prius modified with Google's experimental driver-less technology.[29] As of March 2016, Google had test driven their fleet of vehicles, in autonomous mode, a total of 1,498,214 mi (2,411,142 km).[30]


Google Loon - Launch Event
A Project Loon research balloon.

Project Loon was a project of X that aims to bring internet access to everyone by creating an internet network of balloons flying through the stratosphere. It uses wireless routers in balloons that are above weather and plans to give access to the internet to those who can't reach it or are in need of help.[31] In July 2018, Loon graduated from X and was made a subsidiary of Alphabet.[32]


Project Wing was a project of X that aims to rapidly deliver products across a city by using flying vehicles, similar to the Amazon Prime Air concept.[33] At the time of the announcement on August 28, 2014, it had already been in development secretly at Google for about two years, with full-scale testing being carried out in Australia. The flying vehicles take off vertically, then rotate to a horizontal position for flying around. For delivery, it hovers and winches packages down to the ground. At the end of the tether is a small bundle of electronics which detects that the package has hit the ground, detaches from the delivery, and is pulled back up into the body of the vehicle. Dropping the cargo or landing were found to be unfeasible, as users compromised the safety.[34]


Malta was started in July 2017 to develop renewable energy storage systems by utilizing tanks of molten salt.[35] The system works by transforming electrical energy to heat energy for storage, based on research by Robert B. Laughlin.[36] Malta Inc. graduated from X in December 2018 with plans to develop a large-scale test of the technology for future commercial applications.[37]


  • The Google Contact Lens, a smart contact lens that aims to assist people with diabetes by constantly measuring the glucose levels in their tears, was announced by Google on January 16, 2014.[38] This project, the nanodiagnostics project[39] to develop a cancer-detecting pill, and other life sciences efforts are now being carried out by Verily.[40]
  • Google Brain is now a deep learning research project at Google which started as an X project. Considered one of the biggest successes,[41] this one project has produced enough value for Google to more than cover the total costs of X, according to Astro Teller.[42]
  • Dandelion[43] was spun out as a company not under the Alphabet umbrella, aiming to sell geothermal energy systems to consumers.[44]
  • Google Watch
  • Gcam
  • Verily
  • Project Insight
  • Project Tango
  • Flux
  • Daydream View
  • Chronicle


  • Foghorn, a project to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel for vehicles using sea water as a source of carbon dioxide, extracted using membrane technology, and also as a source of hydrogen, using electrolysis. The project was killed by X in 2016 and the results published in 2018.[45]
  • Calcifer explored using lighter-than-air vehicles to move freight at lower cost in countries with poor transportation infrastructure. Abandoned in 2014 due to the high cost of prototyping and limited expected impact.[46]

Other projects

  • The web of things, a way of connecting real-world objects to the Internet.[5]
  • Long lasting smartphone batteries.[47]
  • FSOC Free Space Optical Communications, a spin-off from Loon that uses lasers to communicate through the air over relatively long distances. A pilot project is planned for Andhra Pradesh state in India.[48][49]

Projects that X has considered and rejected include a space elevator, which was deemed to be currently infeasible;[50] a hoverboard, which was determined to be too costly relative to the societal benefits;[51] a user-safe jetpack, which was thought to be too loud and energy-wasting;[52] and teleportation, which was found to violate the laws of physics.[52]


In February 2016, Astro Teller, the X "Captain of Moonshots", gave a TED talk[53] in which he described the X approach to projects. Unusual characteristics of the approach included constantly trying to find reasons to kill off projects by tackling the hardest parts first, and both celebrating and rewarding staff when projects were killed off due to failure.

On May 17, 2018, an internal video entitled The Selfish Ledger was leaked by The Verge, regarding reshaping society through total data collection. A spokesperson stated that "This is a thought-experiment by the Design team from years ago that uses a technique known as ‘speculative design’ to explore uncomfortable ideas and concepts in order to provoke discussion and debate. It's not related to any current or future products."[54]


A number of companies have been acquired and merged into X, covering a diverse range of skills including wind turbines, robotics, artificial intelligence, humanoid robots, robotic arms, and computer vision. In 2013, X acquired Makani Power, a US company which develops tethered wings/kites with mounted wind turbines for low cost renewable energy generation.[55] In 2014, it acquired product design and mechanical engineering firm Gecko Design, whose previous products included the Fitbit activity tracker and low-cost computers.[56] As of 2015, X has acquired 14 companies: among them are Redwood Robotics, Meka Robotics, Boston Dynamics, and Jetpac.[56] In June 2017, X sold Boston Dynamics to SoftBank Group.[57]


A reporter from Bloomberg Businessweek visited the site in 2013 and described it as "ordinary two-story red-brick buildings about a half-mile from Google's main campus. There's a burbling fountain out front and rows of company-issued bikes, which employees use to shuttle to the main campus."[4]

See also


  1. ^ Rowan, David (October 31, 2013). "Astro Teller of Google[x] wants to improve the world's broken industries". Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  2. ^ "Secret Google lab 'rewards failure'". Newsnight. BBC. January 24, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  3. ^ "Google to be publicly traded under Alphabet Inc. in planned restructuring". Retrieved August 10, 2015.
  4. ^ a b Stone, B rad (May 22, 2013). "Inside Google's Secret Lab". Businessweek. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Cain Miller, Claire; Bilton, Nick (November 13, 2011). "Google's Lab of Wildest Dreams". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
  6. ^ "Introduction to Project Glass". Google+: Project Glass. April 4, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2013 – via Google. A group of us from Google[x] started Project Glass to build this kind of technology…
  7. ^ Shontell, Alyson (September 18, 2013). "Meet The Mastermind Behind Driverless Cars, Glass And More: Google's 'Chief Of Moonshots,' Astro Teller". Business Insider. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Gertner, Jon (April 15, 2014). "The Truth About Google X: An Exclusive Look Behind The Secretive Lab's Closed Doors". Fast Company. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
  9. ^ Welch, Chris (25 October 2018). "Google says 48 people have been fired for sexual harassment in the last two years". The Verge. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  10. ^ Musil, Steven (30 October 2018). "Google exec accused of sexual harassment leaves company". CNET. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  11. ^ "A Peek Inside the Moonshot Factory Operating Manual" Check |url= value (help). The Team at X. 2016-07-23. Retrieved 2018-04-24.
  12. ^ The unexpected benefit of celebrating failure | Astro Teller, retrieved 2018-04-24
  13. ^ Goldman, David (April 4, 2012). "Google unveils 'Project Glass' virtual-reality glasses". Money. CNN.
  14. ^ Albanesius, Chloe (April 4, 2012). "Google 'Project Glass' Replaces the Smartphone With Glasses". PC Magazine.
  15. ^ Newman, Jared (April 4, 2012). "Google's 'Project Glass' Teases Augmented Reality Glasses". PCWorld.
  16. ^ Shankland, Stephen (May 23, 2013). "Google X acquires kite-power startup Makani". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  17. ^ Bergen, Mark (August 4, 2017). "Alphabet's Green Energy Ambitions Hit Turbulence". Bloomberg News. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  18. ^ Li, Abner (August 4, 2017). "Various clean energy moonshots at X have hit roadblocks, including Makani kite project". 9to5Google. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  19. ^ "Makani produces 1st power with 600-kW kite". Renewables Now. May 18. Retrieved July 13, 2018. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  20. ^ Phadnis, Shilpa (February 22, 2018). "Alphabet's X provides high-speed internet without fiber in AP". The Times of India. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  21. ^ "Google X ready to set up Development Centre in Visakhapatnam". Hindustan Times. December 15, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  22. ^ U N, Sushma (December 15, 2017). "Alphabet's X will use light beams to bring the internet to millions of rural Indian households". Quartz India. Retrieved July 21, 2018.
  23. ^ Casey Newton. "Google plans to dock mystery barge at former Army post in San Francisco". The Verge.
  24. ^ John Markoff (October 9, 2010). "Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
  25. ^ Sebastian Thrun (October 9, 2010). "What we're driving at". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
  26. ^ "Nevada enacts law authorizing autonomous (driverless) vehicles". Green Car Congress. June 25, 2011. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  27. ^ Alex Knapp (June 22, 2011). "Nevada Passes Law Authorizing Driverless Cars". Forbes. Retrieved June 25, 2011.
  28. ^ John Markoff (May 10, 2011). "Google Lobbies Nevada To Allow Self-Driving Cars". The New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  29. ^ Mary Slosson (May 8, 2012). "Google gets first self-driven car license in Nevada". Reuters. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
  30. ^ "Google Self-Driving Car Project Monthly Report - March 2016" (PDF). Google. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  31. ^ "Official website of project Loon".
  32. ^ Koulopoulos, Thomas (July 2018). "The Moonshot to Create the Next Google". Inc. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  33. ^ "Droning On". AOPA Pilot: 63. April 2015.
  34. ^ Warwick, Graham. "Google Details 'Project Wing' Unmanned Package-Delivery R&D" Aviation Week & Space Technology, November 3, 2014. Accessed: November 5, 2014. Archived November 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine on November 5, 2014
  35. ^ Kovach, Steve (31 July 2017). "Alphabet's 'moonshot' lab has a new project to store renewable energy". Business Insider. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  36. ^ Wiggers, Kyle (19 December 2018). "Alphabet's X lab spins out molten-salt energy storage project Malta". VentureBeat. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  37. ^ Hanley, Steve (21 December 2018). "Google X Spins Off Malta Molten Salt Energy Storage Business". CleanTechnica. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  38. ^ "Introducing our smart contact lens project". January 16, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  39. ^ "Why Google's Cancer-Detecting Pill Is More Than Just Hype". November 5, 2014. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  40. ^ "Official website of X".
  41. ^ "They Promised Us Jet Packs". July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  42. ^ "Astro Teller, Google's 'Captain of Moonshots,' on Making Profits at Google X". February 6, 2015. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  43. ^ Dandelion official site
  44. ^ Google's parent company spun out a new business that heats your home with geothermal energy
  45. ^ https://x.company/explorations/foghorn/
  46. ^ https://x.company/explorations/
  47. ^ "Google's X lab is working on batteries that last longer". WSJ. April 11, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  48. ^ https://blog.x.company/exploring-a-new-approach-to-connectivity-861a0159f63e
  49. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/google-s-x-labs-to-share-fsoc-technology-for-andhra-s-fiber-grid-117121500451_1.html
  50. ^ Gayomali, Chris (April 15, 2014). "Google X Confirms The Rumors: It Really Did Try To Design A Space Elevator". Fast Company. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
  51. ^ Gayomali, Chris (April 15, 2014). "This Is Why We Don't Have Google X Hoverboards Yet". Fast Company. Retrieved April 17, 2014.
  52. ^ a b Mack, Eric (May 6, 2014). "Four Crazy Google X Projects That Failed". Forbes. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  53. ^ "The unexpected benefit of celebrating failure". TED. Feb 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2016.
  54. ^ "Google's Selfish Ledger is an unsettling vision of Silicon Valley social engineering". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-05-19.
  55. ^ "Google acquires kite-power generator". BBC News. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
  56. ^ a b Miners, Zach (August 22, 2014). "Google acquires Gecko Design for next-generation products". Retrieved August 22, 2014.
  57. ^ D'Angelo, Alexa (June 9, 2017). "Why Google wanted to sell – and Softbank wanted to buy – Boston Dynamics, which makes crazy robots". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 9, 2017.

Reviews of Google X

External links

2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment

The Second Battalion, Parachute Regiment (2 PARA), is a battalion-sized formation of the Parachute Regiment, part of the British Army, and subordinate unit within 16th Air Assault Brigade whose Commanding Officer for the period 2013-2016 was Lieutenant Colonel Oliver Kingsbury OBE.2 PARA is an airborne light infantry unit capable of a wide range of operational tasks, based at Merville Barracks, Colchester Garrison, England. Personnel regularly deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations and training.

4th Canadian Screen Awards

The 4th Canadian Screen Awards was held on March 13, 2016, to honour achievements in Canadian film, television, and digital media production in 2015.Nominations were announced on January 19, 2016. Awards in many of the technical categories were presented in a series of galas over the week before the main ceremony.

During the ceremony, host Norm Macdonald suggested the award be called the Candy in honour of late Canadian actor John Candy, comparable to the Academy Awards long being known as Oscars. The nickname has still not been officially adopted by the Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television, although Academy chair Martin Katz personally endorsed it in a follow-up interview with the Toronto Star.

5th Canadian Screen Awards

The 5th annual Canadian Screen Awards were held on March 12, 2017, to honour achievements in Canadian film, television, and digital media production in 2016. Nominations were announced on January 17, 2017.Awards in many of the technical categories were presented in a series of galas, collectively called Canadian Screen Week, in the days leading up to the main ceremony. At the main ceremony, the film It's Only the End of the World and the television series Orphan Black won the most awards in film and television categories, with six and nine awards, respectively.

AT-X (company)

AT-X (アニメシアターX, Anime Shiatā Ekkusu, lit. "Anime Theater X") is a Japanese anime television network owned by AT-X, Inc. (株式会社エー・ティー・エックス, Kabushiki kaisha Ē-Tī-Ekkusu). AT-X, Inc. was founded on June 26, 2000 as a subsidiary of TV Tokyo Medianet, which, in turn, is a subsidiary of TV Tokyo. Its headquarters are in Minato, Tokyo. AT-X network has been broadcasting anime via satellite and cable since December 24, 1997.

Their slogan is Wan ranku ue no anime senmon chan'neru (ワンランク上のアニメ専門チャンネル, lit. "Anime Specialty Channels Up a Notch").

AT-X is always the main channel for many Comic Gum Anime adaptions. Ikkitousen, Amaenaideyo!! and Fight Ippatsu! Juuden-chan! were shown on this channel first, before they were re-aired on Tokyo MX.As a premium channel AT-X is also known for showing uncensored versions of several anime like Fight Ippatsu! Jūden-chan!!, Amaenaideyo!!, Girls Bravo, Elfen Lied, Mahoromatic and High School DxD which would normally get censored on TV-stations like TV-Tokyo because of the large amount of nudity and other factors.

Amanda Tapping

Amanda Tapping (born 28 August 1965) is an English-Canadian actress and director. She is best known for portraying Samantha Carter in the Canadian–American military science fiction television series Stargate SG-1 and Stargate Atlantis. She also starred as Helen Magnus in the science fiction-fantasy television series Sanctuary.

Amin Bhatia

Amin Bhatia (born 10 July 1961 London, England) is a Canadian recording artist, film, and television music score composer and producer. In 1981 his compositions won the Roland Corporation International Synthesizer competition for two consecutive years. The judges included Oscar Peterson, Robert Moog, Ralph Dyck, and Isao Tomita. The exposure led to projects with David Foster, Steve Porcaro, and a solo album on Capitol Records "Cinema label" called The Interstellar Suite, which launched his career in music for film and television.

Bhatia is known for lush orchestral work with contemporary influences. His early compositions were created strictly with analog keyboards and tape, combining and layering several electronic parts to achieve a warm orchestral sound that was not sampled from an orchestra. In later years, Amin's strengths in both music and MIDI synthesizer programming led him to projects such as John Woo's Once a Thief and Iron Eagle II. Over the years Bhatia has moved into actual orchestral work with his film and television scores. The IMAX film Wild Chimpanzees features members of the Toronto Symphony and Opera Orchestras with songs recorded in Africa with Johnny Clegg. Other IMAX films include 'Mysteries of the Great Lakes', 'Wonders of the Arctic' which also features the voice of Tanya Tagaq.

Amin Bhatia has been awarded several Canadian Screen Awards and Gemini Awards for his music score work in television, and an Emmy nomination for the Disney animated television series Get Ed. Bhatia's projects include the TV series 'Anne with an E', 'X Company', Flashpoint. He has also worked as a consultant or programmer to many synthesizer companies including Roland Corporation, Q Sound, Arturia, and Spectrasonics.

Bhatia's recorded works include The Interstellar Suite and Virtuality. The Interstellar Suite was originally released in 1987 by the Capitol Cinema label and was independently re-released in 2003 on CD. Virtuality is a double concept album exploring the world within computers. Guest artists include veterans Steve Porcaro and Patrick Moraz, as well as detailed liner notes written by synthesizer historian Mark Vail.

Connor Price

Connor Price (born November 11, 1994) is a Canadian actor.

Dustin Milligan

Dustin Wallace Milligan (born July 28, 1985) is a Canadian actor, known for his role as Ethan Ward on the teen drama television series 90210 and as Ted Mullens on Schitt's Creek.

Google Glass

Google Glass is a brand of smart glasses—an optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of eyeglasses. It was developed by X (previously Google X) with the mission of producing a ubiquitous computer. Google Glass displayed information in a smartphone-like, hands-free format. Wearers communicated with the Internet via natural language voice commands.Google started selling a prototype of Google Glass to qualified "Glass Explorers" in the US on April 15, 2013, for a limited period for $1,500, before it became available to the public on May 15, 2014. It had an integral 5 megapixel still/720p video camera. The headset received a great deal of criticism and legislative action due to privacy and safety concerns.

On January 15, 2015, Google announced that it would stop producing the Google Glass prototype, to be continued in 2017 tentatively. In July 2017, it was announced that the Google Glass Enterprise Edition would be released.

Herfindahl index

The Herfindahl index (also known as Herfindahl–Hirschman Index, HHI, or sometimes HHI-score) is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. Named after economists Orris C. Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirschman, it is an economic concept widely applied in competition law, antitrust and also technology management. It is defined as the sum of the squares of the market shares of the firms within the industry (sometimes limited to the 50 largest firms), where the market shares are expressed as fractions. The result is proportional to the average market share, weighted by market share. As such, it can range from 0 to 1.0, moving from a huge number of very small firms to a single monopolistic producer. Increases in the Herfindahl index generally indicate a decrease in competition and an increase of market power, whereas decreases indicate the opposite. Alternatively, if whole percentages are used, the index ranges from 0 to 10,000 "points". For example, an index of .25 is the same as 2,500 points.

The major benefit of the Herfindahl index in relationship to such measures as the concentration ratio is that it gives more weight to larger firms.

The measure is essentially equivalent to the Simpson diversity index, which is a diversity index used in ecology; the inverse participation ratio (IPR) in physics; and the effective number of parties index in politics.

Lara Jean Chorostecki

Lara Jean Chorostecki (born September 24, 1984) is a Canadian actress known for her role as Fredricka "Freddie" Lounds in the American psychological thriller–horror television series Hannibal, and as Sergeant Krystina Breeland on the critically acclaimed Canadian series X Company.

Lennart Augustsson

Lennart Augustsson is a Swedish computer scientist. He was previously a lecturer at the Computing Science Department at Chalmers University of Technology. His research field is functional programming and implementations of functional languages.Augustsson has worked for Carlstedt Research and Technology, Sandburst, Credit Suisse, Standard Chartered Bank, Facebook, and is currently employed by X (company).Augustsson is the author of:

The Cayenne programming language.

The HBC Haskell compiler.

Several hardware device drivers for NetBSD.

The front end of the pH compiler (parallel Haskell) from MIT.

The initial version of the Bluespec compiler.He was also a co-developer, with Thomas Johnsson, of Lazy ML, a functional programming language developed in the early 1980s, prior to Miranda and Haskell. LML is a strongly typed, statically scoped implementation of ML, with lazy evaluation. The key innovation of LML was to demonstrate how to compile a lazy functional language. Until then, lazy languages had been implemented via interpreted graph reduction. LML compiled to G-machine code.Augustsson was intimately involved in early LPMud development, both in the LPMUD driver and the CD mudlib. His MUD community pseudonym is Marvin.Augustsson has written three winning entries in the International Obfuscated C Code Contest:

1985: Most obscure program (1985/august.c)

1986: Best complex task done in a complex way (1986/august.c)

1996: Best of Show (1996/august.c)

List X site

A List X site is a commercial site (i.e. non-government) on UK soil that is approved to hold UK government protectively marked information marked as 'Secret' or above, or international partners information classified ‘Confidential’ or above. This changed from 'Confidential and above' with the introduction of the Government Security Classification Scheme. It is applied to a company's specific site (or facility within that site) and not a company as a whole. The term has been used since the 1930s and is equivalent to facility security clearance (FSC) used in other countries.

Locations with this status are those normally involved with defence research and manufacturing that is vital to national security. The complete list of sites is itself classified. The list is administered by Defence Security and Assurance Services (DSAS), part of the Ministry of Defence.

A similar scheme, List N, is used for sites relating to civil nuclear research or power generation, and is administered by the Office for Nuclear Regulation.

Loon (company)

Loon LLC is an Alphabet Inc. subsidiary working on providing Internet access to rural and remote areas. The company uses high-altitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial wireless network with up to 4G-LTE speeds. It was named Project Loon, since even Google itself found the idea of providing Internet access to the remaining 5 billion population unprecedented and "loony". It may also be a reference to the balloons used. Loon began as a research and development project by X (formerly Google X), but was spun out into a separate company in July 2018.The balloons are maneuvered by adjusting their altitude in the stratosphere to float to a wind layer after identifying the wind layer with the desired speed and direction using wind data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Users of the service connect to the balloon network using a special Internet antenna attached to their building. The signal travels through the balloon network from balloon to balloon, then to a ground-based station connected to an Internet service provider (ISP), then onto the global Internet. The system aims to bring Internet access to remote and rural areas poorly served by existing provisions, and to improve communication during natural disasters to affected regions. Key people involved in the project include Rich DeVaul, chief technical architect, who is also an expert on wearable technology; Mike Cassidy, a project leader; and Cyrus Behroozi, a networking and telecommunication lead.The balloons use patch antennas – which are directional antennas – to transmit signals to ground stations or LTE users. Some smartphones with Google SIM cards can use Google Internet services. The whole infrastructure is based on LTE; the eNodeB component (the equivalent of the "base station" that talks directly to handsets) is carried in the balloon.


Rilakkuma (リラックマ, Rirakkuma) is a fictional character produced by the Japanese company San-X, created by former employee Aki Kondo. Companies such as Re-Ment have collaborated with San-X to create Rilakkuma merchandise. Rilakkuma appears on items such as stationery, dishware, backpacks, and stuffed animals. A Netflix original series based on this character titled Rilakkuma and Kaoru is slated to premiere globally in April 19, 2019.

Stephanie Morgenstern

Stephanie Grace Morgenstern is a Canadian actress, filmmaker, and screenwriter for television and film. Born in Geneva, Switzerland and raised in Montreal, Quebec, Morgenstern began her acting career when she was 15. She has worked extensively on stage, film, and television in both English and French. Her most widely seen feature film credits have been The Sweet Hereafter, Maelström, Julie and Me (Revoir Julie) and Forbidden Love. Morgenstern is also widely recognized by anime fans as the voice of Sailor Venus in the DIC Entertainment English dub of Sailor Moon in the first few seasons as well as the movies.

Along with her writing partner and husband Mark Ellis, Morgenstern created Flashpoint, a Canadian TV police drama which premiered July 2008 on CTV and CBS, and ran for five years before the show ended by creative choice in 2012. The show was awarded the Academy Board of Directors Tribute for Outstanding and Enduring Contribution to Canadian Television, in addition to a Gemini Award (2009) for Best Dramatic Series and a Canadian Screen Award (2013). Flashpoint has been sold to over 50 countries outside of Canada and the U.S.She and Mark Ellis recently completed the third and final season of X Company, a WWII espionage thriller set in France, Germany and Canada. It aired on CBC Television beginning in 2014, and has sold to many territories internationally, including France (TF1), U.K. (History), the United States (Ovation), Latin America (History), and Japan (Mystery). It was also a Canadian Screen Awards nominee for Best Dramatic Series.Morgenstern has been twice nominated for Genie (Canadian Academy) Awards for directing the short film Remembrance, which she also co-wrote and co-starred in with her husband Mark Ellis, and co-directing (with her brother Mark Morgenstern) the short film Curtains, which she also wrote, an in which she played the lead role.

Wing (company)

Wing is a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc. that aims to rapidly deliver products across a city by using flying vehicles, similar to the Amazon Prime Air concept. At the time of the announcement on August 28, 2014, it had already been in development secretly at Google X for about two years, with full-scale testing being carried out in Australia. The flying vehicles take off vertically, then rotate to a horizontal position for flying around. For delivery, it hovers and winches packages down to the ground. At the end of the tether is a small bundle of electronics which detects that the package has hit the ground, detaches from the delivery, and is pulled back up into the body of the vehicle. Dropping the cargo or landing were found to be unfeasible, as users compromised the safety. In July 2018, Project Wing was spun out of X into an Alphabet owned company. By January 2019, Wing was delivering take-out food and beverages out of its test facility in Bonython, Australia as part of a pilot program.

X Company

X Company is a Canadian/Hungarian spy thriller television series created by Flashpoint's Mark Ellis and Stephanie Morgenstern which premiered on February 18, 2015, on CBC Television. The series takes place during World War II, and follows five recruits as they are trained as agents at a secret Canadian training facility, Camp X near Lake Ontario east of Toronto and then sent out into the field in Europe. The final episode of the series aired on CBC on March 15, 2017.

X Company was produced by Temple Street and Pioneer Stillking Kft. Mark Ellis and Stephanie Morgenstern wrote some episodes and were also executive producers with Ivan Schneeberg, David Fortier, Kerry Appleyard (Temple Street) and Bill Haber (Ostar Productions). Directors included Grant Harvey, Amanda Tapping, Paolo Barzman, Julian Gilbey and Stephanie Morgenstern.On March 4, 2015, CBC renewed the series for a second season with ten episodes, two more than the first season of eight. On March 31, 2016, CBC announced that the series would be renewed for a ten-episode third season, to début in the winter of 2017. On September 1, 2016, it was announced that this would be the final season for the show.

Évelyne Brochu

Évelyne Brochu (born November 17, 1983) is a Canadian actress. In 2013, she became well known for her English-speaking role as Delphine Cormier, a French scientist on the hit TV series Orphan Black.


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.