In computing, XCOPY is a command used on IBM PC DOS, MS-DOS, FreeDOS,[1] OS/2, Microsoft Windows,[2] ReactOS,[3] and related operating systems for copying multiple files or entire directory trees from one directory to another and for copying files across a network. XCOPY stands for extended copy,[4] and was created as a more functional file copying utility than the copy command found in these operating systems. XCOPY first appeared in DOS 3.2.

The FreeDOS version was developed by Rene Ableidinger.[5]

Developer(s)Microsoft, IBM, Rene Ableidinger, ReactOS Contributors
Initial release1986, 32–33 years ago
Operating systemDOS, OS/2, Microsoft Windows, ReactOS


Create a new directory by copying all contents of the existing directory, including any files or subdirectories having the "hidden" or "system" attributes and empty directories.

xcopy e:\existing e:\newcopy /e /i /h

If the directory names include blank signs (spaces), the names can be put in quotation marks.

xcopy "D:\Documents and Settings\MY.USERNAME\My Documents\*" "E:\MYBACKUP\My Documents\" /D/E/C/Y

Copy entire drive in to a mapped network drive while ignoring any errors in network restartable mode.

xcopy *.* z:\Netmirror /E /V /C /F /H /Y /Z  1>out.txt 2>err.txt

Copy a single file without prompt if it is a file or a directory

cmd /c echo F | xcopy "c:\directory 1\myfile" "c:\directory 2\myfile"


While still included in Windows 10, Xcopy has been deprecated in favor of Robocopy, a more powerful copy tool, which is now built into the Microsoft Windows Server and Desktop operating systems.[6]


Xcopy fails with an "insufficient memory" error when the path plus filename is longer than 254 characters[7] and moving large files without the "/j" option (available only after Server 2008R2) can consume all available RAM on a system.[8]

No open files

Xcopy will not copy open files. Any process may open files for exclusive read access by withholding the FILE_SHARE_READ https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa363858.aspx

The Windows Volume Shadow Copy service is used for such situations, but Xcopy does not use it. Therefore, Xcopy is not useful for backing up live operating system volumes.

See also


  1. ^ http://freedos-project.blogspot.com/2018/06/freedos-commands-quick-reference.html
  2. ^ Xcopy
  3. ^ https://github.com/reactos/reactos/tree/master/base/applications/cmdutils/xcopy
  4. ^ "Windows NT File System Files". Microsoft Help and Support. Microsoft. 2006-11-01.
  5. ^ http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/micro/pc-stuff/freedos/files/distributions/1.2/repos/pkg-html/xcopy.html
  6. ^ Pietrek, Matt (2007-01-16). "Robocopy built into Vista". Under The Hood (an MSDN blog).
  7. ^ Maciak, Luke (2007-02-05). "Xcopy: Insufficient Memory".
  8. ^ "Technet: Xcopy". 2014-03-07.

Further reading

  • Kathy Ivens; Brian Proffit (1993). OS/2 Inside & Out. Osborne McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0078818714.
  • John Paul Mueller (2007). Windows Administration at the Command Line for Windows Vista, Windows 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0470165799.

External links

Amiga support and maintenance software

Amiga support and maintenance software performs service functions such as formatting media for a specific filesystem, diagnosing failures that occur on formatted media, data recovery after media failure, and installation of new software for the Amiga family of personal computers—as opposed to application software, which performs business, education, and recreation functions.

The Amiga came with some embedded utility programs, but many more were added over time, often by third-party developers and companies.


COMMAND.COM is the default command-line interpreter for DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 98SE and Windows ME. In the case of DOS, it is the default user interface as well. It has an additional role as usually being the first program run after boot (root process), hence being responsible for setting up the system by running the AUTOEXEC.BAT configuration file, and being the ancestor of all processes.

COMMAND.COM's successor on OS/2 and Windows NT systems is cmd.exe, although COMMAND.COM is available in virtual DOS machines on IA-32 versions of those operating systems as well.

The COMMAND.COM filename was also used by Disk Control Program (DCP), an MS-DOS derivative by the former East-German VEB Robotron.The compatible command processor under FreeDOS is sometimes also named FreeCom.

COMMAND.COM is a DOS program. Programs launched from COMMAND.COM are DOS programs that use the DOS API to communicate with the disk operating system.

Component Object Model

Component Object Model (COM) is a binary-interface standard for software components introduced by Microsoft in 1993. It is used to enable inter-process communication object creation in a large range of programming languages. COM is the basis for several other Microsoft technologies and frameworks, including OLE, OLE Automation, Browser Helper Object, ActiveX, COM+, DCOM, the Windows shell, DirectX, UMDF and Windows Runtime. The essence of COM is a language-neutral way of implementing objects that can be used in environments different from the one in which they were created, even across machine boundaries. For well-authored components, COM allows reuse of objects with no knowledge of their internal implementation, as it forces component implementers to provide well-defined interfaces that are separated from the implementation. The different allocation semantics of languages are accommodated by making objects responsible for their own creation and destruction through reference-counting. Type conversion casting between different interfaces of an object is achieved through the QueryInterface method. The preferred method of "inheritance" within COM is the creation of sub-objects to which method "calls" are delegated.

COM is an interface technology defined and implemented as standard only on Microsoft Windows and Apple's Core Foundation 1.3 and later plug-in application programming interface (API). The latter only implements a subset of the whole COM interface. For some applications, COM has been replaced at least to some extent by the Microsoft .NET framework, and support for Web Services through the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF). However, COM objects can be used with all .NET languages through .NET COM Interop. Networked DCOM uses binary proprietary formats, while WCF encourages the use of XML-based SOAP messaging. COM is very similar to other component software interface technologies, such as CORBA and Enterprise JavaBeans, although each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Unlike C++, COM provides a stable application binary interface (ABI) that does not change between compiler releases. This makes COM interfaces attractive for object-oriented C++ libraries that are to be used by clients compiled using different compiler versions.

Copy (command)

In computing, copy is a command in various operating systems. The command copies computer files from one directory to another.

Environment variable

An environment variable is a dynamic-named value that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer.

They are part of the environment in which a process runs. For example, a running process can query the value of the TEMP environment variable to discover a suitable location to store temporary files, or the HOME or USERPROFILE variable to find the directory structure owned by the user running the process.

They were introduced in their modern form in 1979 with Version 7 Unix, so are included in all Unix operating system flavors and variants from that point onward including Linux and macOS. From PC DOS 2.0 in 1982, all succeeding Microsoft operating systems including Microsoft Windows, and OS/2 also have included them as a feature, although with somewhat different syntax, usage and standard variable names.

Features new to Windows XP

Windows XP introduced many features not found in previous versions of Windows.

List of DOS commands

This article presents a list of commands used by DOS operating systems, especially as used on x86-based IBM PC compatibles (PCs). Other DOS operating systems are not part of the scope of this list.

In DOS, many standard system commands were provided for common tasks such as listing files on a disk or moving files. Some commands were built into the command interpreter, others existed as external commands on disk. Over the several generations of DOS, commands were added for the additional functions of the operating system. In the current Microsoft Windows operating system, a text-mode command prompt window, cmd.exe, can still be used.

List of DOS system files

MS-DOS / PC DOS and some related disk operating systems use the files mentioned here.

System Files:

IO.SYS (or IBMBIO.COM): This contains the system initialization code and builtin device drivers.

MSDOS.SYS (or IBMDOS.COM): This contains the DOS kernel.Command-line interpreter (Shell):

COMMAND.COM: This is the command interpreter.User configuration files:

AUTOEXEC.BAT: This is run by the default shell (usually COMMAND.COM) to execute commands at startup.

CONFIG.SYS: This contains statements to configure DOS and load device drivers.Standard DOS utility programs:

APPEND: Set a search path for data files.

ASSIGN: Redirect requests for disk operations on one drive to a different drive.

ATTRIB: Set or display file attributes.

BACKUP / RESTORE: simple backup and restore utilities.

CHKDSK: Check disk for file system integrity.

COMP: File compare utility.

DEBUG: Simple command line debugger.

DELTREE: Delete a directory tree.

DISKCOMP: Compare floppy disks.

DISKCOPY: Copy floppy disks.

DOSKEY: Command line editor.

EDIT / EDLIN: Very basic text editor(s); EDLIN is in earlier versions.

FC: File compare utility.

FDISK: Partitions fixed disks.

FIND: Find text in files.

FORMAT: Formats disks.

JOIN: Joins a drive letter to a subdirectory.

LABEL: Set or remove a disk volume label.

MEM: Display memory usage.

MODE: Set modes for system devices.

MORE: Display output one screen at a time.

MOVE: Move files from one directory to another.

PRINT: Print spooler.

REPLACE: Replace files.

SHARE: File sharing and locking support.

SORT: Sorts input.

SUBST: Substitutes a drive letter for a subdirectory.

SYS: Transfers the system files to another drive to make it bootable.

TREE: Display a directory tree.

XCOPY: Extended file copy.Standard DOS device drivers:

ANSI.SYS: ANSI console driver.

EMM386.EXE: Expanded memory manager.

HIMEM.SYS: Extended memory manager.

RAMDRIVE.SYS / VDISK.SYS: RAM disk; VDISK.SYS is in older versions of PC DOS.

List of Microsoft Windows components

The following is a list of Microsoft Windows components.

List of file copying software

This article provides a list of inbuilt and third party file copying and moving software - utilities and other software used, as part of computer file management, to explicitly move and copy files and other data on demand from one location to another on a storage device.

File copying is a fundamental operation for data storage. Most popular operating systems such as Linux, Windows and macOS as well as smartphone operating systems such as Android contain built-in file copying functions as well as command line (CLI) and graphical (GUI) interfaces to filing system copy and move functions. In some cases these can be replaced or supplemented by third party software for different, extended, or improved functionality. This article lists inbuilt as well as external software designed for this purpose.


MS-DOS ( em-es-DOSS; acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, and some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS" (which is also the generic acronym for disk operating system). MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.

MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies that was used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM licensed and re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were initially developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility, syntax, and capabilities.

During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, and MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000. Initially MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in ever greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and rapidly evolving computer architectures. Ultimately it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was also the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI. It is a flexible operating system, and consumes negligible installation space.

Management features new to Windows Vista

Windows Vista contains a range of new technologies and features that are intended to help network administrators and power users better manage their systems. Notable changes include a complete replacement of the "Windows Setup" process, completely rewritten deployment mechanisms, support for per-application Remote Desktop sessions, new diagnostic and health monitoring tools, and a range of new Group Policy settings covering many of the features new to Windows Vista.

Other areas of interest include major changes to Task Scheduler, as well as the addition of Subsystem for UNIX Applications, which provides a POSIX-compatible environment for applications as part of the operating system itself.


OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci. As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2 relative to Microsoft's new Windows 3.1 operating environment, the two companies severed the relationship in 1992 and OS/2 development fell to IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2", because it was introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)" line of second-generation personal computers. The first version of OS/2 was released in December 1987 and newer versions were released until December 2001.

OS/2 was intended as a protected-mode successor of PC DOS. Notably, basic system calls were modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create "Family Mode" applications – text mode applications that could work on both systems. Because of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows NT.

IBM discontinued its support for OS/2 on 31 December 2006. Since then, it has been updated, maintained and marketed under the name eComStation. In 2015 it was announced that a new OEM distribution of OS/2 would be released that was to be called ArcaOS. ArcaOS is available for purchase.


PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language. Initially a Windows component only, known as Windows PowerShell, it was made open-source and cross-platform on 18 August 2016 with the introduction of PowerShell Core. The former is built on .NET Framework while the latter on .NET Core.

In PowerShell, administrative tasks are generally performed by cmdlets (pronounced command-lets), which are specialized .NET classes implementing a particular operation. These work by accessing data in different data stores, like the file system or registry, which are made available to PowerShell via providers. Third-party developers can add cmdlets and providers to PowerShell. Cmdlets may be used by scripts and scripts may be packaged into modules.

PowerShell provides full access to COM and WMI, enabling administrators to perform administrative tasks on both local and remote Windows systems as well as WS-Management and CIM enabling management of remote Linux systems and network devices. PowerShell also provides a hosting API with which the PowerShell runtime can be embedded inside other applications. These applications can then use PowerShell functionality to implement certain operations, including those exposed via the graphical interface. This capability has been used by Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 to expose its management functionality as PowerShell cmdlets and providers and implement the graphical management tools as PowerShell hosts which invoke the necessary cmdlets. Other Microsoft applications including Microsoft SQL Server 2008 also expose their management interface via PowerShell cmdlets.PowerShell includes its own extensive, console-based help (similar to man pages in Unix shells) accessible via the Get-Help cmdlet. Local help contents can be retrieved from the Internet via Update-Help cmdlet. Alternatively, help from the web can be acquired on a case-by-case basis via the -online switch to Get-Help.


RichCopy is a discontinued file copy utility program developed by Ken Tamaru of Microsoft Corporation. It is multi-threaded, and may thus under some circumstances copy files faster than some other utilities available for the Windows operating system. Additionally, while having some similarities (like multithreaded copying) with the Microsoft utility, Robocopy, it provides a complete graphical user interface (GUI), whereas Robocopy is a command-line utility.


Robocopy, or "Robust File Copy", is a command-line directory and/or file replication command. Robocopy functionally replaces Xcopy, with more options. It has been available as part of the Windows Resource Kit starting with Windows NT 4.0, and was first introduced as a standard feature in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. The command is robocopy.

XCOPY deployment

XCOPY deployment or xcopy installation is a software application's installation into a Microsoft Windows system simply by copying files. The name is derived from the XCOPY command line facility provided by Microsoft operating systems.

In contrast, the installation of a typical Windows application will require a significant number of additional steps before the application is ready to be used. Most of this additional work involves, directly or indirectly, adding or modifying entries in the Windows Registry. Even when an application uses ordinary files for its own data, many common facilities provided by Windows require some type of registration step before they are available to programs. Usually, one or more specialized tools (such as Windows Installer, InnoSetup, or NSIS) are used to help coordinate these relatively complex operations.

X Window selection

Selections, cut buffers, and drag-and-drop are the mechanisms used in the X Window System to allow a user to transfer data from one window to another. Selections and cut buffer are typically used when a user selects text or some other data in a window and pastes in another one. Drag-and-drop is used when a user selects something in a window, then clicks on the selection and drags it into another window.

Since the two windows may be handled by two different applications, these mechanisms require two different clients connected with the same X server to exchange data. The X Window System core protocol includes some requests and events that are specific to selection exchange, but the transfer is mainly done using event sending and window properties, which are not specific to selection transfer.

Different types of data can be transferred: it is usually text, but can also be an image, a number, a list of objects, etc. In the following, only the case of text is considered.


ZFS is a combined file system and logical volume manager designed by Sun Microsystems. ZFS is scalable, and includes extensive protection against data corruption, support for high storage capacities, efficient data compression, integration of the concepts of filesystem and volume management, snapshots and copy-on-write clones, continuous integrity checking and automatic repair, RAID-Z, native NFSv4 ACLs, and can be very precisely configured. The two main implementations, by Oracle and by the OpenZFS project, are extremely similar, making ZFS widely available within Unix-like systems.

The ZFS name stands for nothing - briefly assigned the backronym "Zettabyte File System", it is no longer considered an initialism. Originally, ZFS was proprietary, closed-source software developed internally by Sun as part of Solaris, with a team led by the CTO of Sun's storage business unit and Sun Fellow Jeff Bonwick. In 2005, the bulk of Solaris, including ZFS, was licensed as open-source software under the Common Development and Distribution License (CDDL), as the OpenSolaris project. ZFS became a standard feature of Solaris 10 in June 2006.

In 2010, Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle Corporation and ZFS became a registered trademark belonging to Oracle Corporation. Oracle stopped releasing updated source code for new OpenSolaris and ZFS development, effectively reverting Oracle's ZFS to closed source. In response, the illumos project was founded, to maintain and enhance the existing open source Solaris, and in 2013 OpenZFS was founded to coordinate the development of open source ZFS. OpenZFS maintains and manages the core ZFS code, while organizations using ZFS maintain the specific code and validation processes required for ZFS to integrate within their systems. OpenZFS is widely used in Unix-like systems.

In 2017, one analyst described OpenZFS as "the only proven Open Source data-validating enterprise file system".

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