XMLHttpRequest

XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an API in the form of an object whose methods transfer data between a web browser and a web server. The object is provided by the browser's JavaScript environment. Particularly, retrieval of data from XHR for the purpose of continually modifying a loaded web page is the underlying concept of Ajax design. Despite the name, XHR can be used with protocols other than HTTP and data can be in the form of not only XML,[1] but also JSON,[2] HTML or plain text.[3]

WHATWG maintains an XHR standard as a living document. Ongoing work at the W3C to create a stable specification is based on snapshots of the WHATWG standard.

History

The concept behind the XMLHttpRequest object was originally created by the developers of Outlook Web Access (by Microsoft) for Microsoft Exchange Server 2000.[4] An interface called IXMLHTTPRequest was developed and implemented into the second version of the MSXML library using this concept.[4][5] The second version of the MSXML library was shipped with Internet Explorer 5.0 in March 1999, allowing access, via ActiveX, to the IXMLHTTPRequest interface using the XMLHTTP wrapper of the MSXML library.[6]

Internet Explorer versions 5 and 6 did not define the XMLHttpRequest object identifier in their scripting languages as the XMLHttpRequest identifier itself was not standard at the time of their releases.[6] Backward compatibility can be achieved through object detection if the XMLHttpRequest identifier does not exist.[7] Microsoft added the XMLHttpRequest object identifier to its scripting languages in Internet Explorer 7.0 released in October 2006.[6]

The Mozilla project developed and implemented an interface called nsIXMLHttpRequest into the Gecko layout engine. This interface was modeled to work as closely to Microsoft's IXMLHTTPRequest interface as possible.[8][9] Mozilla created a wrapper to use this interface through a JavaScript object which they called XMLHttpRequest.[10] The XMLHttpRequest object was accessible as early as Gecko version 0.6 released on December 6 of 2000,[11][12] but it was not completely functional until as late as version 1.0 of Gecko released on June 5, 2002.[11][12] The XMLHttpRequest object became a de facto standard in other major web clients, implemented in Safari 1.2 released in February 2004,[13] Konqueror, Opera 8.0 released in April 2005,[14] and iCab 3.0b352 released in September 2005.[15]

With the advent of cross-browser JavaScript libraries such as jQuery, developers can invoke XMLHttpRequest functionality indirectly.

Standards

The World Wide Web Consortium published a Working Draft specification for the XMLHttpRequest object on April 5, 2006, edited by Anne van Kesteren of Opera Software and Dean Jackson of W3C.[16] Its goal is "to document a minimum set of interoperable features based on existing implementations, allowing Web developers to use these features without platform-specific code."

The W3C also published another Working Draft specification for the XMLHttpRequest object, "XMLHttpRequest Level 2", on February 25 of 2008.[17] Level 2 consists of extended functionality to the XMLHttpRequest object, including, but not limited to, progress events, support for cross-site requests, and the handling of byte streams. At the end of 2011, the Level 2 specification was abandoned and absorbed into the original specification.[18]

At the end of 2012, the WHATWG took over development and maintains a living standard using Web IDL.[19] W3C's current drafts are based on snapshots of the WHATWG standard.

HTTP request

The following sections demonstrate how a request using the XMLHttpRequest object functions within a conforming user agent based on the W3C Working Draft. As the W3C standard for the XMLHttpRequest object is still a draft, user agents may not abide by all the functionings of the W3C definition and any of the following is subject to change. Extreme care should be taken into consideration when scripting with the XMLHttpRequest object across multiple user agents. This article will try to list the inconsistencies between the major user agents.

The open method

The HTTP and HTTPS requests of the XMLHttpRequest object must be initialized through the open method. This method must be invoked prior to the actual sending of a request to validate and resolve the request method, URL, and URI user information to be used for the request. This method does not assure that the URL exists or the user information is correct. This method can accept up to five parameters, but requires only two, to initialize a request.

open( Method, URL, Asynchronous, UserName, Password )

The first parameter of the method is a text string indicating the HTTP request method to use. The request methods that must be supported by a conforming user agent, defined by the W3C draft for the XMLHttpRequest object, are currently listed as the following.[20]

  • GET (supported by Internet Explorer 7 (and later), Mozilla 1+)
  • POST (supported by IE7 (and later), Mozilla 1 (and later))
  • HEAD (supported by IE7 (and later))
  • PUT
  • DELETE
  • OPTIONS (supported by IE7 (and later))

However, request methods are not limited to the ones listed above. The W3C draft states that a browser may support additional request methods at their own discretion.

The second parameter of the method is another text string, this one indicating the URL of the HTTP request. The W3C recommends that browsers should raise an error and not allow the request of a URL with either a different port or ihost URI component from the current document.[21]

The third parameter, a boolean value indicating whether or not the request will be asynchronous, is not a required parameter by the W3C draft. The default value of this parameter should be assumed to be true by a W3C conforming user agent if it is not provided. An asynchronous request ("true") will not wait on a server response before continuing on with the execution of the current script. It will instead invoke the onreadystatechange event listener of the XMLHttpRequest object throughout the various stages of the request. A synchronous request ("false") however will block execution of the current script until the request has been completed, thus not invoking the onreadystatechange event listener.

The fourth and fifth parameters are the username and password, respectively. These parameters, or just the username, may be provided for authentication and authorization if required by the server for this request.

var xmlhttp;

if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xmlhttp.open("GET", filepath, false);
    xmlhttp.send(null);
}

The setRequestHeader method

Upon successful initialization of a request, the setRequestHeader method of the XMLHttpRequest object can be invoked to send HTTP headers with the request.

setRequestHeader( Name, Value )

The first parameter of this method is the text string name of the header. The second parameter is the text string value. This method must be invoked for each header that needs to be sent with the request. Any headers attached here will be removed the next time the open method is invoked in a W3C conforming user agent.

The send method

To send an HTTP request, the send method of the XMLHttpRequest must be invoked. This method accepts a single parameter containing the content to be sent with the request.

send( Data )

This parameter may be omitted if no content needs to be sent. The W3C draft states that this parameter may be any type available to the scripting language as long as it can be turned into a text string, with the exception of the DOM document object. If a user agent cannot serialise the parameter, then the parameter should be ignored. Firefox 3.0.x and previous versions will however throw an exception if send is called without an argument.[22]

If the parameter is a DOM document object, a user agent should assure the document is turned into well-formed XML using the encoding indicated by the inputEncoding property of the document object. If the Content-Type request header was not added through setRequestHeader yet, it should automatically be added by a conforming user agent as "application/xml;charset=charset," where charset is the encoding used to encode the document.

If the user agent is configured to use a proxy server, then the XMLHttpRequest object will modify the request appropriately so as to connect to the proxy instead of the origin server, and send Proxy-Authorization headers as configured.

The onreadystatechange event listener

If the open method of the XMLHttpRequest object was invoked with the third parameter set to true for an asynchronous request, the onreadystatechange event listener will be automatically invoked for each of the following actions that change the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object.

State changes work like this:

  • After the open method has been invoked successfully, the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object should be assigned a value of 1 (OPENED).
  • After the send method has been invoked and the HTTP response headers have been received, the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object should be assigned a value of 2 (HEADERS_RECEIVED).
  • Once the HTTP response content begins to load, the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object should be assigned a value of 3 (LOADING).
  • Once the HTTP response content has finished loading, the readyState property of the XMLHttpRequest object should be assigned a value of 4 (DONE).

The listener will only respond to state changes which occur after the listener is defined. To detect states 1 and 2, the listener must be defined before the open method is invoked. The open method must be invoked before the send method is invoked.

var request = new XMLHttpRequest();
request.onreadystatechange = function () {
    var DONE = this.DONE || 4;
    if (this.readyState === DONE){
        alert(this.readyState);
    }
};
request.open('GET', 'somepage.xml', true);
request.setRequestHeader('X-Requested-With', 'XMLHttpRequest');  // Tells server that this call is made for ajax purposes.
                                                                 // Most libraries like jQuery/Prototype/Dojo do this
request.send(null);  // No data needs to be sent along with the request.

The HTTP response

After a successful and completed call to the send method of the XMLHttpRequest, if the server response was well-formed XML and the Content-Type header sent by the server is understood by the user agent as an Internet media type for XML, the responseXML property of the XMLHttpRequest object will contain a DOM document object. Another property, responseText will contain the response of the server in plain text by a conforming user agent, regardless of whether or not it was understood as XML.

Cross-domain requests

In the early development of the World Wide Web, it was found possible to breach users' security by the use of JavaScript to exchange information from one web site with that from another less reputable one. All modern browsers therefore implement a same origin policy that prevents many such attacks, such as cross-site scripting. XMLHttpRequest data is subject to this security policy, but sometimes web developers want to intentionally circumvent its restrictions. This is sometimes due to the legitimate use of subdomains as, for example, making an XMLHttpRequest from a page created by foo.example.com for information from bar.example.com will normally fail.

Various alternatives exist to circumvent this security feature, including using JSONP, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) or alternatives with plugins such as Flash or Silverlight. Cross-origin XMLHttpRequest is specified in W3C's XMLHttpRequest Level 2 specification.[23] Internet Explorer did not implement CORS until version 10. The two previous versions (8 and 9) offered similar functionality through the XDomainRequest (XDR) API. CORS is now supported by all modern browsers (desktop and mobile).[24]

The CORS protocol has several restrictions, with two models of support. The simple model does not allow setting custom request headers and omits cookies. Further, only the HEAD, GET and POST request methods are supported, and POST only allows the following MIME types: "text/plain", "application/x-www-urlencoded" and "multipart/form-data". Only "text/plain" was initially supported.[25] The other model detects when one of the non-simple features are requested and sends a pre-flight request[26] to the server to negotiate the feature.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The responseXML attribute of the XMLHttpRequest object explained by the W3C Working Draft". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  2. ^ "Response entity body of XMLHttpRequest, W3C Editor's Draft". W3.org. 2012-02-06. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
  3. ^ "The responseText attribute of the XMLHttpRequest object explained by the W3C Working Draft". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  4. ^ a b "Article on the history of XMLHTTP by an original developer". Alexhopmann.com. 2007-01-31. Archived from the original on 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  5. ^ "Specification of the IXMLHTTPRequest interface from the Microsoft Developer Network". Msdn.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  6. ^ a b c Dutta, Sunava (2006-01-23). "Native XMLHTTPRequest object". IEBlog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  7. ^ "Ajax Reference (XMLHttpRequest object)". JavaScript Kit. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  8. ^ "Specification of the nsIXMLHttpRequest interface from the Mozilla Developer Center". Developer.mozilla.org. 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  9. ^ "Specification of the nsIJSXMLHttpRequest interface from the Mozilla Developer Center". Developer.mozilla.org. 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  10. ^ "Specification of the XMLHttpRequest object from the Mozilla Developer Center". Developer.mozilla.org. 2009-05-03. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  11. ^ a b "Version history for the Mozilla Application Suite". Mozilla.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  12. ^ a b "Downloadable, archived releases for the Mozilla browser". Archive.mozilla.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  13. ^ "Archived news from Mozillazine stating the release date of Safari 1.2". Weblogs.mozillazine.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  14. ^ "Press release stating the release date of Opera 8.0 from the Opera website". Opera.com. 2005-04-19. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  15. ^ Soft-Info.org. "Detailed browser information stating the release date of iCab 3.0b352 from". Soft-Info.com. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  16. ^ "Specification of the XMLHttpRequest object from the Level 1 W3C Working Draft released on April 5th, 2006". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  17. ^ "Specification of the XMLHttpRequest object from the Level 2 W3C Working Draft released on February 25th, 2008". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  18. ^ "XMLHttpRequest Editor's Draft 5 December 2011". w3.org. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  19. ^ "XMLHttpRequest Standard". xhr.spec.whatwg.org.
  20. ^ "Dependencies of the XMLHttpRequest object explained by the W3C Working Draft". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
  21. ^ "The "open" method of the XMLHttpRequest object explained by the W3C Working Draft". W3.org. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  22. ^ Test-Driven JavaScript Development, Christian Johansen, ADDISON-WESLEY, 2010, p. 270
  23. ^ "XMLHttpRequest Level 2". Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  24. ^ "Can I use Cross-Origin Resource Sharing?". Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  25. ^ "XDomainRequest - Restrictions, Limitations and Workarounds". Retrieved 2013-11-14.
  26. ^ "7.1.5 Cross-Origin Request with Preflight". Retrieved 2014-04-25.

External links

Ajax (programming)

Ajax (also AJAX ; short for asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a set of web development techniques using many web technologies on the client side to create asynchronous web applications. With Ajax, web applications can send and retrieve data from a server asynchronously (in the background) without interfering with the display and behavior of the existing page. By decoupling the data interchange layer from the presentation layer, Ajax allows web pages and, by extension, web applications, to change content dynamically without the need to reload the entire page. In practice, modern implementations commonly utilize JSON instead of XML.

Ajax is not a single technology, but rather a group of technologies. HTML and CSS can be used in combination to mark up and style information. The webpage can then be modified by JavaScript to dynamically display—and allow the user to interact with—the new information. The built-in XMLHttpRequest object, or since 2017 the new "fetch()" function within JavaScript is commonly used to execute Ajax on webpages allowing websites to load content onto the screen without refreshing the page. Ajax is not a new technology, or different language, just existing technologies used in new ways.

Anne van Kesteren

Anne van Kesteren is an open web standards author and open source contributor. He has written and edits several web standards specifications including Fullscreen API, XMLHttpRequest, and URL. Formerly worked on standards issues as a software engineer at Opera Software, he started working at Mozilla on 2013-02-04.

Browser sniffing

Browser sniffing (also known as browser detection) is a set of techniques used in websites and web applications in order to determine the web browser a visitor is using, and to serve browser-appropriate content to the visitor. This practice is sometimes used to circumvent incompatibilities between browsers due to misinterpretation of HTML, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), or the Document Object Model (DOM). While the World Wide Web Consortium maintains up-to-date central versions of some of the most important Web standards in the form of recommendations, in practice no software developer has designed a browser which adheres exactly to these standards; implementation of other standards and protocols, such as SVG and XMLHttpRequest, varies as well. As a result, different browsers display the same page differently, and so browser sniffing was developed to detect the web browser in order to help ensure consistent display of content.

It is also used to detect mobile browsers and send them mobile-optimized websites.

Client-side persistent data

Client-side persistent data or CSPD is a term used in computing for storing data required by web applications to complete internet tasks on the client-side as needed rather than exclusively on the server. As a framework it is one solution to the needs of Occasionally connected computing or OCC.

A major challenge for HTTP as a stateless protocol has been asynchronous tasks. The AJAX pattern using XMLHttpRequest was first introduced by Microsoft in the context of the Outlook e-mail product.

The first CSPD were the 'cookies' introduced by the Netscape Navigator. ActiveX components which have entries in the Windows registry can also be viewed as a form of client-side persistence.

Comet (programming)

Comet is a web application model in which a long-held HTTPS request allows a web server to push data to a browser, without the browser explicitly requesting it. Comet is an umbrella term, encompassing multiple techniques for achieving this interaction. All these methods rely on features included by default in browsers, such as JavaScript, rather than on non-default plugins. The Comet approach differs from the original model of the web, in which a browser requests a complete web page at a time.The use of Comet techniques in web development predates the use of the word Comet as a neologism for the collective techniques. Comet is known by several other names, including

Ajax Push,Reverse Ajax, Two-way-web, HTTP Streaming, and

HTTP server push

among others. The term Comet is not an acronym, but was coined by Alex Russell in his 2006 blog post Comet: Low Latency Data for the Browser.

Cross-origin resource sharing

Cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that allows restricted resources on a web page to be requested from another domain outside the domain from which the first resource was served. A web page may freely embed cross-origin images, stylesheets, scripts, iframes, and videos. Certain "cross-domain" requests, notably Ajax requests, are forbidden by default by the same-origin security policy.

CORS defines a way in which a browser and server can interact to determine whether or not it is safe to allow the cross-origin request. It allows for more freedom and functionality than purely same-origin requests, but is more secure than simply allowing all cross-origin requests. The specification for CORS was originally published as a W3C Recommendation but that document is obsolete. The current actively-maintained specification that defines CORS is WHATWG's Fetch Living Standard.

Dojo Toolkit

Dojo Toolkit (stylized as dōjō toolkit) is an open-source modular JavaScript library (or more specifically JavaScript toolkit) designed to ease the rapid development of cross-platform, JavaScript/Ajax-based applications and web sites. It was started by Alex Russell, Dylan Schiemann, David Schontzler, and others in 2004 and is dual-licensed under the modified BSD license or the Academic Free License (≥ 2.1).The Dojo Foundation was a non-profit organization created with the goal to promote the adoption of the toolkit. In 2016, the foundation merged with jQuery Foundation to become JS Foundation.

Index of JavaScript-related articles

This is a list of articles related to the JavaScript programming language.

Internet Explorer 5

Microsoft Internet Explorer 5 (IE5) is a graphical web browser and one of the main participants of the first browser war. Its distribution methods and Windows integration were involved in the United States v. Microsoft Corp. case. It is included with Windows 98 SE and Windows ME and it is the last version of Internet Explorer for Windows 3.1x, Windows NT 3.x and Windows 95. Although Internet Explorer 5 ran only on Windows, its siblings Internet Explorer for Mac 5 and Internet Explorer for UNIX 5 supported Mac OS X, Solaris and HP-UX.IE5 presided over a large market share increase over Netscape Navigator between 1999 and 2001, and offered many advanced features for its day. In addition, it was compatible with the largest range of OSes of all the IE versions. However, support for many OSes quickly dropped off with later patches, and Windows XP and later Windows versions are not supported, because of inclusion of later IE versions. The 1999 review in PC World noted, "Credit the never-ending game of browser one-upsmanship that Netscape and Microsoft play. The new IE 5 trumps Netscape Communicator with smarter searching and accelerated browsing."IE5 attained over 50% market share by early 2000, taking the lead over other browser versions including IE4 and Netscape. 5.x versions attained over 80% market share by the release of IE6 in August 2001. 5.0x and 5.5 were surpassed by Internet Explorer 6.0, dropping it to the second most popular browser, with market share dropping to 34 percent by mid-2003. In addition, by early 2005 Firefox 1.0 had overtaken it in market share. Version 5.x market share fell below 1% by the end of 2006.Microsoft spent over US$100 million a year in the late 1990s, with over 1000 people working on IE by 1999 during the development of IE5.Internet Explorer 5.x rendering behavior lives on in other browsers' quirks modes. Internet Explorer 5 is no longer available for download from Microsoft. However, archived versions of the software can be found on various websites.

JavaScript library

A JavaScript library is a library of pre-written JavaScript which allows for easier development of JavaScript-based applications, especially for AJAX and other web-centric technologies.

List of JavaScript libraries

This is a list of notable JavaScript libraries.

Mozilla application framework

The Mozilla application framework is a collection of cross-platform software components that make up the Mozilla applications. It was originally known as XPFE, an abbreviation of cross-platform front end. It was also known as XPToolkit. To avoid confusion, it is now referred to as the Mozilla application framework.

While similar to generic cross-platform application frameworks like GTK+, Qt and wxWidgets, the intent is to provide a subset of cross-platform functionality suitable for building network applications like web browsers, leveraging the cross-platform functionality already built into the Gecko layout engine.

The following are the various components of the framework:

Gecko

Gecko is a standard-based layout engine designed for performance and portability.

Necko

Necko provides an extensible API for several layers of networking from transport to presentation layers.

XUL

XUL is the basis of user interface. It is an application of XML that defines various user interfaces elements, mostly widgets, control elements, template, etc. It is similar in many ways to HTML.

XBL

XBL allows one to define his/her own widget for use in XUL.

XPCOM

XPCOM is an object interface that allows interfacing between any programming language for which a binding has been developed

XPConnect

XPConnect is the binding between XPCOM and JavaScript.

XPInstall

XPInstall is a technology for installing small packages like extensions and themes into Mozilla applications in form of installation archives known as XPI.

Web services

Mozilla includes built-in support for popular web services standards XML-RPC, SOAP (dropped since Gran Paradiso Alpha 7), and WSDL as well as a simple XMLHttpRequest object similar to the one in Internet Explorer.

Others

The framework supports a number of open or common standards, including DTD, RDF, XSLT/XPath, MathML, SVG, JavaScript, SQL, LDAP, etc.

Naming convention (programming)

In computer programming, a naming convention is a set of rules for choosing the character sequence to be used for identifiers which denote variables, types, functions, and other entities in source code and documentation.

Reasons for using a naming convention (as opposed to allowing programmers to choose any character sequence) include the following:

To reduce the effort needed to read and understand source code;

To enable code reviews to focus on more important issues than arguing over syntax and naming standards.

To enable code quality review tools to focus their reporting mainly on significant issues other than syntax and style preferences.The choice of naming conventions can be an enormously controversial issue, with partisans of each holding theirs to be the best and others to be inferior. Colloquially, this is said to be a matter of dogma. Many companies have also established their own set of conventions.

Prototype JavaScript Framework

The Prototype JavaScript Framework is a JavaScript framework created by Sam Stephenson in February 2005 as part of the foundation for Ajax support in Ruby on Rails. It is implemented as a single file of JavaScript code, usually named prototype.js. Prototype is distributed standalone, but also as part of larger projects, such as Ruby on Rails, script.aculo.us and Rico. As of November 2015, according to one survey, Prototype is used by 2.2% of all websites.

Quicknet

Quicknet is an Ajax framework (using XMLHttpRequest in JavaScript) designed to develop web applications or websites that use passwords to identify correct users. Using this framework, no cleartext password would be sent over the network or stored in the server. Quicknet supports multi-language, JavaScript cooperative multitasking, AJAX call, session and password management, modular structure, XML content, and JavaScript animation. It uses PHP on the server side, and JavaScript on the client side.

Remote scripting

Remote scripting is a technology which allows scripts and programs that are running inside a browser to exchange information with a server. The local scripts can invoke scripts on the remote side and process the returned information.

The earliest form of asynchronous remote scripting was developed before XMLHttpRequest existed, and made use of very simple process: a static web page opens a dynamic web page (e.g. at other target frame) that is reloaded with new JavaScript content, generated remotely on the server side.

The XMLHttpRequest and similar "client-side script remote procedure call" functions, open the possibility of use and triggering web services from the web page interface.

The web development community subsequently developed a range of techniques for remote scripting in order to enable consistent results across different browsers. Early examples include JSRS library from 2000, the introduction of the Image/Cookie technique in 2000.

Sajax

Sajax (Simple Ajax Toolkit), is an open-source tool designed to help websites using the Ajax framework (also known as XMLHttpRequest). It allows the programmer to call ASP, ColdFusion, Io, Lua, PHP, Perl, Python, or Ruby functions from their webpages via JavaScript without performing a browser refresh.

Sajax supports IE5+, Pocket IE, Opera 8+ (including mobile), Opera mini 4+, Safari 1.2+, Mozilla 0.94+ and Konqueror.

Web application

In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, and online auction.

Web platform

The Web platform is a collection of technologies developed as open standards by the World Wide Web Consortium and other standardization bodies such as The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, the Unicode Consortium, the Internet Engineering Task Force, and Ecma International. It is the umbrella term introduced by the World Wide Web Consortium, and in 2011 it was defined as "a platform for innovation, consolidation and cost efficiencies" by W3C CEO Jeff Jaffe. Being built on The evergreen Web (where rapid, automatic software updates, vendor co-operation, standardization, and competition take place) has allowed for the addition of new capabilities while addressing security and privacy risks. Additionally, developers are enabled to build interoperable content on a cohesive platform.The Web platform includes technologies—computer languages and APIs—that were originally created in relation to the publication of Web pages. This includes HTML, CSS 2.1, CSS, SVG, MathML, WAI-ARIA, ECMAScript, WebGL, Web Storage, Indexed Database API, Web Components, WebAssembly, Web Workers, WebSocket, Geolocation API, Server-Sent Events, DOM Events, Media Fragments, XMLHttpRequest, Cross-Origin Resource Sharing, File API, RDFa, WOFF, HTTP, TLS 1.2, and IRI.

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