Wyoming

Wyoming (/waɪˈoʊmɪŋ/ (listen)) is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, and the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho and Montana. The state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, which is less than 31 of the most populous U.S. cities including neighboring Denver.[6] Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017.[7]

The western two-thirds of the state is covered mostly by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Almost half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government.[8] Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, and wildlife refuges.

Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and then Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War. The region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U.S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, and is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat".[9][10]

The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, oil, natural gas, and trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. The climate is semi-arid and continental, drier and windier than the rest of the U.S., with greater temperature extremes.

Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964.[11]

State of Wyoming
Flag of Wyoming State seal of Wyoming
Flag Seal
Nickname(s):
Equality State (official);
Cowboy State; Big Wyoming[1]
Motto(s): Equal Rights
State song(s): "Wyoming"
Map of the United States with Wyoming highlighted
Official languageEnglish
DemonymWyomingite
Capital
(and largest city)
Cheyenne
Largest metroCheyenne Metro Area
AreaRanked 10th
 • Total97,914[1] sq mi
(253,600 km2)
 • Width372.8 miles (600 km)
 • Length280 miles (452 km)
 • % water0.7
 • Latitude41°N to 45°N
 • Longitude104°3'W to 111°3'W
PopulationRanked 50th
 • Total577,737 (2018)
 • Density5.97/sq mi  (2.31/km2)
Ranked 49th
 • Median household income$60,925[2] (15th)
Elevation
 • Highest pointGannett Peak[3][4][5]
13,809 ft (4209.1 m)
 • Mean6,700 ft  (2040 m)
 • Lowest pointBelle Fourche River at South Dakota border[4][5]
3,101 ft (945 m)
Before statehoodWyoming Territory
Admission to UnionJuly 10, 1890 (44th)
GovernorMark Gordon (R)
Secretary of StateEdward Buchanan (R)
LegislatureWyoming Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. SenatorsMike Enzi (R)
John Barrasso (R)
U.S. House delegationLiz Cheney (R) (list)
Time zoneMountain: UTC -7/-6
ISO 3166US-WY
AbbreviationsWY, Wyo.
Websitewyoming.gov

Geography

Climate

Wyoming
Wyoming state welcome sign on Interstate 80 in Uinta County (at the Utah border)
Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains
Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains

Wyoming's climate is generally semi-arid and continental (Köppen climate classification BSk), and is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes. Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F (29 and 35 °C) in most of the state. With increasing elevation, however, this average drops rapidly with locations above 9,000 feet (2,700 m) averaging around 70 °F (21 °C). Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with even the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F (10–16 °C) range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in the late spring and early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between generally mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches (130–200 mm) (making the area nearly a true desert). The lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains typically average around 10–12 inches (250–300 mm), making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches (510 mm) or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches (510 cm) or more annually. The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F (46 °C) at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F (−54 °C) at Riverside on February 9, 1933.

The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during the late spring and early summer. The southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops dramatically with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east.

Location and size

As specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, and longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W (27° W and 34° W of the Washington Meridian), making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle.[14] Wyoming is one of only three states (along with Colorado and Utah) to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile (0.8 km) in some spots, especially in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel.[15] Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, and on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles (253,340 km2) and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles (444 km);[16] and from the east to the west border is 365 miles (587 km) at its south end and 342 miles (550 km) at the north end.

Natural landforms

Mountain ranges

Cattle Drive near Pinedale, WY (14963962303)
Green River valley in Wyoming

The Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state's northeast corner, at 3,125 feet (952 m). In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros Ventre, Wind River, and the Teton ranges. In the north central are the Big Horn Mountains; in the northeast, the Black Hills; and in the southern region the Laramie, Snowy, and Sierra Madre ranges.

The Snowy Range in the south central part of the state is an extension of the Colorado Rockies in both geology and appearance. The Wind River Range in the west central part of the state is remote and includes more than 40 mountain peaks in excess of 13,000 ft (4,000 m) tall in addition to Gannett Peak, the highest peak in the state. The Big Horn Mountains in the north central portion are somewhat isolated from the bulk of the Rocky Mountains.

The Teton Range in the northwest extends for 50 miles (80 km), part of which is included in Grand Teton National Park. The park includes the Grand Teton, the second highest peak in the state.

The Continental Divide spans north-south across the central portion of the state. Rivers east of the divide drain into the Missouri River Basin and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. They are the North Platte, Wind, Big Horn and the Yellowstone rivers. The Snake River in northwest Wyoming eventually drains into the Columbia River and the Pacific Ocean, as does the Green River through the Colorado River Basin.

The Continental Divide forks in the south central part of the state in an area known as the Great Divide Basin where the waters that flow or precipitate into this area remain there and cannot flow to any ocean. Instead, because of the overall aridity of Wyoming, water in the Great Divide Basin simply sinks into the soil or evaporates.

Several rivers begin in or flow through the state, including the Yellowstone River, Bighorn River, Green River, and the Snake River.

Islands

Wyoming has 32 named islands, the majority of which are in Jackson Lake and Yellowstone Lake within Yellowstone National Park in the northwest portion of the state. The Green River in the southwest also contains a number of islands.

Regions and administrative divisions

Counties

The state of Wyoming has 23 counties.

Wyoming counties map
An enlargeable map of the 23 counties of Wyoming
The 23 counties of the state of Wyoming[17]
Rank County Population Rank County Population
1 Laramie 98,327 13 Converse 13,809
2 Natrona 79,547 14 Goshen 13,378
3 Campbell 46,242 15 Big Horn 11,906
4 Sweetwater 43,534 16 Sublette 9,799
5 Fremont 39,803 17 Platte 8,562
6 Albany 38,332 18 Johnson 8,476
7 Sheridan 30,210 19 Washakie 8,064
8 Park 29,568 20 Crook 7,410
9 Teton 23,265 21 Weston 6,927
10 Uinta 20,495 22 Hot Springs 4,696
11 Lincoln 19,265 23 Niobrara 2,397
12 Carbon 15,303 Wyoming Total 579,315

Wyoming license plates have a number on the left that indicates the county where the vehicle is registered, ranked by an earlier census.[18] Specifically, the numbers are representative of the property values of the counties in 1930.[19] The county license plate numbers are:

License
Plate
Prefix
County License
Plate
Prefix
County License
Plate
Prefix
County
1 Natrona 9 Big Horn 17 Campbell
2 Laramie 10 Fremont 18 Crook
3 Sheridan 11 Park 19 Uinta
4 Sweetwater 12 Lincoln 20 Washakie
5 Albany 13 Converse 21 Weston
6 Carbon 14 Niobrara 22 Teton
7 Goshen 15 Hot Springs 23 Sublette
8 Platte 16 Johnson    

Cities and towns

The State of Wyoming has 99 incorporated municipalities.

Most Populous Wyoming Cities and Towns[20]
Rank City County Population
1 Cheyenne Laramie 63,624
2 Casper Natrona 57,814
3 Laramie Albany 32,306
4 Gillette Campbell 30,560
5 Rock Springs Sweetwater 23,350
6 Sheridan Sheridan 17,860
7 Green River Sweetwater 12,070
8 Evanston Uinta 11,866
9 Riverton Fremont 11,058
10 Jackson Teton 10,532
11 Cody Park 9,885
12 Rawlins Carbon 8,858
13 Lander Fremont 7,551
14 Torrington Goshen 6,691
15 Powell Park 6,440
16 Douglas Converse 6,350

In 2005, 50.6% of Wyomingites lived in one of the 13 most populous Wyoming municipalities.

Metropolitan areas

The United States Census Bureau has defined two Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) and seven Micropolitan Statistical Areas (MiSA) for the State of Wyoming. In 2008, 30.4% of Wyomingites lived in either of the Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and 73% lived in either a Metropolitan Statistical Area or a Micropolitan Statistical Area.

CheyenneWY downtown
Cheyenne
Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas[21]
Census Area County Population
Cheyenne Laramie County, Wyoming 98,327
Casper Natrona County, Wyoming 79,547
Gillette Campbell County, Wyoming 46,242
Rock Springs Sweetwater County, Wyoming 43,534
Jackson Teton County, Wyoming 23,265
Teton County, Idaho 11,381
Total 34,646
Riverton Fremont County, Wyoming 39,803
Laramie Albany County, Wyoming 38,332
Sheridan Sheridan County, Wyoming 30,210
Evanston Uinta County, Wyoming 20,495

Wind River Indian Reservation

The Wind River Indian Reservation is shared by the Eastern Shoshone and Northern Arapaho tribes of Native Americans in the central western portion of the state near Lander. The reservation is home to 2,500 Eastern Shoshone and 5,000 Northern Arapaho.[22]

Chief Washakie established the reservation in 1868[23] as the result of negotiations with the federal government in the Fort Bridger Treaty.[24] However, the Northern Arapaho were forced onto the Shoshone reservation in 1876 by the federal government after the government failed to provide a promised separate reservation.[24]

Today the Wind River Indian Reservation is jointly owned, with each tribe having a 50% interest in the land, water, and other natural resources.[25] The reservation is a sovereign, self-governed land with two independent governing bodies: the Eastern Shoshone Tribe and the Northern Arapaho Tribe. Until 2014, the Shoshone Business Council and Northern Arapaho Business Council met jointly as the Joint Business Council to decide matters that affect both tribes.[23] Six elected council members from each tribe served on the joint council.

Public lands

Wyoming ref 2001
Wyoming terrain map

More than 48% of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U.S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth in the United States in total acres and fifth in percentage of a state's land owned by the federal government.[8] This amounts to about 30,099,430 acres (121,808.1 km2) owned and managed by the United States government. The state government owns an additional 6% of all Wyoming lands, or another 3,864,800 acres (15,640 km2).[8]

The vast majority of this government land is administered by the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service in numerous national forests, a national grassland, and a number of vast swathes of public land, in addition to the Francis E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne.

Map Wyoming NPS sites USA
National Park Service sites map

In addition, Wyoming contains areas managed by the National Park Service and other agencies such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, including:

National parks

Memorial parkway

National recreation areas

National monuments

National historic trails, landmarks and sites

National fish hatcheries

National wildlife refuges

Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park
Panoramic view of the Teton Range looking west from Jackson Hole, Grand Teton National Park

History

Alfred Jacob Miller - Fort Laramie - Walters 37194049
The first Fort Laramie as it looked before 1840 (painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller)

Several Native American groups originally inhabited the region now known as Wyoming. The Crow, Arapaho, Lakota, and Shoshone were but a few of the original inhabitants white explorers encountered when they first visited the region. What is now southwestern Wyoming became a part of the Spanish Empire and later Mexican territory of Alta California, until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War. French-Canadian trappers from Québec and Montréal went into the state in the late 18th century, leaving French toponyms such as Téton and La Ramie. John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, itself guided by French Canadian Toussaint Charbonneau and his young Shoshone wife, Sacagawea, first described the region in 1807. At the time, his reports of the Yellowstone area were considered to be fictional.[27] Robert Stuart and a party of five men returning from Astoria discovered South Pass in 1812. The Oregon Trail later followed that route. In 1850, Jim Bridger located what is now known as Bridger Pass, which the Union Pacific Railroad used in 1868—as did Interstate 80, 90 years later. Bridger also explored Yellowstone and filed reports on the region that, like those of Colter, were largely regarded as tall tales at the time.

The region acquired the name Wyoming by 1865, when Representative James Mitchell Ashley of Ohio introduced a bill to Congress to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming". The territory was named after the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, made famous by the 1809 poem Gertrude of Wyoming by Thomas Campbell, based on the Battle of Wyoming in the American Revolutionary War. The name ultimately derives from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat".[9][10]

Wyoming Jeep Trail
A backcounty road in the Sierra Madre Range of southeastern Wyoming near Bridger Peak

The region's population grew steadily after the Union Pacific Railroad reached the town of Cheyenne in 1867, and the federal government established the Wyoming Territory on July 25, 1868.[28] Unlike mineral-rich Colorado, Wyoming lacked significant deposits of gold and silver, as well as Colorado's subsequent population boom. However, South Pass City did experience a short-lived boom after the Carissa Mine began producing gold in 1867.[29] Furthermore, copper was mined in some areas between the Sierra Madre Mountains and the Snowy Range near Grand Encampment.[30]

Once government-sponsored expeditions to the Yellowstone country began, reports by Colter and Bridger, previously believed to be apocryphal, were found to be true. This led to the creation of Yellowstone National Park, which became the world's first national park in 1872. Nearly all of Yellowstone National Park lies within the far northwestern borders of Wyoming.

On December 10, 1869, territorial Governor John Allen Campbell extended the right to vote to women, making Wyoming the first territory and then United States state to grant suffrage to women. In addition, Wyoming was also a pioneer in welcoming women into politics. Women first served on juries in Wyoming (Laramie in 1870); Wyoming had the first female court bailiff (Mary Atkinson, Laramie, in 1870); and the first female justice of the peace in the country (Esther Hobart Morris, South Pass City, in 1870). Also, in 1924, Wyoming became the first state to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross, who took office in January 1925.[31] Due to its civil-rights history, one of Wyoming's state nicknames is "The Equality State", and the official state motto is "Equal Rights".[1]

Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage and a pioneering article on water rights.[32] Congress admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.[1]

Wyoming was the location of the Johnson County War of 1892, which erupted between competing groups of cattle ranchers. The passage of the federal Homestead Act led to an influx of small ranchers. A range war broke out when either or both of the groups chose violent conflict over commercial competition in the use of the public land.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
18709,118
188020,789128.0%
189062,555200.9%
190092,53147.9%
1910145,96557.7%
1920194,40233.2%
1930225,56516.0%
1940250,74211.2%
1950290,52915.9%
1960330,06613.6%
1970332,4160.7%
1980469,55741.3%
1990453,588−3.4%
2000493,7828.9%
2010563,62614.1%
Est. 2018577,7372.5%
Sources: 1910–2010[33][34][18]
2018 estimate[6]

Population

Wyoming population map
Wyoming population density map – the largest population centers are Cheyenne in the southeast and Casper in the east central section.

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Wyoming was 577,737 in 2018,[6] The center of population of Wyoming is in Natrona County.[35][36]

In 2014, the United States Census Bureau estimated the population's racial composition was 92.7% white (82.9 non-Hispanic white), 2.7% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.6% Black or African American, 1.0% Asian American, and 0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.[37] As of 2011, 24.9% of Wyoming's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[38]

According to the 2010 census, the racial composition of the population was 90.7% white, 0.8% black or African American, 2.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 2.2% from two or more races, and 3.0% from some other race. Ethnically, 8.9% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race) and 91.1% Non-Hispanic, with non-Hispanic whites constituting the largest non-Hispanic group at 85.9%.[39]

As of 2015, Wyoming had an estimated population of 586,107, which was an increase of 1,954, or 0.29%, from the prior year and an increase of 22,481, or 3.99%, since the 2010 census. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 12,165 people (that is 33,704 births minus 21,539 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 4,035 people into the state. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 2,264 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 1,771 people. In 2004, the foreign-born population was 11,000 (2.2%). In 2005, total births in Wyoming numbered 7,231 (birth rate of 14.04 per thousand).[40] Sparsely populated, Wyoming is the least populous state of the United States. Wyoming has the second-lowest population density, behind Alaska. It is one of only two states with a smaller population than the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. (the other state is Vermont).

According to the 2000 census, the largest ancestry groups in Wyoming are: German (26.0%), English (16.0%), Irish (13.3%), Norwegian (4.3%), and Swedish (3.5%).[41]

Birth data

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013[42] 2014[43] 2015[44] 2016[45] 2017[46]
White: 7,090 (92.7%) 7,178 (93.2%) 7,217 (92.9%) ... ...
> Non-Hispanic White 6,136 (80.3%) 6,258 (81.3%) 6,196 (79.8%) 5,763 (78.0%) 5,426 (78.6%)
American Indian 305 (4.0%) 294 (3.8%) 294 (3.8%) 200 (2.7%) 206 (3.0%)
Asian 124 (1.6%) 108 (1.4%) 135 (1.7%) 100 (1.3%) 79 (1.1%)
Black 125 (1.6%) 116 (1.5%) 119 (1.5%) 63 (0.9%) 45 (0.7%)
Hispanic (of any race) 926 (12.1%) 895 (11.6%) 963 (12.4%) 973 (13.2%) 892 (12.9%)
Total Wyoming 7,644 (100%) 7,696 (100%) 7,765 (100%) 7,386 (100%) 6,903 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Government and politics

Wyoming State Capitol
Wyoming State Capitol building, Cheyenne

State government

Wyoming's Constitution established three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

The Wyoming State Legislature comprises a House of Representatives with 60 members and a Senate with 30 members.

The executive branch is headed by the governor and includes a secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and superintendent of public instruction. Wyoming does not have a lieutenant governor. Instead the secretary of state stands first in the line of succession.

Wyoming's sparse population warrants it only a single at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, and hence only three votes in the Electoral College.

Wyoming is an alcoholic beverage control state.

Judicial system

Wyoming's highest court is the Supreme Court of Wyoming, with five justices presiding over appeals from the state's lower courts. Wyoming is unusual in that it does not have an intermediate appellate court, like most states. This is largely attributable to the state's population and correspondingly lower caseload. Appeals from the state district courts go directly to the Wyoming Supreme Court. Wyoming also has state circuit courts (formerly county courts), of limited jurisdiction, which handle certain types of cases, such as civil claims with lower dollar amounts, misdemeanor criminal offenses, and felony arraignments. Circuit court judges also commonly hear small claims cases as well.

Before 1972, Wyoming judges were selected by popular vote on a nonpartisan ballot. This earlier system was criticized by the state bar who called for the adoption of the Missouri Plan, a system designed to balance judiciary independence with judiciary accountability. In 1972, an amendment to Article 5 of the Wyoming Constitution, which incorporated a modified version of the plan, was adopted by the voters. Since the adoption of the amendment, all state court judges in Wyoming are nominated by the Judicial Nominating Commission and appointed by the Governor. They are then subject to a retention vote by the electorate one year after appointment.[47]

Political history

United States presidential election in Wyoming, 2016
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
Presidential elections results[48]
Year Republicans Democrats
2016 68.17% 174,419 21.88% 55,973
2012 68.64% 170,962 27.82% 69,286
2008 64.78% 164,958 32.54% 82,868
2004 68.86% 167,629 29.07% 70,776
2000 67.76% 147,947 27.70% 60,481
1996 49.81% 105,388 36.84% 77,934
1992 39.70% 79,347 34.10% 68,160
1988 60.53% 106,867 38.01% 67,113
1984 70.51% 133,241 28.24% 53,370
1980 62.64% 110,700 27.97% 49,427
1976 59.30% 92,717 39.81% 62,239
1972 69.01% 100,464 30.47% 44,358
1968 55.76% 70,927 35.51% 45,173
1964 43.44% 61,998 56.56% 80,718
1960 55.01% 77,451 44.99% 63,331

Wyoming's political history defies easy classification. The state was the first to grant women the right to vote and to elect a woman governor.[49] On December 10, 1869, John Allen Campbell, the first Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in United States history explicitly granting women the right to vote. This day was later commemorated as Wyoming Day.[49] On November 5, 1889, voters approved the first constitution in the world granting full voting rights to women.[50]

While the state elected notable Democrats to federal office in the 1960s and 1970s, politics have become decidedly more conservative since the 1980s as the Republican Party came to dominate the state's congressional delegation. Today, Wyoming is represented in Washington by its two Senators, Mike Enzi and John Barrasso, and its one member of the House of Representatives, Congresswoman Liz Cheney. All three are Republicans. The state has not voted for a Democrat for president since 1964, one of only eight times since statehood. At present, there is only one relatively reliably Democratic county, affluent Teton, and one swing county, college county Albany. In the 2004 presidential election, George W. Bush won his second-largest victory, with 69% of the vote. Former Vice President Dick Cheney is a Wyoming resident and represented the state in Congress from 1979 to 1989.

Republicans are no less dominant at the state level. They have held a majority in the state senate continuously since 1936 and in the state house since 1964. However, Democrats held the governorship for all but eight years between 1975 and 2011. Uniquely, Wyoming elected Democrat Nellie Tayloe Ross as the first woman in United States history to serve as state governor. She served from 1925 to 1927, winning a special election after her husband, William Bradford Ross, unexpectedly died a little more than a year into his term.[51]

Voter registration

Wyoming party registration by county
Party registration by county (December 2018):
  Republican >= 40%
  Republican >= 50%
  Republican >= 60%
  Republican >= 70%
  Republican >= 80%

Voter Info is As of May 1, 2017[52]

Party Registered Voters Percentage
Republican 176,355 67.18%
Democratic 47,108 17.94%
No party affiliation 35,745 13.62%
Libertarian Party 2,386 0.91%
Constitution Party 793 0.30%
Other 137 0.05%
Total Voters 262,524 100.00%

Voter registration by county

Republicans have a majority of registered votes in all but 2 counties: Albany and Teton, where they have a plurality of registered voters.

Republican Democratic NPA Libertarian Constitution Others Margin Total
County Voters % Voters % Voters % Voters % Voters % Voters % Voters % Voters
Albany 7,862 45.38% 5,541 31.98% 3,585 20.69% 298 1.72% 39 0.23% 1 0.00% 2,321 13.40% 17,326
Big Horn 4,597 82.84% 451 8.13% 432 7.79% 29 0.52% 40 0.72% 0 0.00% 4,146 74.71% 5,549
Campbell 15,458 82.90% 1,073 5.75% 1,851 9.93% 186 1.00% 51 0.27% 27 0.14% 14,385 77.15% 18,646
Carbon 4,118 62.36% 1,336 20.23% 1,064 16.11% 72 1.09% 13 0.20% 1 0.02% 2,782 42.13% 6,604
Converse 5,499 81.45% 565 8.37% 630 9.33% 30 0.44% 24 0.36% 3 0.04% 4,934 73.08% 6,751
Crook 3,394 86.38% 227 5.78% 270 6.87% 18 0.46% 20 0.51% 0 0.00% 3,167 80.60% 3,929
Fremont 11,546 66.16% 3,516 20.15% 2,187 12.53% 148 0.85% 51 0.29% 3 0.02% 8,030 46.01% 17,451
Goshen 4,472 74.45% 867 14.43% 614 10.22% 36 0.60% 18 0.30% 0 0.00% 3,605 60.02% 6,007
Hot Springs 2,095 78.41% 311 11.64% 244 9.13% 14 0.52% 8 0.30% 0 0.00% 1,784 66.77% 2,672
Johnson 3,857 84.07% 319 6.95% 376 8.20% 23 0.50% 13 0.28% 0 0.00% 3,538 77.12% 4,588
Laramie 25,325 60.35% 9,728 23.18% 6,421 15.30% 347 0.83% 99 0.24% 45 0.11% 15,597 37.17% 41,965
Lincoln 6,957 76.01% 874 9.55% 1,217 13.30% 75 0.82% 27 0.29% 3 0.03% 6,083 66.46% 9,153
Natrona 22,800 67.23% 5,630 16.60% 4,973 14.66% 363 1.07% 145 0.43% 0 0.00% 17,170 50.63% 33,911
Niobrara 1,199 88.81% 73 5.41% 71 5.26% 4 0.30% 3 0.22% 0 0.00% 1,126 83.40% 1,350
Park 12,133 77.82% 1,495 9.59% 1,808 11.60% 109 0.70% 46 0.03% 1 0.01% 10,638 68.23% 15,592
Platte 3,384 72.62% 707 15.17% 492 10.56% 45 0.97% 32 0.69% 0 0.00% 2,677 57.45% 4,660
Sheridan 10,593 70.76% 2,300 15.36% 1,891 12.63% 125 0.83% 27 0.18% 35 0.23% 8,293 55.40% 14,971
Sublette 3,717 82.25% 393 8.70% 381 8.43% 24 0.53% 6 0.13% 1 0.02% 3,324 73.55% 4,519
Sweetwater 9,804 56.22% 4,894 28.06% 2,485 14.25% 198 1.14% 56 0.32% 2 0.01% 4,910 28.16% 17,439
Teton 5,102 38.90% 4,841 36.91% 3,048 23.24% 111 0.85% 11 0.08% 4 0.03% 261 1.99% 13,117
Uinta 6,273 71.94% 1,264 14.50% 1,050 12.04% 83 0.95% 40 0.46% 10 0.11% 5,009 57.44% 8,720
Washakie 3,158 79.47% 435 10.95% 342 8.61% 27 0.68% 12 0.30% 0 0.00% 2,723 68.52% 3,974
Weston 3,015 83.06% 268 7.38% 313 8.62% 21 0.58% 12 0.33% 1 0.03% 2,837 75.68% 3,630
State Total 176,355 67.18% 47,108 17.94% 35,745 13.62% 2,386 0.91% 793 0.30% 137 0.05% 129,247 49.24% 262,524

Culture

Languages

In 2010, 93.39% (474,343) of Wyomingites over the age of 5 spoke English as their primary language. 4.47% (22,722) spoke Spanish, 0.35% (1,771) spoke German, and 0.28% (1,434) spoke French. Other common non-English languages included Algonquian (0.18%), Russian (0.10%), Tagalog, and Greek (both 0.09%).[53]

In 2007, the American Community Survey reported 6.2% (30,419) of Wyoming's population over five years old spoke a language other than English at home. Of those, 68.1% were able to speak English very well, 16.0% spoke English well, 10.9% did not speak English well, and 5.0% did not speak English at all.[54]

Religion

According to a 2013 Gallup Poll, the religious affiliations of the people of Wyoming were: 49% Protestants, 18% Catholics, 9% Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and less than 1% Jewish.[55]

A 2010 ARDA report recognized as the largest denominations in Wyoming the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) with 62,804 (11%), the Catholic Church with 61,222 (10.8%) and the Southern Baptist Convention with 15,812 adherents (2.8%). The same report counted 59,247 Evangelical Protestants (10.5%), 36,539 Mainline Protestants (6.5%), 785 Eastern Orthodox Christians; 281 Black Protestants, as well as 65,000 adhering to other traditions and 340,552 not claiming any tradition.[56]

Sports

Due to its sparse population, the state of Wyoming lacks any major professional sports teams. Some of the most popular sports teams in the state are the University of Wyoming Cowboys and Cowgirls teams – particularly football and basketball, which play in the Mountain West Conference. Their stadiums in Laramie are at about 7,200 feet (2,200 m) above sea level, the highest in NCAA Division I. High school sports are governed by the Wyoming High School Activities Association, which sponsors 12 sports.

Rodeo is popular in Wyoming, and Casper has hosted the College National Finals Rodeo since 2001.

State symbols

Indian Paintbrush in Grand Teton NP-NPS
State flower of Wyoming: Indian paintbrush

List of all Wyoming state symbols:[1]

Economy and infrastructure

According to the 2012 United States Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Wyoming's gross state product was $38.4 billion.[58] As of 2014 the population was growing slightly with the most growth in tourist-oriented areas such as Teton County. Boom conditions in neighboring states such as North Dakota were drawing energy workers away. About half of Wyoming's counties showed population losses.[59] The state makes active efforts through Wyoming Grown, an internet-based recruitment program, to find jobs for young people educated in Wyoming who have emigrated but may wish to return.[60]

As of November 2015, the state's unemployment rate was 4.0%.[61] The composition of Wyoming's economy differs significantly from that of other states with most activity in tourism, agriculture, and energy extraction; and little in anything else.[60]

The mineral extraction industry and travel and tourism sector are the main drivers behind Wyoming's economy. The federal government owns about 50% of its landmass, while 6% is controlled by the state. Total taxable values of mining production in Wyoming for 2001 was over $6.7 billion. The tourism industry accounts for over $2 billion in revenue for the state.

In 2002, more than six million people visited Wyoming's national parks and monuments. The key tourist attractions in Wyoming include Grand Teton National Park, Yellowstone National Park, Devils Tower National Monument, Independence Rock and Fossil Butte National Monument. Each year Yellowstone National Park, the world's first national park, receives three million visitors.

Historically, agriculture has been an important component of Wyoming's economy. Its overall importance to the performance of Wyoming's economy has waned. However, agriculture is still an essential part of Wyoming's culture and lifestyle. The main agricultural commodities produced in Wyoming include livestock (beef), hay, sugar beets, grain (wheat and barley), and wool. More than 91% of land in Wyoming is classified as rural.

Wyoming is the home of only a handful of companies with a regional or national presence. Taco John's and Sierra Trading Post, both in Cheyenne, are privately held. Cloud Peak Energy in Gillette and U.S. Energy Corp. (NASDAQ: USEG) in Riverton are Wyoming's only publicly traded companies.

Mineral and energy production

Liebherr T282C Coal Haul Truck
North Antelope Rochelle Mine, the largest estimated coal mine reserve in the world, as of 2013[62]
Rig wind river
A natural gas rig west of the Wind River Range

Wyoming's mineral commodities include coal, natural gas, coalbed methane, crude oil, uranium, and trona.

  • Coal: Wyoming produced 395.5 million short tons (358.8 million metric tons) of coal in 2004, greater than any other state.[63] Wyoming possesses a reserve of 68.7 billion tons (62.3 billion metric tons) of coal. Major coal areas include the Powder River Basin and the Green River Basin
  • Coalbed methane (CBM): The boom for CBM began in the mid-1990s. CBM is characterized as methane gas that is extracted from Wyoming's coal bed seams. It is another means of natural gas production. There has been substantial CBM production in the Powder River Basin. In 2002, the CBM production yield was 327.5 billion cubic feet (9.3 km3).
  • Crude oil: Wyoming produced 53.4 million barrels (8.49×106 m3) of crude oil in 2007. The state ranked fifth nationwide in oil production in 2007.[64] Petroleum is most often used as a motor fuel, but it is also utilized in the manufacture of plastics, paints, and synthetic rubber.
  • Diamonds: The Kelsey Lake Diamond Mine, located in Colorado less than 1,000 feet (300 m) from the Wyoming border, produced gem quality diamonds for several years. The Wyoming craton, which hosts the kimberlite volcanic pipes that were mined, underlies most of Wyoming.
  • Natural gas: Wyoming produced 1.77 trillion cubic feet (50.0 billion m3) of natural gas in 2016. The state ranked 6th nationwide for natural gas production in 2016.[65] The major markets for natural gas include industrial, commercial, and domestic heating.
  • Trona: Wyoming possesses the world's largest known reserve of trona,[66] a mineral used for manufacturing glass, paper, soaps, baking soda, water softeners, and pharmaceuticals. In 2008, Wyoming produced 46 million short tons (41.7 million metric tons) of trona, 25% of the world's production.[66]
  • Wind power: Because of Wyoming's geography and high-altitude, the potential for wind power in Wyoming is one of the highest of any state in the US. The Chokecherry and Sierra Madre Wind Energy Project is the largest commercial wind generation facility under development in North America.[67] Carbon County is home to the largest proposed wind farm in the US. However, construction plans have been halted because of proposed new taxes on wind power energy production.[68]
  • Uranium: Although uranium mining in Wyoming is much less active than it was in previous decades, recent increases in the price of uranium have generated new interest in uranium prospecting and mining.

Taxes

Unlike most other states, Wyoming does not levy an individual or corporate income tax. In addition, Wyoming does not assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Wyoming has a state sales tax of 4%. Counties have the option of collecting an additional 1% tax for general revenue and a 1% tax for specific purposes, if approved by voters. Food for human consumption is not subject to sales tax.[69] There also is a county lodging tax that varies from 2% to 5%. The state collects a use tax of 5% on items purchased elsewhere and brought into Wyoming. All property tax is based on the assessed value of the property and Wyoming's Department of Revenue's Ad Valorem Tax Division supports, trains, and guides local government agencies in the uniform assessment, valuation and taxation of locally assessed property. "Assessed value" means taxable value; "taxable value" means a percent of the fair market value of property in a particular class. Statutes limit property tax increases. For county revenue, the property tax rate cannot exceed 12 mills (or 1.2%) of assessed value. For cities and towns, the rate is limited to 8 mills (0.8%). With very few exceptions, state law limits the property tax rate for all governmental purposes.

Personal property held for personal use is tax-exempt. Inventory if held for resale, pollution control equipment, cash, accounts receivable, stocks and bonds are also exempt. Other exemptions include property used for religious, educational, charitable, fraternal, benevolent and government purposes and improvements for handicapped access. Mine lands, underground mining equipment, and oil and gas extraction equipment are exempt from property tax but companies must pay a gross products tax on minerals and a severance tax on mineral production.[70][71]

Wyoming does not collect inheritance taxes. There is limited estate tax related to federal estate tax collection.

In 2008, the Tax Foundation ranked Wyoming as having the single most "business friendly" tax climate of all 50 states.[72] Wyoming state and local governments in fiscal year 2007 collected $2.242 billion in taxes, levies, and royalties from the oil and gas industry. The state's mineral industry, including oil, gas, trona, and coal provided $1.3 billion in property taxes from 2006 mineral production.[64] Wyoming receives more federal tax dollars per capita in aid than any other state except Alaska. The federal aid per capita in Wyoming is more than double the United States average.[73]

As of 2016, Wyoming does not require the beneficial owners of LLCs to be disclosed in the filing, which creates an opportunity for a tax haven, according to Clark Stith of Clark Stith & Associates in Rock Springs, Wyoming, a former Republican candidate for Wyoming secretary of state.[74]

Transportation

National-atlas-wyoming
Map of Wyoming - PDF

The largest airport in Wyoming is Jackson Hole Airport, with over 500 employees.[75] Three interstate highways and thirteen United States highways pass through Wyoming. In addition, the state is served by the Wyoming state highway system.

Interstate 25 enters the state south of Cheyenne and runs north, intersecting Interstate 80 immediately west of Cheyenne. It passes through Casper and ends at Interstate 90 near Buffalo. Interstate 80 crosses the Utah border west of Evanston and runs east through the southern third of the state, passing through Cheyenne before entering Nebraska near Pine Bluffs. Interstate 90 comes into Wyoming near Parkman and cuts through the northeastern part of the state. It serves Gillette and enters South Dakota east of Sundance.

U.S. Routes 14, 16, and the eastern section of U.S. 20 all have their western terminus at the eastern entrance to Yellowstone National Park and pass through Cody. U.S. 14 travels eastward before joining I-90 at Gillette. U.S. 14 then follows I-90 to the South Dakota border. U.S. 16 and 20 split off of U.S. 14 at Greybull and U.S. 16 turns east at Worland while U.S. 20 continues south Shoshoni. U.S. Route 287 carries traffic from Fort Collins, Colorado into Laramie, Wyoming through a pass between the Laramie Mountains and the Medicine Bow Mountains, merges with US 30 and I-80 until it reaches Rawlins, where it continues north, passing Lander. Outside of Moran, U.S. 287 is part of a large interchange with U.S. Highways 26, 191, and 89, before continuing north to the southern entrance of Yellowstone. U.S. 287 continues north of Yellowstone, but the two sections are separated by the national park.

Other U.S. highways that pass through the state are United States Highways are 18, 26, 30, 85, 87, 89, 189, 191, 212, and 287.

Wyoming is one of only two states (the other being South Dakota) in the 48 contiguous states not served by Amtrak.[76]

Education

Rocky Mountain Herbarium University of Wyoming
The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming

Public education is directed by the state superintendent of public instruction, an elected state official. Educational policies are set by the State Board of Education, a nine-member board appointed by the governor. The constitution prohibits the state from establishing curriculum and textbook selections; these are the prerogatives of local school boards. The Wyoming School for the Deaf was the only in-state school dedicated to supporting deaf students in Wyoming, but it closed in the summer of 2000.[77]

Higher education

Wyoming has one public four-year institution, the University of Wyoming in Laramie and one private four-year college, Wyoming Catholic College, in Lander, Wyoming. In addition, there are seven two-year community colleges spread throughout the state.

Before the passing of a new law in 2006, Wyoming had hosted unaccredited institutions, many of them suspected diploma mills.[78] The 2006 law is forcing unaccredited institutions to make one of three choices: move out of Wyoming, close down, or apply for accreditation. The Oregon State Office of Degree Authorization predicts that in a few years the problem of diploma mills in Wyoming might be resolved.[79]

See also

References

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External links

Preceded by
Idaho
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on July 10, 1890 (44th)
Succeeded by
Utah

Coordinates: 43°00′N 107°30′W / 43°N 107.5°W

Casper, Wyoming

Casper is a city in and the county seat of Natrona County, Wyoming, United States. Casper is the second largest city in the state, according to the 2010 census, with a population of 55,316. Only Cheyenne, the state capital, is larger. Casper is nicknamed "The Oil City" and has a long history of oil boomtown and cowboy culture, dating back to the development of the nearby Salt Creek Oil Field. In 2010, Casper was named the highest-ranked family-friendly small city in the West, and ranked eighth overall in the nation in Forbes magazine's list of "the best small cities to raise a family".Casper is located in east-central Wyoming at the foot of Casper Mountain, the north end of the Laramie Mountain Range, along the North Platte River.

Cheyenne, Wyoming

Cheyenne ( shy-AN or ) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population was 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado which has a population of 4,333,742 according to the 2010 United States Census. Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek. The Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th-most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

Devils Tower

Devils Tower (also known as Bear Lodge Butte) is a laccolithic butte composed of igneous rock in the Bear Lodge Mountains (part of the Black Hills) near Hulett and Sundance in Crook County, northeastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. It rises 1,267 feet (386 m) above the Belle Fourche River, standing 867 feet (265 m) from summit to base. The summit is 5,112 feet (1,559 m) above sea level.

Devils Tower was the first United States National Monument, established on September 24, 1906, by President Theodore Roosevelt. The monument's boundary encloses an area of 1,347 acres (545 ha).

In recent years, about 1% of the monument's 400,000 annual visitors climbed Devils Tower, mostly using traditional climbing techniques.

Dick Cheney

Richard Bruce Cheney (; born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th vice president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He has been cited as the most powerful vice president in American history. At the same time he has been among the least favored politicians in the history of the US: his approval rating when leaving office was only 13%.Cheney was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, and grew up in Casper, Wyoming. He attended Yale and then the University of Wyoming, at the latter of which he earned a BA and an MA in Political Science. He began his political career as an intern for Congressman William A. Steiger, eventually working his way into the White House during the Nixon and Ford administrations, where he later served as the White House chief of staff, from 1975 to 1977. In 1978, Cheney was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives representing Wyoming's at-large congressional district from 1979 to 1989; he was reelected five times, briefly serving as House minority whip in 1989. Cheney was selected to be the secretary of defense during the presidency of George H. W. Bush, holding the position for the majority of Bush's term from 1989 to 1993. During his time in the Department of Defense, Cheney oversaw the 1991 Operation Desert Storm, among other actions. Out of office during the Clinton administration, Cheney was the Chairman and CEO of Halliburton Company from 1995 to 2000.

In July 2000, Cheney was chosen by presumptive Republican Presidential nominee George W. Bush as his running mate in the 2000 Presidential election. They defeated their Democratic opponents, incumbent Vice President Al Gore and Senator Joe Lieberman. In 2004 Cheney was reelected to his second term as Vice President with Bush as President, defeating their Democratic opponents Senators John Kerry and John Edwards. During Cheney's tenure as Vice President, he played a leading behind-the-scenes role in the George W. Bush administration's response to the September 11 attacks and coordination of the Global War on Terrorism. He was an early proponent of Operation Iraqi Freedom and defender of the Administration's anti-terrorism record. He became at odds with President Bush's position against same-sex marriage in 2004. Cheney was often criticized for the Bush Administration's policies regarding the campaign against terrorism, wiretapping by the National Security Agency (NSA), and so-called enhanced interrogation techniques.

Interstate 80

Interstate 80 (I-80) is an east–west transcontinental freeway in the United States that runs from downtown San Francisco, California, to Teaneck, New Jersey, in the New York City Metropolitan Area. The highway was designated in 1956 as one of the original routes of the Interstate Highway System. Its final segment was opened to traffic in 1986. It is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, following I-90. The Interstate runs through many major cities including Oakland, Sacramento, Reno, Salt Lake City, Omaha, Des Moines, and Toledo, and passes within 10 miles (16 km) of Chicago, Cleveland, and New York City.

I-80 is the Interstate Highway that most closely approximates the route of the historic Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The highway roughly traces other historically significant travel routes in the Western United States: the Oregon Trail across Wyoming and Nebraska, the California Trail across most of Nevada and California, the first transcontinental airmail route, and except in the Great Salt Lake area, the entire route of the First Transcontinental Railroad. From near Chicago east to near Youngstown, Ohio, I-80 is a toll road, containing the majority of both the Indiana Toll Road and the Ohio Turnpike. I-80 runs concurrently with I-90 from near Portage, Indiana, to Elyria, Ohio. In Pennsylvania, I-80 is known as the Keystone Shortway, a non-tolled freeway that crosses rural north-central portions of the state on the way to New Jersey and New York City.

Jackson, Wyoming

Jackson is a small city in the Jackson Hole valley of Teton County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 9,577 at the 2010 census, up from 8,647 in 2000. It is the county seat of Teton County and is its largest town.Jackson is the principal town of the Jackson, WY-ID Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Teton County in Wyoming and Teton County in Idaho.

The town derives its name from "Jackson Hole", the valley in which it is located.The town gained significant fame when a livestream of the town square went viral on YouTube in 2016, leading to much fascination with the town's elk antler arch, its law enforcement, and its prevalence of red trucks.

Jerry Buss

Gerald Hatten Buss (January 27, 1933 – February 18, 2013) was an American businessman, investor, chemist, and philanthropist. He was the majority owner of the Los Angeles Lakers professional basketball team in the National Basketball Association (NBA), winning 10 league championships that were highlighted by the team's Showtime era during the 1980s. He is a member of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor. Buss owned other professional sports franchises in Southern California.

Laramie, Wyoming

Laramie is a city in and the county seat of Albany County, Wyoming, United States. The population was 30,816 at the 2010 census. Located on the Laramie River in southeastern Wyoming, the city is west of Cheyenne, at the junction of Interstate 80 and U.S. Route 287.

Laramie was settled in the mid-19th century along the Union Pacific Railroad line, which crosses the Laramie River at Laramie. It is home to the University of Wyoming, Wyoming Technical Institute, and a branch of Laramie County Community College. Laramie Regional Airport serves Laramie. The ruins of Fort Sanders, an army fort predating Laramie, lie just south of the city along Route 287. Located in the Laramie Valley between the Snowy Range and the Laramie Range, the city draws outdoor enthusiasts with its abundance of outdoor activities.

In 2011, Laramie was named as one of the best cities in which to retire by Money Magazine, which cited its scenic location, low taxes, and educational opportunities.

List of Governors of Wyoming

This is a list of the governors of Wyoming, beginning with Territorial Governors. Wyoming Territory was organized in 1868, and the state was admitted to the union on July 10, 1890.

List of counties in Wyoming

This is a list of counties in Wyoming. There are 23 counties in the U.S. state of Wyoming. There were originally five counties in the Wyoming Territory: Laramie and Carter, established in 1867; Carbon and Albany established in 1868; and Uinta, an annexed portion of Utah and Idaho, extending from Montana (including Yellowstone Park) to the Wyoming-Utah boundary. On July 10, 1890, Wyoming was admitted to the Union with thirteen counties in it. Ten more counties were created after statehood.Three counties were renamed after their creation. Carter County was renamed Sweetwater County on December 1, 1869. Hanover County existed for seven days in 1911 before it was renamed Washakie County. Pease County, formed in 1875, was renamed Johnson County in 1879.The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) code, which is used by the United States government to uniquely identify states and counties, is provided with each entry. Wyoming's code is 56, which when combined with any county code would be written as 56XXX. The FIPS code for each county links to census data for that county.

Liz Cheney

Elizabeth Lynne Cheney (; born July 28, 1966) is an American attorney and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for Wyoming's at-large congressional district since 2017. Cheney is the House Republican Conference Chair, the third-highest position in GOP House leadership. She is the third woman elected to that position after Deborah Pryce and Cathy McMorris RodgersCheney is the elder daughter of former Vice President Dick Cheney and Lynne Cheney. She held several positions in the U.S. State Department during the George W. Bush administration. She has been politically active on behalf of the Republican Party and is a co-founder of Keep America Safe, a nonprofit organization concerned with national security issues. She was a candidate for the 2014 election to the United States Senate in Wyoming, challenging the three-term incumbent Mike Enzi, before withdrawing from the race. In the House of Representatives, she holds the seat that was held by her father from January 3, 1979, to March 20, 1989.

Matthew Shepard

Matthew Wayne Shepard (December 1, 1976 – October 12, 1998) was an American student at the University of Wyoming who was beaten, tortured, and left to die near Laramie on the night of October 6, 1998. He was taken by rescuers to Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, Colorado, where he died six days later from severe head injuries.

Suspects Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson were arrested shortly after the attack and charged with first-degree murder following Shepard's death. Significant media coverage was given to the killing and to what role Shepard's sexual orientation played as a motive in the commission of the crime. The prosecutor argued that McKinney's murder of Shepard was premeditated and driven by greed. McKinney's defense counsel countered that he had intended only to rob Shepard but had killed him in a rage when Shepard made a sexual advance toward him. McKinney's girlfriend told police that he had been motivated by anti-gay sentiment but later recanted her statement, saying that she had lied because she thought it would help him. Both McKinney and Henderson were convicted of the murder, and each received two consecutive life sentences.

Shepard's murder brought national and international attention to hate crime legislation at the state and federal levels. In October 2009, the United States Congress passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (commonly the "Matthew Shepard Act" or "Shepard/Byrd Act" for short), and on October 28, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the legislation into law. Following her son's murder, Judy Shepard became a prominent LGBT rights activist and established the Matthew Shepard Foundation. Shepard's death inspired films, novels, plays, songs, and other works.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming

This is a directory of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Wyoming. There are more than 500 listed sites in Wyoming. Each of the 23 counties in Wyoming has at least four listings on the National Register.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming County, New York

List of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming County, New York

This is intended to be a complete list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Wyoming County, New York. The locations of National Register properties and districts (at least for all showing latitude and longitude coordinates below) may be seen in a map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates".

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Wyoming County, Pennsylvania, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a map.There are 5 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted March 7, 2019.

Teapot Dome scandal

The Teapot Dome scandal was a bribery scandal involving the administration of United States President Warren G. Harding from 1921 to 1923. Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall had leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming, and two locations in California, to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. The leases were the subject of a sensational investigation by Senator Thomas J. Walsh. Convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies, Fall became the first presidential cabinet member to go to prison; no one was convicted of paying the bribes.

Before the Watergate scandal, Teapot Dome was regarded as the "greatest and most sensational scandal in the history of American politics". It damaged the reputation of the Harding administration, which was already severely diminished by its controversial handling of the Great Railroad Strike of 1922 and Harding's veto of the Bonus Bill in 1922.

United States congressional delegations from Wyoming

These are tables of members from Wyoming of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.

University of Wyoming

The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW (often pronounced "U-Dub") to people close to the university. The university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, and opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution. The university also offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online.

The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources, arts and sciences, business, education, engineering and applied sciences, health sciences, and law. The university offers over 120 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. The University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges.In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university's Outreach School offers more than 41 degree, certificate and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond. These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers in the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie.

Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U.S. and is also widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is the most abundant. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion.

Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park originally fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U.S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, which had been created the previous year. Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, and researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites.

Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles (8,983 km2), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish, and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the oldest and largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park was burnt. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles.

Wyoming state symbols
Flag of Wyoming
Seal of Wyoming
Living insignia
BirdWestern meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
FishCutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki)
FlowerWyoming Indian paintbrush (Castilleja linariifolia)
GrassWestern wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)
MammalAmerican bison (Bison bison)
ReptileHorned lizard (Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre)
TreePlains cottonwood (Populus sargentii)
Inanimate insignia
DinosaurTriceratops
FossilKnightia
MineralNephrite
SoilForkwood (unofficial)
State route marker
Wyoming state route marker
State quarter
Wyoming quarter dollar coin
Released in 2007
Lists of United States state symbols
Casper climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F (°C) 32
(0)
37
(3)
45
(7)
56
(13)
66
(19)
78
(26)
87
(31)
85
(29)
74
(23)
60
(16)
44
(7)
34
(1)
58
(14)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
12
(−11)
16
(−9)
21
(−6)
28
(−2)
37
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
51
(11)
41
(5)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
14
(−10)
31
(-1)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
0.6
(15.2)
0.6
(15.2)
1.0
(25.4)
1.6
(40.6)
2.1
(53.3)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
0.7
(17.8)
0.9
(22.9)
1.0
(25.4)
0.8
(20.3)
0.7
(17.8)
12.8
(325.1)
Source:[12]
Jackson climate: Average maximum and minimum temperatures, and average rainfall.
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average max. temperature °F (°C) 24
(−4)
28
(−2)
37
(3)
47
(8)
58
(14)
68
(20)
78
(26)
77
(25)
67
(19)
54
(12)
37
(3)
24
(−4)
49
(9)
Average min. temperature
°F (°C)
-1
(−18)
2
(−17)
10
(−12)
21
(−6)
30
(−1)
36
(2)
41
(5)
38
(3)
31
(−1)
22
(−6)
14
(−10)
0
(−18)
20
(-7)
Average rainfall
inches (mm)
2.6
(66.0)
1.9
(48.3)
1.6
(40.6)
1.4
(35.6)
1.9
(48.3)
1.8
(45.7)
1.3
(33.0)
1.3
(33.0)
1.5
(38.1)
1.3
(33.0)
2.3
(58.4)
2.5
(63.5)
21.4
(543.6)
Source:[13]

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