The XFL was a professional American football league that played its only season in 2001. The XFL was operated as a joint venture between the World Wrestling Federation (now the WWE) and NBC. The XFL was conceived as an outdoor football league that would begin play immediately after the National Football League season ended to take advantage of lingering public desire to watch football after the NFL and college football seasons had concluded. It was promoted as having fewer rules to encourage rougher play than other major leagues. The league had eight teams in two divisions, including major markets and some not directly served by the NFL, such as Birmingham, Las Vegas, Memphis, and Orlando. The XFL operated as a single entity with all teams owned by the league, in contrast to most major professional leagues, which use a franchise model with individual owners.
Co-owner NBC served as the main carrier of XFL games, along with UPN and TNN. The presentation of XFL games featured sports entertainment elements inspired by professional wrestling, including heat and kayfabe (although the games and their outcomes were legitimate), suggestively-dressed cheerleaders, and occasional usage of WWF personalities (such as Jesse Ventura, Jim Ross, and Jerry Lawler) as part of on-air commentary crews alongside sportscasters and veteran football players. The telecasts featured extensive use of aerial skycams and on-player microphones to provide added perspectives to the games.
The first night of play brought higher television viewership than NBC had projected, but ratings quickly nosedived. The league developed a negative reputation due to its connections to professional wrestling and the WWF, the overall quality of play, and a presentation that differed starkly from network football telecasts of the era (albeit with technical and on-air innovations that would later become commonplace). Lorne Michaels, executive producer of NBC's long-running Saturday Night Live, criticized the XFL when a game extended into double overtime causing the show to be delayed until after midnight on the east coast. That prompted action afterwards to speed up play, and threats to pre-empt the conclusion of a game entirely if it did not finish by a specific time, in order to minimize disruptions to SNL.
NBC and the WWF both lost $35 million on their $100 million investment in the league's inaugural season. Although committed to broadcast two seasons, NBC pulled out of its broadcast contract for the XFL after the inaugural season, citing the poor viewership. While WWF owner Vince McMahon initially stated that the XFL would continue without NBC, and proposed the addition of expansion teams, unfavorable demands to the league by UPN hastened the XFL's demise, and the league ceased operations entirely in May 2001 a month after the championship game. The Los Angeles Xtreme were the XFL's first and only champions. McMahon conceded that the league was a "colossal failure".
McMahon maintained control of the XFL brand after the league ceased operations, and on January 25, 2018, he announced the return of the XFL with a target relaunch date of 2020. The revival will be owned by McMahon's Alpha Entertainment, a company separate from WWE, and does not plan to utilize the same sports entertainment features associated with the original.
|No. of teams||8|
|Los Angeles Xtreme|
Created as a 50–50 joint venture between NBC and WWF-owned subsidiary WWE Properties International, Inc. under the company name "XFL, LLC", the XFL was created as a "single-entity league;" instead of the franchise model used by the NFL and other major leagues, or the hybrid model where investors in the league are given operations over teams (as used in Major League Soccer), the XFL uniformly owned and operated all of its teams as one corporation, with no individual owners. Vince McMahon's original plan was to purchase the Canadian Football League (after the CFL initially approached him about purchasing the Toronto Argonauts) and "have it migrate south," while NBC, who had lost their long-held broadcast rights to the NFL's American Football Conference (AFC) to CBS in 1998, was moving ahead with Time Warner to create a football league of their own.
The concept of the league was first announced by league commissioner Tyler Schueck on February 3, 2000. The XFL was originally conceived to build on the success of the NFL and professional wrestling. It combined the traditional game of American football with the kayfabe and stunts of professional wrestling. As WWF was, at the time, in the midst of its Attitude Era, the XFL's presentation likewise would reflect that approach toward football, with its emphasis on sex and violence. It was hyped as "real" football without penalties for roughness and with fewer rules in general. The games would feature players and coaches with microphones and cameras in the huddle and in the locker rooms. Stadiums featured trash-talking public address announcers and scantily-clad cheerleaders who were encouraged to date the players. Instead of a pre-game coin toss, XFL officials put the ball on the ground and let a player from each team scramble for it to determine who received the kickoff option. The practice was dubbed "The Human Coin Toss" by commentators, and one player famously separated his shoulder on the first scramble, missing the rest of the season.
The XFL featured extensive television coverage, with three games televised each week on NBC, UPN, and TNN. To accommodate this, it placed four of its teams in the four largest U.S. media markets: New York City/North Jersey, Chicago, the San Francisco Bay Area, and Greater Los Angeles (this was during the NFL's 21-year absence from the Los Angeles metro area). The remaining four teams were placed in markets that had previously hosted teams in second-tier and/or rival major leagues: Birmingham, Memphis, Las Vegas, and Orlando. All of the XFL's markets except Las Vegas had hosted teams in the United States Football League in the 1980s; Las Vegas, along with Birmingham and Memphis, had hosted short-lived CFL teams in the 1990s.
The XFL chose unusual names for its teams, most of which either referenced images of uncontrolled insanity (Maniax, Rage, Xtreme, Demons) or criminal activity (Enforcers, Hitmen, Outlaws, and the Birmingham Blast). After outrage from Birmingham residents who noted that Birmingham had a history of notorious "blasts", including the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in 1963 and Eric Rudolph's 1998 bombing of a local abortion clinic, the XFL changed the name of the Birmingham team to the more benign "Birmingham Thunderbolts" (later shortened to "Bolts").
Contrary to popular belief, the "X" in XFL did not stand for "extreme", as in "eXtreme Football League". When the league was first organized in 1999, it was originally supposed to stand for "Xtreme Football League"; however, there was already a league in formation at the same time with that name, and so promoters wanted to make sure that everyone knew that the "X" did not actually stand for anything (though McMahon would comment that "if the NFL stood for the 'No Fun League', the XFL will stand for the 'extra fun league'"). The other Xtreme Football League, which was also organized in 1999, merged with the Arena Football League's minor league AF2 before ever playing a single game.
The only main draft for the league took place over a three-day period from October 28, 2000 to October 30, 2000. A total of 475 players were selected initially, with 65 additional players then selected in a supplemental draft on December 29, 2000.
The XFL's opening game took place on February 3, 2001, one year after the league was announced, less than one week following the NFL's Super Bowl XXXV. The first game was between the New York/New Jersey Hitmen and the Las Vegas Outlaws at Sam Boyd Stadium in Las Vegas, Nevada.
The league's regular season structure was set up so that each team played teams in its own division twice in the season, home and away (the same as the National Football League) and played against teams in the other division once. The season ran ten weeks, with no bye weeks.
The league's western division was far more competitive than the east, with the four teams' records ranging from 7–3 (for eventual champion Los Angeles) to 4–6 (Las Vegas, who finished last after losing its last three games to end up one game out of a playoff spot). In the East, New York and Chicago both were hampered by slow starts and ineffective starters before making personnel changes that improved their play, while Orlando, under quarterback Jeff Brohm, who owned the league's highest QB rating at 99.9 during the 2001 XFL season, soared to first place, winning its first six games before Brohm suffered a career-ending injury and the team regressed (the team went 2–2 in his absence). Birmingham started the season 2–1 before a rash of injuries (and tougher competition, as its two wins were against New York and Chicago) led to the team losing the last seven games. Injuries were a major problem across the league: only three of the league's eight Opening Day starting quarterbacks —Los Angeles's Tommy Maddox, San Francisco's Mike Pawlawski and Memphis's Jim Druckenmiller—were still starters by the end of the season. Birmingham and Las Vegas were both on their third-string quarterbacks by the end of the ten-week season.
The top two teams in each division qualified for the playoffs. To avoid teams having to play each other three times in a season, the league set up the semifinal round of the playoffs so that the games would feature teams from opposite divisions: the east division champion (Orlando) hosted the west division runner-up (San Francisco), and likewise for the west champion and east runner-up (Los Angeles and Chicago, respectively). Los Angeles and San Francisco each won their playoff games to advance to the XFL championship.
The opening game ended with a 19–0 victory for the Outlaws, and was watched on NBC by an estimated 14 million viewers. During the telecast, NBC switched over to the game between the Orlando Rage and the Chicago Enforcers, which was a closer contest than the blowout taking place in Las Vegas. The opening night drew a 9.5 Nielsen rating.
Although the opening-week games actually delivered ratings double those of what NBC had promised advertisers (and more viewers than the 2001 Pro Bowl), the audience declined sharply to a 4.6 in just one week, and eventually dropped to minuscule levels.
A further problem was that the XFL itself was the brainchild of Vince McMahon, a man who was ridiculed by mainstream sports journalists due to the stigma attached to professional wrestling as being "fake"; many journalists even jokingly speculated whether any of the league's games were rigged, although nothing of this sort was ever seriously investigated.
Ebersol was disappointed with the opening game's poor quality of play. Even longtime NBC sportscaster Bob Costas joined in the mocking of the league. Ebersol purposely allowed Costas and other NBC Sports veterans to opt out of the network's coverage of the league (hence with the exception of former NFL on NBC analyst Mike Adamle, its coverage was helmed mostly by younger unknowns and professional wrestling figures), and Costas in particular did not like McMahon's approach to the sport. In an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien in February 2001, after the league's second week of play, Costas joked: "It has to be at least a decade since I first mused out loud, 'Why doesn't somebody combine mediocre high school football with a tawdry strip club?' Finally, somebody takes my idea and runs with it." Costas interviewed McMahon for an episode of his HBO show On the Record as the league was in decline.
|Team||Stadium||Capacity||Avg. Att.||Avg.% Filled|
|San Francisco Demons||Pacific Bell Park||41,059||35,005||85%|
|New York/New Jersey Hitmen||Giants Stadium||80,242||28,309||35%|
|Orlando Rage||Citrus Bowl||36,000A||25,563||71%|
|Los Angeles Xtreme||Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum||92,000||22,679||25%|
|Las Vegas Outlaws||Sam Boyd Stadium||36,800||22,618||61%|
|Memphis Maniax||Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium||62,921||20,396||32%|
|Birmingham Thunderbolts||Legion Field||83,091||17,002||20%|
|Chicago Enforcers||Soldier Field||55,701||15,710||28%|
A The Citrus Bowl, which had a total capacity of 65,438 at the time, had its upper decks closed off for XFL games.
|Name||Team||Att||Comp||%||Yards||YDs/Att||TD||TD %||INT||INT %||Long||Sacked||Yds Lost||Rating|
|Casey Weldon||BIRM||164||102||62.2||1228||7.49||7||4.3||5||3||80 (TD)||7||44||86.6|
|Brian Kuklick||ORL||122||68||55.7||994||8.15||6||4.9||10||8.2||81 (TD)||7||42||64.7|
|Jeff Brohm||ORL||119||69||58.0||993||8.34||9||7.6||3||2.5||51 (TD)||11||78||99.9|
|Wally Richardson||NY/NJ||142||83||58.5||812||5.72||6||4.2||6||4.2||33 (TD)||17||107||71.1|
|Name||Team||Att||Comp||%||Yards||YDs/Att||TD||TD %||INT||INT %||Long||Sacked||Yds Lost||Rating|
|Tim Lester||CHI||77||40||51.9||581||7.55||4||5.2||5||6.5||68 (TD)||13||68||67.1|
|Jay Barker||BIRM||65||37||56.9||425||6.54||1||1.5||5||7.7||92 (TD)||10||64||49.8|
|Charles Puleri||NY/NJ||64||29||45.3||411||6.42||2||3.1||2||3.1||77 (TD)||4||39||64.0|
|Mark Grieb||LV||78||37||47.4||408||5.23||3||3.8||4||5.1||41 (TD)||5||44||54.9|
|John Avery||CHI||150||800||5.3||73 (TD)||5|
|Rashaan Salaam||MEM||114||528||4.6||39 (TD)||5|
|Stepfret Williams||BIRM||51||828||16.2||92 (TD)||2|
|Dialleo Burks||ORL||34||659||19.4||81 (TD)||7|
|Quincy Jackson||BIRM||45||531||11.8||36 (TD)||6|
|Daryl Hobbs||MEM||30||419||14||49 (TD)||5|
|Kirby Dar Dar||NY/NJ||22||405||18.4||77 (TD)||2|
|Kevin Swayne||ORL||27||400||14.8||51 (TD)||2|
|Mario Bailey||ORL||27||379||14||49 (TD)||3|
|John Avery||CHI||17||297||17.5||68 (TD)||2|
|Mike Furrey||LV||18||242||13.4||41 (TD)||1|
Despite boasts of a "rules-light" game and universally negative reviews from the mainstream sports media early on, the XFL played a brand of 11-man outdoor football that was recognizable, aside from the opening game sprint to determine possession and some other changes, some of which were modified during the season as it progressed. The league's coaches vetoed a proposal to eliminate ineligible receivers (allowing any player to receive a forward pass) midway through the season, on account that the change would be too radical.
The league deliberately avoided placing teams in stadiums with artificial turf, which at the time had a bad reputation both for being unsightly as well as being more hazardous to play on compared to natural turf. The league's requirement for grass fields automatically ruled out the use of domed stadiums since no such stadium capable of accommodating a grass football field existed in the U.S. in 2001 (the only retractable roof stadiums complete at the time were used exclusively for Major League Baseball; the first retractable roof stadium for NFL use was not completed until Reliant Stadium opened for the expansion Houston Texans in 2002). Furthermore, every XFL field was designed identically, with no individual team branding on the field. Each end zone and 50-yard line was decorated with the XFL logo, with the endzones also being painted black.
Most of the league's stadiums were football-specific facilities, the only exception being San Francisco's Pacific Bell Park (home of the San Francisco Giants) which was built primarily for baseball, but (unlike many newer baseball-specific stadiums) can accommodate football. Two XFL stadiums (Giants Stadium and Soldier Field) were also then-current NFL stadiums, while two others (Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium) had previously hosted NFL games; the NFL would return to the Coliseum when Rams returned to Los Angeles in 2016. The remaining fields were in regular use as college football venues at the time.
The home team in every stadium was required to occupy the sideline opposite the press box in order to be visible to the television cameras. Due to the odd field dimensions in San Francisco, teams playing there were permitted to occupy the same sideline (a similar arrangement existed in the NFL when the Green Bay Packers played home games at Milwaukee County Stadium and in stadiums previously used by the Chicago Bears, Detroit Lions, Kansas City Chiefs and Minnesota Vikings).
The all-grass field stipulation caused the league to skip over several of the country's largest markets, including Houston and Philadelphia, since they lacked a large grass stadium in 2001. In the league's two northernmost markets, Chicago and New York/New Jersey (the latter of which played in Giants Stadium during a brief window in which the stadium's usual artificial turf had been replaced by natural grass), the combination of the all-grass requirement, midwinter playing season and the fact that the XFL followed shortly after the NFL had used both fields for a full season (in Giants Stadium's case, two full seasons, since the Giants and Jets shared the stadium; the Giants also hosted two playoff games following the 2000 season) caused significant damage to the playing fields; at Chicago's Soldier Field, the wear and tear on the field was such that by midseason, the midfield logo of the NFL's Chicago Bears was clearly visible amid a stretch of dirt and dead grass.
Within a year of the XFL's demise, "next generation" artificial surfaces (which much more closely mimicked grass in appearance, feel and player safety) would be introduced in professional football (in 2000, the Seattle Seahawks were the first professional team to play on next-generation artificial turf at the University of Washington's Husky Stadium, where the Seahawks played in 2000 and 2001 following the demolition of the Kingdome and prior to the completion of CenturyLink Field). Giants Stadium would have a next generation artificial surface installed in 2003; Soldier Field was renovated extensively in 2002 but retained its grass field. Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium and Legion Field have also installed next-generation turf fields since the demise of the original XFL.
Replacing the coin toss at the beginning of each game was an event in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away in order to determine possession. Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the 30-yard lines, with the ball being placed at the 50-yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession (as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues). The XFL's first injury infamously resulted from the opening scramble; Orlando free safety Hassan Shamsid-Deen suffered a separated shoulder prior to the Rage's 33–29 season-opening win over the Chicago Enforcers at Florida Citrus Bowl Stadium on February 3. He ended up missing the remainder of the campaign.
After every touchdown scored, no extra point after kicks were done, due to the XFL's perception that an extra-point kick was a "guaranteed point." To earn a point after a touchdown, teams ran a single offensive down from the two-yard line (functionally identical to the NFL/NCAA/CFL two-point conversion, but for just a single point). By the playoffs, two-point and three-point conversions had been added to the rules. Teams could opt for the bonus points by playing the conversion farther back from the goal line. However, touchdowns were still worth 6 points.
This rule, as originally implemented, was similar to the WFL's "Action Point", and was identical to a 1968 "Pressure Point" experiment by the NFL and American Football League, used only in preseason interleague games that year.
In 2015, the NFL, CFL and other professional leagues would address the "guaranteed point" concerns by moving the extra point kick back to the 15-yard and 25-yard lines, respectively, thus making the length of the kick the same distance (taking into account the NFL's position of the goalposts on the end line, and the CFL's goalposts being positioned on the goal line). The Alliance of American Football (AAF) in 2019 has adopted this "no extra point kick" rule from the original XFL.
Ties were resolved in similar fashion to the NCAA and in the CFL today, with at least one possession by each team, starting from the opponent's 20-yard line. There were differences: there were no first downs – teams had to score within four downs, and the team that had possession first in overtime could not attempt a field goal until fourth down. If that team managed to score a touchdown in fewer than four downs, the second team would only have that same number of downs to match or beat the result. If the score was still tied after one overtime period, the team that played second on offense in the first OT would start on offense in the second OT (similar to the rules of college football overtime). The process was repeated until a winner was determined – unlike the CFL and NFL, but like college football, games could not end in ties even in the regular season.
The XFL allowed full bump and run coverage early in the season. Defensive backs were allowed to hit wide receivers any time before the quarterback released the ball, as long as the hit came from the front or the side.
Following the fourth week of the season, bump and run was restricted to the first five yards from the line of scrimmage (similar to NFL and CFL) in an effort to increase offensive production.
The XFL imposed a number of restrictions on punting that are not present in most other leagues' rules, the net effect of which made punts in the XFL operate under rules more akin to kickoffs. The purpose of these provisions was to keep play going after the ball was punted, encouraging the kicking team to make the ball playable and the receiving team to run it back. To this effect:
For the initial weeks of the season, the XFL forbade all players on the kicking team from going downfield before a kick was made from scrimmage on that down, similarly to a rule the NFL considered in 1974. For the rest of the season the XFL modified it to allow one player closest to each sideline downfield ahead of the kick, the same modification the NFL adopted to their change just before their 1974 exhibition games started.
Allowing the kicking team to recover a punt did encourage noticeably more quick kicks over the course of the XFL's lone season than was typically seen in the NFL over the preceding decades.
The XFL used a play clock of 35 seconds from the end of the previous play, five seconds shorter than the contemporary NFL play clock of 40 seconds (but still longer than the CFL's 20 seconds, timed from the spotting of the football), in an effort to speed up the game.
The XFL limited each team to an unusually low 38 players, as opposed to 53 on NFL teams and 80 or more on unlimited college rosters. This was similar to the CFL, which had a comparable 40-man roster limit in 2001. This resulted, most commonly, in each team only carrying two quarterbacks and one kicker who doubled as the punter.
The XFL paid standardized player salaries. Quarterbacks earned US$5,000 per week, kickers earned $3,500, and all other uniformed players earned $4,500 per week, though a few players got around these restrictions (Los Angeles Xtreme players Noel Prefontaine, the league's lone punting specialist, and Matt Malloy, a wide receiver) by having themselves listed as backup quarterbacks. Players on a winning team received a bonus of $2,500 for the week, $7,500 for winning a playoff game. The team that won the championship game split $1,000,000 (roughly $25,000 per player). Players did not receive any fringe benefits, and had to pay for their own health insurance.
The XFL allowed its players to wear a nickname on the back of their jersey, as opposed to the legal last name most professional sports leagues have required since the 1960s. Players could change the nickname any time they wanted, and a few players chose to change the nicknames on a weekly basis depending on their opponent. (Two teams, Orlando and Birmingham, imposed policies that forbade players from using nicknames. Orlando's ban was voted upon by the players, although Jeff Brohm objected; Birmingham's players were banned from doing so by coach Gerry DiNardo, a notoriously strict disciplinarian who previously alienated players at Vanderbilt and LSU and later did so at Indiana with his iron-fisted rule) The league's intent to use backfield camera angles gave these nicknames even greater exposure.
Although the XFL was not the first football league to feature the "sky cam", which enables TV viewers to see behind the offensive unit, it helped to popularize its unique capabilities. For the first several weeks, the league used the sky cam and on-field cameramen (nicknamed the "Bubba Cam" after WWE's cameraman, Bubba, who couldn’t get medical clearance to cover the XFL) extensively, giving the television broadcasts a perspective similar to video games such as the Madden series.
After the XFL's failure, the sky cam was adopted by the NFL's broadcasters; the device has subsequently come into use on all major networks. NBC in particular switched back to the XFL camera angles in 2017, when traditional cameras were too far away to cut through thick fog and smoke on some of the Sunday Night Football games that year; response was so positive that the network opted to use two of its Thursday Night Football games to experiment with intentionally broadcasting most of the game through that angle.
At the beginning of the season, NBC showed a feature game at 8 p.m. Eastern Time on Saturday nights, also taping a second game. The second game, in some weeks, would air in the visiting team's home market and be put on the air nationally if the feature game was a blowout (as was the case in week one) or encountered technical difficulties (as was the case in week two). Two games were shown each Sunday: one at 4 p.m. Eastern on TNN and another at 7 p.m. Eastern on UPN. The XFL also had a fairly extensive local radio presence, often using nationally recognized disc jockeys. The morning radio duo of Rick and Bubba, for instance, was the radio broadcast team for the Birmingham Thunderbolts. Super Dave Osborne was a sideline reporter for Los Angeles Xtreme broadcasts on KLSX; WMVP carried Chicago Enforcers games.
Unusually for a professional league, the XFL did not feature a studio wraparound. The network offered XFL Gameday, a pregame show featuring radio shock jocks Opie and Anthony for the first four weeks of the season, but the show was not carried nationwide and most affiliates joined in just before the game. Halftime consisted mostly of live look-ins into the player locker rooms, as coaches discussed their strategy and halftime adjustments with their players, as well as cheerleader performances. The XFL also, at McMahon's request, followed a somewhat different format than traditional professional football telecasts: the announcers more closely followed the model of professional wrestling where the color commentator had a villain-like role, while the sideline reporters (who were predominantly male, a rare example of the XFL being more conservative than the NFL at the time, which was incorporating attractive female sideline reporters) were former players and experienced sportscasters who were relied upon for more expert analysis than usual.
In the third week of the season, the games were sped up through changes in the playing rules, and broadcasts were subjected to increased time constraints. The reason was the reaction of Lorne Michaels, creator and executive producer of Saturday Night Live, to the length of the Los Angeles Xtreme versus Chicago Enforcers game that went into double overtime. The double overtime periods combined with a power outage earlier in the game due to someone not fueling a generator before the game delayed the contest, causing the start of Saturday Night Live to be pushed back from 11:30 p.m. Eastern Time to 12:15 a.m. Sunday morning. This angered Michaels, who expected high ratings with Jennifer Lopez as the show's host. For the rest of the season, the XFL cut off coverage at 11:00 Eastern Time, regardless of whether or not the game was over. NBC Sports has retained this policy for other sports it runs in Saturday night time slots since the XFL's closure; in 2018, a National Hockey League telecast was cut off under similar circumstances.
In the face of declining ratings, NBC and the XFL aggressively promoted that the week 6 game between the Orlando Rage and Las Vegas Outlaws would feature a behind-the-scenes visit into the locker room of the Rage's cheerleaders at halftime. The heavily promoted event was, in fact, a publicity stunt: instead of showing an entry into the room, viewers instead saw a sketch in which the cameraman knocked himself unconscious by running into the locker room door, followed by a dream sequence with little implied nudity, various fetish-related scenes, and a surprise cameo from Rodney Dangerfield. The New York Daily News reported that the scene would likely be the "[last] salacious WWF-style stunt for the rest of the season", citing internal sources indicating that NBC wished to pivot the telecasts back towards a football-oriented product, including hiring NFL alumni as analysts, and reinstating Vasgersian as the lead commentator.
It was believed that the willingness of Las Vegas bookmakers to take bets on XFL games established their legitimacy, dispelling concerns that the league was using predetermined storylines as in professional wrestling. However, the league was panned by critics as boring football with a tawdry broadcast style, although the broadcasts on TNN and to a lesser extent UPN and the Matt Vasgersian–helmed NBC coverage were considered comparatively professional.
The WWF and NBC each lost a reported $35 million, only recuperating 30% of their combined initial $100 million investment. On April 21, 2001, the season concluded as the Los Angeles Xtreme defeated the San Francisco Demons 38–6 in the XFL Championship Game (which was originally given the moniker "The Big Game at the End of the Season", but was later dubbed the Million Dollar Game, after the amount of money awarded to the winning team).
Though paid attendance at games remained respectable, if unimpressive (overall attendance was only 10% below what the league's goal had been at the start of the season), the XFL ceased operations after just one season due to low TV ratings. Facing stiff competition from the NCAA Basketball Tournament, the NBC telecast of the Chicago/NY-NJ game on March 31 received a 1.5 rating, at that time the lowest ever for any major network primetime weekend first-run sports television broadcast in the United States.
Despite initially agreeing to broadcast XFL games for two years and owning half of the league, NBC announced it would not broadcast a second XFL season; the network no longer had a full season of Saturday nights to offer the league because it had acquired the rights to the 2002 Winter Olympics, even if the XFL had been more successful or profitable. WWF Chairman Vince McMahon initially announced that the XFL would continue, as it still had UPN and TNN as broadcast outlets. In fact, expansion teams were being explored for cities such as Washington, D.C. and Detroit. However, in order to continue broadcasting XFL games, UPN demanded that WWF SmackDown! broadcasts be cut from two hours to one and a half hours. McMahon found these terms unacceptable and he announced the XFL's closure on May 10, 2001. McMahon's chief adviser, a perplexed Nathan Livian, was quoted as saying "the situation is, indeed, very bad".
One reason for the failure of the league to catch on, despite its financial solvency and massive visibility, was the lack of respect for the league in the sports media. XFL games were rarely treated as sports contests, but rather more like WWF-like sensationalized events. With few NFL-quality players, save Tommy Maddox, the league's MVP, and with little thoughtful analysis or even consideration by sports columnists, the XFL never gained the necessary recognition to be regarded as a viable league. The fact that the league was co-owned by NBC made ESPN (which was part of the same corporation as ABC) and Fox Sports Net (owned by Fox TV) disinclined to report on the XFL, though Time Warner properties such as Sports Illustrated, as well as the Associated Press, devoted coverage to the league (Sports Illustrated even featured the XFL on the cover of its February 12, 2001, edition, albeit with the description of it being "sleazy gimmicks and low-rent football"). Many local TV newscasts and newspapers (even in XFL cities) did not report league scores or show highlights. This led to many football fans treating the XFL as a joke, rather than competition to the NFL. Other problems included the scantily-clad cheerleaders, trash-talking announcers, and the lack of penalties for roughness.
The XFL ranked No. 3 on TV Guide's list of the TV Guide's worst TV shows of all time in July 2002, as well as No. 2 on ESPN's list of biggest flops in sports, behind Ryan Leaf. In 2010, TV Guide Network also listed the show at No. 21 on their list of 25 Biggest TV Blunders.
Many stories recapping the history of the XFL show photos of the crash of its promotional blimp in Oakland, California, portraying it retrospectively as an ill-omen for the league. The incident occurred a month before the opening game on Tuesday, January 9, 2001. The blimp was in Oakland as the league had flown it over the January 6 playoff game between the Oakland Raiders and Miami Dolphins and intended to do the same with the following week's AFC Championship, also in Oakland. The pilots lost control of the airship and were forced to evacuate. The ground crew were unable to secure the vehicle and the "unattended blimp then floated five miles north over the Oakland Estuary, at one point reaching 1,600 feet, until its gondola caught on a sailboat mast in the Central Basin marina. It draped over the roof of the Oyster Reef restaurant—next to where the boat was moored—and a nearby power line." While the pilot was hospitalized, no other major injuries were reported. The blimp needed $2.5 million in repairs, the sailboat and restaurant had only minor damages.
NBC continued airing professional league football beyond the demise of the XFL, starting with the Arena Football League television coverage from 2003 to 2006. In 2006, NBC returned to coverage of NFL games with NBC Sunday Night Football, eventually adding Thursday Night Football to its coverage in 2016. McMahon and Ebersol later took credit for the more intimate approach to televising football, with innovations such as the Skycam, miked-up players, and sideline interviews that were later used in NFL broadcasts.
The XFL's racier than average cheerleaders helped inspire the Lingerie Football League (now Legends Football League) and the "Lingerie Bowl" from 2003 to 2006. The LFL is currently the largest women's American football professional league.
XFL team names and logos sometimes appear in movies and television where professional football needs to be dramatized, as licensing for NFL logos may be cost prohibitive (such as in the Arnold Schwarzenegger starring sci-fi film The 6th Day).
The United Football League later placed all four of its inaugural franchises in former XFL markets and stadiums. However, the UFL drew far fewer fans than the XFL average: for example, the XFL's San Francisco Demons drew an average of 35,000 fans, while the UFL's California Redwoods drew an average of 6,000, despite both playing in the same ballpark. Three of the four charter teams, including the Redwoods, moved to other markets by the time of the UFL's third season.
ESPN produced a documentary surrounding the league, This Was the XFL, as part of its anthology series 30 for 30. The film discusses the longtime friendship between McMahon and Ebersol, as seen through the eyes of Dick's son, Charlie Ebersol, who directs the film. McMahon, Dick Ebersol, Dick Schanzer, Rusty Tillman, Al Luginbill, Rod Smart, Tommy Maddox, Paris Lenon, league President Basil DeVito, costume designer Jay Howarth, Jesse Ventura, Matt Vasgersian, Jonathan Coachman, Bob Costas and Jerry Jones all provided interviews for the film. It debuted at Doc NYC November 11, 2016, and premiered on ESPN on February 2, 2017.
Notable players included league MVP and Los Angeles quarterback Tommy Maddox, who signed with the NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers after the XFL folded (Maddox later became the starting quarterback for the Steelers in 2002 and led them to that year's playoffs, as well as continuing to start for them into 2004). Los Angeles used the first pick in the XFL draft to select a former NFL quarterback, Scott Milanovich. Milanovich lost the starting quarterback job to Maddox, who was placed on the Xtreme as one of a handful of players put on each team due to geographic distance between the player's college and the team's hometown. Another of the better-known players was Las Vegas running back Rod Smart, who first gained popularity because the name on the back of his jersey read "He Hate Me." Smart, who was only picked 357th in the draft, later went on to play for the Philadelphia Eagles, Carolina Panthers, Oakland Raiders and the Edmonton Eskimos of the CFL. His Panther teammate Jake Delhomme named his newborn horse "She Hate Me" as a reference to him. Smart played in Super Bowl XXXVIII becoming one of seven XFL players to play in a Super Bowl. Receiver Yo Murphy also achieved this as a member of the St. Louis Rams in Super Bowl XXXVI along with winning the 95th Grey Cup with the Saskatchewan Roughriders in 2007. Tommy Maddox played for a Super Bowl team (with the Pittsburgh Steelers) in Super Bowl XL in Detroit, (although Maddox, by then a third-string quarterback, did not play in the game, which turned out to be his last appearance in uniform before retiring). Lastly, Las Vegas Outlaws DB Kelly Herndon played in Super Bowl XL with the Seattle Seahawks in 2005, where he is remembered for intercepting a pass and returning it a then-record 76 yards. Although he did not play for an NFL team after the XFL's lone season, former Las Vegas Outlaw offensive guard Isaac Davis also had a notable NFL career, playing in 58 games over a six-year career. Davis started for the San Diego Chargers in Super Bowl XXIX. John Avery went on to play for both the Edmonton Eskimos and the Toronto Argonauts where he was an All Star selection in 2002 and won a Grey Cup in 2004.
The last active player to have played in the XFL is Canadian placekicker Paul McCallum, who retired as a member of the BC Lions prior to the start of the 2016 CFL season, but returned to the team as their place kicker during the final regular season game of the 2016 season.
XFL games are now part of the WWE Video Library.
In September 2012, WWE attempted to file a new XFL trademark for use in wrestling and football which was previously filed in 2009 under XFL LLC. The application is still pending since WWE has not put together a "Statement of Use" for the trademark. WWE could consider abandoning the old application and filing the new one under WWE Inc. In July 2015, the XFL's first trademark extension was granted.
On December 15, 2017, it was reported that McMahon was seriously considering a revival of the XFL. WWE didn't confirm or deny the rumors, but released a statement that McMahon is launching a new company known as Alpha Entertainment, that is looking to expand into sports and entertainment properties "including professional football", and that WWE itself wasn't returning to professional football.
Noted wrestling journalist Dave Meltzer speculated that McMahon was starting a shell corporation with his own money to protect WWE shareholders on a potential XFL revival. A revival of the XFL would air either on traditional TV or the WWE Network, and would be toned down compared to its original incarnation due to CTE concerns in football that surfaced in the early 2010s. On December 22, 2017, McMahon sold $100 million worth of WWE shares, which required notification to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; the SEC reported that it was done so that McMahon could fund Alpha Entertainment. WWE shares did in fact decline slightly due to the report, with Citigroup downgrading WWE shares from "buy" to "neutral".
On January 25, 2018, Alpha Entertainment announced a new incarnation of the XFL planned to begin play for 2020. The new XFL will not utilize the same sports entertainment gimmicks as the original, instead focusing on adjusting rules to increase the speed of play.
The Alliance of American Football (AAF) is a minor professional American football league, founded by Charlie Ebersol and Bill Polian. It began play on February 9, 2019, six days after the National Football League's (NFL) Super Bowl LIII championship game. The AAF consists of eight centrally owned and operated teams. All teams except Salt Lake are located in cities on or south of the 35th parallel and all teams except Birmingham are located in metropolitan areas that have at least one major professional sports franchise. Of the eight teams in the league, all but Arizona and Atlanta are located in markets lacking an NFL team.Bell XFL Airabonita
The Bell XFL Airabonita was an experimental carrier-based interceptor aircraft developed for the United States Navy by Bell Aircraft Corporation of Buffalo, New York. It was similar to and a parallel development of the U.S. Army Air Corps’ land-based P-39 Airacobra, differing mainly in the use of a tailwheel undercarriage in place of the P-39's tricycle gear. Only one prototype was manufactured.Birmingham Thunderbolts
The Birmingham Thunderbolts were a short-lived springtime American football team based in Birmingham, Alabama. This team was part of the failed XFL begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment and by NBC, a major television network in the United States.Dallas XFL team
The XFL Dallas is a professional American football team based in Dallas, Texas. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at Globe Life Park in Arlington, which is being repurposed as a football venue after its previous tenant, Major League Baseball's Texas Rangers, relocates to the newly built Globe Life Field.Dallas joins Seattle, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, St. Louis, Tampa Bay and Washington, D.C. as the league's inaugural cities. It is the first professional outdoor football team to play in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex in a league other than the NFL since the Dallas Texans of the American Football League left the area to become the Kansas City Chiefs; the metro area has been represented by numerous indoor teams, such as the Arena Football League's Dallas Texans, Fort Worth Cavalry, Dallas Desperados and Dallas Vigilantes, and the Indoor Football League's Allen Wranglers and Texas Revolution. It enters a relatively crowded winter sports market against the NHL's Stars and NBA's Mavericks. The team will also have to compete with MLS's FC Dallas in March and April.
Teams will have 40-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said “the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours”, and will draw from former college and NFL players.On February 7, 2019, Bob Stoops, the longtime head coach of the Oklahoma Sooners football team, was hired as the Dallas team's head coach. Stoops was the XFL's first head coaching hire.Houston XFL team
The XFL Houston is a professional American football team based in Houston, Texas. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at TDECU Stadium.Las Vegas Outlaws (XFL)
The Las Vegas Outlaws were an American football team in the XFL. They played in the Western Division with the Los Angeles Xtreme, San Francisco Demons and Memphis Maniax. They played their home games at Sam Boyd Stadium. On February 3, 2001, The Outlaws hosted the first nationally televised XFL game on NBC against the New York/New Jersey Hitmen.Loening XFL
The Loening XFL was a proposed carrier-based fighter aircraft to be built by Loening Aeronautical Engineering for the US Navy. It won a 1933 competition, but Loening was already busy building other aircraft, so the contract was canceled.Los Angeles XFL team
The Los Angeles XFL team is a professional American football team based in Los Angeles, California. The team is a franchise of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment, a major television network in the United States. The team will play its home games at the Dignity Health Sports Park in Carson, California, currently home to the NFL's Los Angeles Chargers (which will be vacating the stadium in favor of the new Los Angeles stadium at Hollywood Park before the XFL's arrival) and MLS’s LA Galaxy.Los Angeles joins New York, Dallas, Houston, Seattle, St. Louis, Tampa Bay and Washington, D.C. as the league's inaugural cities. Teams will have 40-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said "the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours", and will draw from former college and NFL players.XFL (2020) commissioner and chief executive Oliver Luck also said there would be franchises in Houston, St. Louis, Seattle, Tampa, and Washington, D.C., when the league kicks off the weekend of February 8–9, one week after Super Bowl LIV.McMahon family
The McMahon family is a prominent Irish-American family, known for their involvement in the fields of professional wrestling, business, and politics. They are best known as the founders, owners, and promoters of the world's most prominent professional wrestling company, WWE and the sports entertainment company, Alpha Entertainment. The company's primary business is professional wrestling, but it has expanded into a subscription based network, home video production, movie production company, and an E-commerce company as well as a spring professional football league with two incarnations of the same name.New York XFL team
The New York XFL team is a professional American football team based in New York City, New York. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at the MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey. MetLife Stadium is currently home to the NFL's New York Giants and New York Jets and, at 82,500 seats, is the largest stadium in the XFL.Orlando Rage
The Orlando Rage was an American football team based in Orlando, Florida as part of the XFL begun by Vince McMahon of the World Wrestling Federation and by NBC, a major television network in the United States.Sam Boyd Stadium
Sam Boyd Stadium is a football stadium in Whitney, Nevada, United States, an unincorporated community in the Las Vegas Valley. It honors Sam Boyd (1910–1993), a major figure in the hotel and casino industry in Las Vegas. The stadium consists of an uncovered horseshoe-shaped single-decked bowl, with temporary seating occasionally erected in the open north end zone. The field has a conventional north-south orientation and is at an elevation of 1,600 feet (490 m) above sea level.
The stadium is the home of the UNLV Rebels football team from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and the annual Las Vegas Bowl in December. It is also used for high school football championship games and at times regular-season high school games for Bishop Gorman High School. The final race of the Monster Energy Supercross series is located here every year. Since 2010, it has hosted the USA Sevens leg of the annual World Rugby Sevens Series in the sevens version of rugby union.
Several teams have called the stadium home over the years, including the Las Vegas Quicksilvers of the North American Soccer League, the Las Vegas Posse of the Canadian Football League, the Las Vegas Outlaws of the XFL, and the Las Vegas Locomotives of the United Football League.Seattle XFL team
The XFL Seattle is a professional American football team based in Seattle, Washington. The team is a franchise of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment, a major television network in the United States. The team will play its home games at CenturyLink Field in Seattle. The open-air football stadium has a capacity of over 69,000 and a roof covering 70 percent of the seating area. The stadium was uniquely constructed for sound and has twice held the Guinness World Record for loudest crowd at an outdoor stadium.Seattle joins New York, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, St. Louis, Tampa Bay and Washington, D.C. as the league's inaugural cities.
Teams will have 40-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said “the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours”, and will draw from former college and NFL players.Pete Carroll, the coach of the NFL's Seattle Seahawks was also “fired up” about the major announcement of the brand-new pro sports franchise on its way to Seattle. The as-yet unnamed XFL football team will start play at CenturyLink Field on Feb. 8 or 9, 2020, one week after Super Bowl LIV.St. Louis XFL team
The XFL St. Louis is a professional American football team based in St. Louis, Missouri. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at The Dome at America's Center.
St. Louis joins Seattle, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Dallas, Tampa Bay and Washington, D.C. as the league's inaugural cities.
Teams will have 45-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said “the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours”, and will draw from former college and NFL players.The league will begin play in February of 2020. Commissioner Oliver Luck has said team names, head coaches, and starting quarterbacks will be announced by March 31, 2019.Tampa Bay XFL team
The XFL Tampa Bay is a professional American football team based in Tampa, Florida. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL (2020) begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at Raymond James Stadium, along with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers of the NFL.
Tampa Bay joins Seattle, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, Dallas, St. Louis and Washington, D.C. as the league's inaugural cities. Teams will have 40-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said "the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours", and will draw from former college and NFL players.On March 5, 2019, Marc Trestman was announced to be the head coach and general manager of the Tampa Bay XFL team.Troy Dumas
Troy T. Dumas (born September 30, 1972) is a former American football linebacker and former assistant coach. He played college football at Nebraska. He was drafted in the third round (97th overall) by the Kansas City Chiefs.
He also played for the St. Louis Rams of the National Football League (NFL) as well as the Las Vegas Outlaws of the XFL.Washington, D.C. XFL team
The XFL DC is a professional U.S. football team based in Washington, D.C. The team is an owned-and-operated member of the XFL begun by Vince McMahon of World Wrestling Entertainment. The team will play its home games at Audi Field, a soccer-specific stadium being shared with its current tenant, Major League Soccer's D.C. United. At 20,000 seats, Audi Field is the smallest stadium in the XFL.
DC joins Seattle, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, St. Louis, Tampa Bay, and Dallas as the league's inaugural cities. Teams will have 40-man active rosters and play a 10-week season. Vince McMahon said "the game will feature simplified rules for a faster pace of game that should complete in under three hours", and will draw from former college and NFL players.On February 21, 2019, the team hired Pep Hamilton, who most recently was an assistant with the Michigan Wolverines football team, as their first head coach. Hamilton is an alumnus of Howard University and was familiar to XFL Commissioner Oliver Luck through Hamilton's work with Luck's son, Andrew.XFL (2020)
The XFL is a planned professional American football league owned by Vince McMahon's Alpha Entertainment, and is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut. It is a successor to the previous XFL, which was controlled by the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) and NBC, and ran for a single season in 2001. The league will follow a similar structure as the original XFL did in 2001, with eight teams, centrally owned and operated by the league and spread across the United States in markets currently or recently represented by a National Football League (NFL) franchise, competing in a ten-game season and a two-week postseason in the winter and spring months.
In announcing the reformed XFL, McMahon stated that while it would share its name and trademark with the previous incarnation, it will not rely on professional wrestling-inspired features and entertainment elements as its predecessor did, instead aiming to create a league with fewer off-field controversies and faster, simpler play compared to the NFL.XFL Draft
The XFL Draft was the only draft for the single-season XFL football league. The draft took place over a 3 day time period from October 28, 2000 to October 30, 2000 during which time a total of 475 players were selected by the league's 8 teams from a pool of approximately 1,600 or so eligible players. The draft consisted of 59 rounds—10 rounds taking place on October 28, 15 rounds on October 29, and 34 rounds on October 30.
The draft was followed by a supplemental draft on December 29, 2000 during which 65 additional players were selected in an effort to completely fill out team rosters. Most eligible players came from either the CFL, the Arena Football League, NFL Europe, retired NFL players, or previous college players who had gone undrafted by the NFL but had not yet signed with another league.
The XFL draft took place in order for teams to be ready to begin league play when the season kicked off on February 3, 2001.
Website: NBC Sports - NFL News
Professional gridiron football leagues in North America