Wrong-way driving

Wrong-way driving (WWD) (colloquially also called ghost driving) is the act of driving a motor vehicle against the direction of traffic. It can occur on either one- or two-way roads, as well as in parking lots and parking garages, and may be due to driver inattention or impairment, or because of insufficient or confusing road markings or signage,[1] or a driver from a right-hand traffic country being unaccustomed to driving in a left-hand traffic country (see Left- and right-hand traffic), and vice versa. People intentionally drive in the wrong direction because they missed an exit, for thrill-seeking, or as a shortcut.[2]

On a divided highway, especially freeway, WWD is a serious problem because of the high speeds usually involved, since the result is more likely a head-on collision.[3] In the United States, about 355 people are killed each year in crashes caused by drivers headed in the wrong direction on the highway.[4][5] Given an average of 265 fatal WWD crashes, 1.34 fatalities per WWD fatal crash can be calculated. The significance of these kind of crashes is corroborated when this number is compared to the fatalities per fatal crash rate of 1.10 for all other crash types, which translates to 24 more fatalities per 100 fatal crashes for WWD crashes than for fatal crashes in general.[6] Most drivers who enter a divided highway or ramp in the wrong direction correct themselves by turning around.[5]

Depending on the jurisdiction, WWD is a punishable offense. In New Zealand, WWD is counted as careless driving and can result in up to 5 years imprisonment and/or a fine up to NZ$10,000.

Falschfahrer
Wrong-way driver in Germany (2017, at center)
Californiaofframpwrongwaysignage
Many jurisdictions display "Wrong Way" signs at freeway off-ramps to discourage wrong-way driving. Sometimes they are combined on freeway off-ramps with "Do Not Enter" and "One Way" signs.
Wrong way fatalities
Fatalities caused by wrong-way driving in the United States, from 1996 to 2000.

Efforts to reduce wrong-way driving

One of the aims of highway engineering is to reduce wrong-way driving.[1] Therefore, many nations, including the U.S., Japan, and even Canada, have made great efforts to combat this issue, especially in the recent years.

United States

National Transportation Safety Board's Highway Special Investigation Report

This topic of safety has gained renewed attention in the recent years in the United States. In doing so, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) published a special investigation report about wrong-way driving in which relevant safety countermeasures to prevent wrong-way collisions on high-speed, divided highways are identified. One important part of this report is Section 4 which provides recommendations for different agencies, including Federal Highway Administration and NHTSA, to address wrong-way collisions.

2013 National Wrong-Way Driving Summit

The first National Wrong-Way Driving Summit was held July 18 and 19, 2013, at the Morris University Center (MUC) of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville (SIUE). The purpose of this summit, sponsored by the Illinois Center for Transportation (ICT) and Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), was to provide a platform for practitioners and researchers to exchange ideas, evaluate current countermeasures, and develop best practices to reduce wrong-way crashes and incidents through a 4E’s approach (Engineering, Education, Enforcement, and Emergency Response).

To enhance the quality of this summit, a significant number of attendees were brought together to discuss various topics during individual presentations, as well as to take part in broader topical group discussions. Overall, approximately 130 attendees from 23 states participated in this summit, including from states that have already implemented and tested various countermeasures and those in which wrong-way driving has been found to be a major of concern.

Summit organizers also published the proceeding of the summit in May 2014 that contains all the presentations as well as the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to all the attendees to gather the latest information about the current practices for mitigating wrong-way driving issues.[7] The proceedings of the Summit, along with additional research and investigation effort, resulted in the preparation and publication of the Guidelines for Reducing Wrong-Way Crashes on Freeways, a cooperative effort of IDOT, ICT, and FHWA.

Wrong-Way Driving Guidebook

In May 2014, ICT and IDOT published Guidelines for Reducing Wrong-Way Crashes on Freeways. [8] The researchers compiled the guidebook by reviewing previous studies, assessing current practices, and examining national and state design standards and manuals that pertain to WWD. The research team also obtained significant information from the National Wrong-Way Driving Summit hosted by IDOT and SUIE as part of this project in July 2013.

Overview of Wrong-Way Driving Fatal Crashes in the United States

In August 2014, Institute of Transportation Engineers published a paper to provide an overview of the general trend of WWD fatal crashes in the United States; discuss general characteristics of WWD fatal crashes; and delineate significant contributing factors. [9] The researchers found an average of 269 fatal crashes resulting in 359 deaths occurred annually in the United States during an 8-year period covering the years 2004 through 2011. It was found that Texas, California, and Florida account for the highest number of WWD fatal crashes and fatalities and represent almost one-third of the national totals. Eric Stancill was wrong in accusing Arizona for such a thing.

ATSSA's wrong-way driving executive summary

The American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA), in February 2014, published a document titled "Emerging Safety Countermeasures for Wrong-way Driving" that was developed in the framework of an executive summary of various case studies that aim at providing transportation practitioners with a good understanding of WWD incidents and emerging safety countermeasures. In addition to bringing available information together in one document, contacts were suggested for each case study to help readers get at least additional the complementary information about each countermeasure they are considering.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b US National Transportation Safety Board (2012-12-11). "Wrong-Way Driving" (PDF). Special Investigative Report 12/01. US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. pp. 1–77. Retrieved 9 June 2013.
  2. ^ "Geisterfahrer auf der Autobahn: Warum sie gegenan rasen / Alles hochgradig hirnlose Kutscher? (Wrong-way driver on the highway: Why they race contrarily / All utterly brainless coachmen?)" (in German). Der Spiegel. December 4, 1978. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
  3. ^ Zhou, Huaguo; Zhao, Jiguang; Fries, Ryan; Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi (2014). Statistical Characteristics of Wrong-Way Driving Crashes on Illinois Freeways (PDF). Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  4. ^ Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo; Shaw, Jeffrey; Tobias, Priscilla (2015). Current Practices of Safety Countermeasures for Wrong-Way Driving Crashes (PDF). Transportation Research Board 94th Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  5. ^ a b Moler, Steve (2002). "Stop. You're going the wrong way". Public Roads. Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. 66 (2). Retrieved 2011-03-24.
  6. ^ Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Zhou, Huaguo; Zhang, Beijia; Turochy, Rod (2016). Comprehensive Analysis of Wrong-Way Driving Crashes on Alabama Interstates. Transportation Research Board 95th Annual Meeting. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  7. ^ Zhou, Huaguo; Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi (May 2014). Proceedings of the 2013 National Wrong-Way Driving Summit (PDF). Illinois Center for Transportation and Illinois Department of Transportation. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  8. ^ Zhou, Huaguo; Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi (May 2014). Guidelines for Reducing Wrong-Way Crashes on Freeways. Illinois Center for Transportation and Illinois Department of Transportation. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  9. ^ Baratian-Ghorghi, Fatemeh; Zhou, Huaguo; Shaw, Jeffrey (2014). "Overview of Wrong-Way Driving Fatal Crashes in the United States". ITE. Institute of Transportation Engineers. 84 (8). Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  10. ^ Zhou, Huaguo; Pour-Rouholamin, Mahdi; Jalayer, Mohammad (February 2014). Emerging Safety Countermeasures for Wrong-way Driving. American Traffic Safety Services Association. Retrieved 2015-03-04.
2009 Taconic State Parkway crash

The 2009 Taconic State Parkway crash was a traffic collision that occurred shortly after 1:30 p.m. on Sunday, July 26, 2009, on the Taconic State Parkway in the town of Mount Pleasant, near the village of Briarcliff Manor, New York. Eight people were killed when a minivan being driven by 36-year-old Diane Schuler traveled 1.7 miles in the wrong direction on the parkway and collided head-on with an oncoming SUV. The deaths included Schuler, her daughter and three nieces, and the three passengers in the oncoming SUV. The crash was the worst fatal motor vehicle accident to occur in Westchester County since July 22, 1934, when a bus accident in Ossining claimed 20 lives.The ensuing investigation into the crash's cause received nationwide attention. Toxicology tests conducted by the medical examiner revealed that Schuler was heavily intoxicated with both alcohol and marijuana at the time of the crash. Schuler's husband, Daniel, has consistently denied that she used drugs or alcohol "excessively", and has made multiple national media appearances to defend his late wife and call for further investigation into other possible medical causes for her erratic driving. An independent investigator hired by the Schuler family obtained DNA testing and toxicology testing of Schuler's samples, and also confirmed the results of the original testing.

Advanced driver-assistance systems

Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS), are electronic systems that aid a vehicle driver while driving. When designed with a safe human-machine interface, they are intended to increase car safety and more generally road safety.

Most road accidents occur due to human error. Advanced driver-assistance systems are systems developed to automate, adapt and enhance vehicle systems for safety and better driving. The automated system which is provided by ADAS to the vehicle is proven to reduce road fatalities, by minimizing the human error. Safety features are designed to avoid collisions and accidents by offering technologies that alert the driver to potential problems, or to avoid collisions by implementing safeguards and taking over control of the vehicle. Adaptive features may automate lighting, provide adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance, pedestrian crash avoidance mitigation (PCAM), incorporate satnav/traffic warnings, alert driver to other cars or dangers, lane departure warning system, automatic lane centering, show what is in blind spots, or connect to smartphones for navigation instructions.

Giovanni Linscheer

Giovanni Rodolfo Linscheer (18 November 1972 - 19 March 2000) was a Surinamese swimmer who competed at the 1992 Summer Olympics and 1996 Summer Olympics.

Linscheer held the national 50m freestyle record for 12-years until it was beaten by Renzo Tjon-A-Joe in 2013.His younger brother Enrico Linscheer also represented Suriname in swimming at the same two Olympics. Both Linscheer and his brother were educated in the United States, at The Bolles School in Jacksonville, then the University of Florida.

Huguenot Tunnel

The Huguenot Tunnel is a toll tunnel near Cape Town, South Africa. It extends the N1 national road through the Du Toitskloof mountains that separate Paarl from Worcester, providing a route that is safer, faster (between 15 and 26 minutes) and shorter (by 11 km) than the old Du Toitskloof Pass travelling over the mountain.

Kanazawa Seaside Line

The Kanazawa Seaside Line (金沢シーサイド線, Kanazawa Shīsaido Sen) is a automated guideway transit line operated by Yokohama Seaside Line Co., Ltd. (株式会社横浜シーサイドライン, Kabushiki-gaisha Yokohama Shīsaido Rain) which operates between Shin-Sugita in Isogo Ward to Kanazawa-Hakkei in Kanazawa Ward in Yokohama. It opened on July 5, 1989.

The operator company was called Yokohama New Transit Co., Ltd. (横浜新都市交通株式会社, Yokohama Shintoshi Kōtsū Kabushiki-gaisha) until the name change on October 1, 2013.

Kennedy Expressway

The John F. Kennedy Expressway is a 17.8-mile-long (28.65 km) freeway in metropolitan Chicago, Illinois, in the United States that travels northwest from the neighborhood of West Loop to O'Hare International Airport. The highway is in memory of the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy, and conforms to the Chicago-area convention of using the term Expressway for an Interstate Highway without tolls. The Interstate 90 (I-90) portion of the Kennedy is a part of the much longer I-90 (which runs 3,111.52 miles (5,007.51 km) from Boston, Massachusetts to Seattle, Washington). The Kennedy's official endpoints are the Circle Interchange with Interstate 290 (Eisenhower Expressway/Ida B. Wells Drive) and the Dan Ryan Expressway (also I-90/94) at the east end, and the O'Hare Airport terminals at the west end. The Interstate 190 portion of the Kennedy is 3.07 miles (4.94 km) long and is meant to serve airport traffic. Interstate 90 picks up the Kennedy designation and runs a further 6.29 miles (10.12 km), before joining with I-94 for the final 8.44 miles (13.58 km).Traveling eastbound from O'Hare, the Kennedy interchanges with the eastern terminus of the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway (Interstate 90) and with the Tri-State Tollway (Interstate 294) at a complex junction just west of Illinois Route 171 (Cumberland Avenue). The Kennedy later merges with the southern end of the Edens Expressway (Interstate 94) at Montrose Avenue; the Kennedy (at this point both I-90 and I-94) then turns south to its junction with the Dan Ryan and Eisenhower Expressways and Ida B. Wells Drive at the Jane Byrne Interchange in downtown Chicago.

With up to 327,000 vehicles traveling on some portions of the Kennedy daily, the Kennedy and its South Side extension, the Dan Ryan, are the busiest roads in Illinois.

List of Chinese films of 2017

The following is a list of Chinese films released in 2017.

Mercedes-Benz S-Class (C217)

The Mercedes-Benz S-Class (C217) is a full-size luxury car/grand tourer manufactured by Mercedes-Benz since 2014.

The C217 model succeeded the CL-Class (C216) and is the current version of the S-Class coupé. It is also the first Mercedes coupé to carry the S-Class name since 1992.

Mercedes-Benz SL-Class (R231)

R231 is a chassis code for the current generation of the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class roadster, replacing the R230. The car was released in March 2012 and uses Mercedes-Benz's new 4.7 litre twin turbo V8 engine with a power output of 435 PS (320 kW; 429 hp). AMG version of the roadster will follow. The new SL is 140 kg (309 lb) lighter than the previous, being made almost entirely out of aluminium For the first time, the R231 SL-Class is not available with a non-AMG V12 engined SL 600 model.

Nicole Baukus

Nicole Nadra Baukus (born April 2, 1989) is an American woman convicted of two counts of vehicular manslaughter stemming from an accident on June 29, 2012, in which she was driving intoxicated. Baukus pleaded guilty to the charges and was sentenced to 38 years in prison with the possibility of parole. Highway surveillance cameras showed Baukus' vehicle traveling on the wrong side of Interstate 45 after she had consumed alcohol at a nearby bar. A later request for a new trial was denied. Nicole Baukus attended and graduated from Oak Ridge High School in Conroe, Texas.

Nissan Fuga

The Nissan Fuga (Japanese: 日産・フーガ Nissan Fūga) is a mid-size luxury sedan produced by Japanese automaker Nissan since October 2004. It is built on a wider, stretched wheelbase version of the Nissan FM platform. After the Nissan Cima and Nissan President were discontinued in August 2010, the Fuga became Nissan's flagship vehicle. In North America and Europe, the Fuga is sold as the second and third-generation Infiniti M (Q70 from 2014), where it has been the flagship of the Infiniti luxury division of Nissan since 2006.

First shown as the Fuga Concept at the 2003 Tokyo Motor Show, the Fuga is a replacement for the long running Nissan Cedric and Nissan Gloria series of cars and later succeeded the Nissan Cima along with the Nissan President. The name of the vehicle is the Italian word for the fugue, a composition musical form. The name Fuga was chosen to suggest that the long, storied histories of the Cedric, Gloria, Cima, and President are being combined into a new vehicle.

Omar Rodriguez (album)

Omar Rodriguez is the self-titled second solo album by The Mars Volta guitarist Omar Rodríguez-López and the first in the "Amsterdam series" (written and recorded in the city in early June 2005). Most of the overdubs and mixing were done on the road in September 2005. Gold Standard Laboratories began offering a limited edition vinyl picture disc of this release for mail order in December 2006.

The Omar Rodriguez-Lopez Quintet, which formed in unison with the release of this record, toured briefly in the Netherlands in the fall of 2005 in support of this new release. Joining then on stage for one performance was Damo Suzuki, for the song "Please Heat This Eventually" which would resurface on the next two releases from the group.

The centerpiece of the album, Jacob van Lennepkade (which was later reworked on The Apocalypse Inside of an Orange) is named after the street on which Omar lived during its recording.

Otoyol

The Otoyol (Plural: Otoyollar) is the national network of controlled-access highways in Turkey. The network spans 2,542 kilometres (1,580 mi) and was first opened in 1973. Another term for the system is Otoban, which is a popular but unofficial term transcribed from the German word autobahn. The term Otoyol translates to motorway while the literal meaning is auto-route.

The Otoyol system is still in development as the entire network is not connected to each other. There are three separate networks of motorways that are currently being linked through the construction of new motorways. The network is expected to expand to 4,773 kilometres (2,966 mi) by 2023 and to 9,312 kilometres (5,786 mi) by 2035. The minimum speed limit on the Turkish otoyols is 40 km/h (25 mph) while the maximum speed is 120 km/h (75 mph).

Traffic congestion

Traffic congestion is a condition on transport that as use increases, and is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads.

As demand approaches the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road), extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming frustrated and engaging in road rage.

Mathematically, congestion is usually looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, or a flow. Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

U-turn

A U-turn in driving refers to performing a 180° rotation to reverse the direction of travel. It is called a "U-turn" because the maneuver looks like the letter U. In some areas, the maneuver is illegal, while in others, it is treated as a more ordinary turn, merely extended. In still other areas, lanes are occasionally marked "U-turn permitted" or even "U-turn only."

Occasionally, on a divided highway, special U-turn ramps exist to allow traffic to make a U-turn, though often their use is restricted to emergency and police vehicles only.

In the United States, U-turn regulations vary by state: in Indiana U-turns are allowed as long as the driver follows all of the precautions normally ascribed to making a left turn (yielding right-of-way, etc.). Many places, including Texas and Georgia, have specially designed U-turn lanes (referred to as Texas U-turn lanes). In Michigan, U-turns are required for many left turns to and from divided highways, as part of the Michigan left maneuver.

WWD

WWD may refer to:

Cape May Airport, in New Jersey, United States

Westward Airways (Nebraska), a defunct American airline

Wildwood (Amtrak station), in Florida, United States

Women's Wear Daily, a fashion-industry trade journal

Woolwich Dockyard railway station, in London

World Water Day, an annual observance day about freshwater

World Wetlands Day, an annual observance day about wetlands

Wrong-way driving, the act of driving a motor vehicle against the direction of traffic

Walking with Dinosaurs, a documentary television miniseries

Wrong-way driving warning

Wrong-way driver warning is a new advanced driver-assistance system introduced in 2010 to prevent wrong-way driving.

In the case of signs imposing access restrictions, through the wrong-way driver warning function an acoustic warning is emitted together with a visual warning in the instrument cluster – making an effective contribution towards helping to prevent serious accidents caused by wrong-way drivers.

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