World music

World music (also called global music or international music)[1] is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, Jazz, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.

World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in Roots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there".[2] Millie Small released "My Boy Lollipop" in 1964, Small's version was big hit, reaching number 2 both in the UK Singles Chart[3] and in the US Billboard Hot 100. In 1960s Miriam Makeba and Hugh Masekela got popular hits in USA. Ravi Shankar played sitar at Woodstock pop festival. They were examples of third world music.

The term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music.[4][5] Globalization has facilitated the expansion of world music's audiences and scope. It has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion,[6] and worldbeat.[7][8] Mory Kante had club hit in 1987.

World music
EtymologyFrom "world" and "music", coined early 1960s
Stylistic origins
Cultural originsIndigenous cultures worldwide
Typical instruments
Fusion genres

Terminology

The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through the doctoral programs in the discipline. To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series.[9][10] The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry.[11] There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term virtually meaningless.[12][13]

The term also is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are also described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not exclusively traditional folk music. It may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there",[14] or "someone else's local music".[15] It is a very nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements (examples noted in this section).

World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, and often features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora (West African harp), the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo.[16]

Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles naturally influence one another, and in recent years world music has also been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, folkloristics, performance studies and ethnomusicology.

Evolving terminology

Anda Union-1
Anda Union at a music festival

In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are commonly used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists. These influences proliferate quickly in a web-based music industry that is now percolating as a much larger, predominantly self-promoted menu, via an increasing number of indie-artist-friendly, streaming Internet options, such as Last.fm, Rhapsody, Live365, Jango Artist Airplay and ReverbNation.

An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries. As a result, definitions of the genre have become particularly varied, and determined by particularly wide-ranging and varied opinions.

Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world, rock and pop can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers. This is especially true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what ultimately distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how clearly a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism. The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture.

The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that eventually become diluted by pop culture, and the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing.[17][18]

In a report on the 2014 globalFEST National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said "Even within the "world music" community, nobody likes the term "world music." It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't (and who might get to police such inquiries), and forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of fairly awful, gloppy, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion. It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies absolutely no one."[19]

Forms

Alan Stivell - Jeudis du port 2013
Alan Stivell in concert at Brest (Brittany), 2013

Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto and Chinese guzheng music, Indian raga music, Tibetan chants), Eastern European folk music (e.g. the village music of the Balkans, The Mystery Of The Bulgarian Voices), Nordic folk music and the many forms of folk and tribal music of the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Oceania, Central and South America, Latin music, and Indonesian music.

The Breton musician Alan Stivell pioneered the connection between traditional folk music, modern rock music and world music with his 1972 album Renaissance of the Celtic Harp.[20] At this time, Stivell's contemporary, Welsh singer-songwriter Meic Stevens popularised Welsh folk music.[21] Neo-traditional Welsh language music featuring a fusion of modern instruments and traditional instruments such as the Pibgorn and the Welsh harp has been further developed by artists such as Bob Delyn a'r Ebillion. Lebanese musical pioneer Lydia Canaan fused Middle-Eastern quarter notes and microtones with anglophone folk, and is listed in the catalog of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum's Library and Archives[22][23] as the first rock star of the Middle East.[23][24][25][26][27]

More recently, other Welsh-language bands such as Calan and 9 Bach have achieved international acclaim.[28][29] Experimental psychedelic rock group Super Furry Animals's Welsh-language album Mwng was released in May 2000 and re-released in May 2015, captures the spirit of World music as 'trying to hang on to something that's under serious threat from advanced capitalism'.[30]

The broad category of world music includes isolated forms of ethnic music from diverse geographical regions. These dissimilar strains of ethnic music are commonly categorized together by virtue of their indigenous roots. Over the 20th century, the invention of sound recording, low-cost international air travel and common access to global communication among artists and the general public has given rise to a related phenomenon called "crossover" music. Musicians from diverse cultures and locations could readily access recorded music from around the world, see and hear visiting musicians from other cultures and visit other countries to play their own music, creating a melting pot of stylistic influences. While communication technology allows greater access to obscure forms of music, the pressures of commercialization also present the risk of increasing musical homogeneity, the blurring of regional identities, and the gradual extinction of traditional local music-making practices.

Hybrid examples

Since the music industry established this term, the fuller scope of what an average music consumer defines as "world" music in today's market has grown to include various blends of ethnic music tradition, style and interpretation,[8] and derivative world music genres have been coined to represent these hybrids, such as World fusion, Global fusion, Ethnic fusion or Worldbeat. Good examples of hybrid, world fusion are the Irish / West African meld of Afro Celt Sound System,[31] the pan-cultural sound of AO Music[32] and the jazz / Finnish folk music of Värttinä,[33] each of which bear tinges of contemporary, Western influence—an increasingly noticeable element in the expansion genres of world music. World fusion / Worldbeat / Ethnic fusion / Global fusion can also blend specific indigenous sounds with more blatant elements of Western pop. Good examples are Paul Simon's album Graceland, on which South African Mbaqanga music is heard, Peter Gabriel's work with Pakistani Sufi singer, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, the Deep Forest project, in which vocal loops from West Africa are blended with Western, contemporary rhythmic textures and harmony structure, and the work of Mango, who combined pop and rock music with world elements.

More recent bands who exhibit experimentation with World music Hybrid Forms include Vampire Weekend, The Very Best, Island Cassettes & Yeasayer, many of which cite inspiration from the work of Paul Simon.

Depending on style and context, world music can sometimes share the new-age music genre, which is a category that often includes Ambient music and textural expressions from indigenous roots sources. Good examples are Tibetan bowls, Tuvan throat singing, Gregorian chant or Native American flute music. World music blended with new-age music is a sound, loosely classified as the hybrid genre, ethnic fusion. Examples of ethnic fusion are Nicholas Gunn's "Face-to-Face" from Beyond Grand Canyon, featuring authentic Native American flute combined with synthesizers, and "Four Worlds" from The Music of the Grand Canyon, featuring spoken word from Razor Saltboy of the Navajo Indian Nation.

World fusion

The subgenre world fusion is often mistakenly assumed to refer exclusively to a blending of Western jazz fusion elements with world music. Although such a hybrid expression falls easily into the world fusion category, the suffix "fusion" in the term world fusion should not be assumed to mean only jazz fusion. Western jazz combined with strong elements of world music is more accurately termed world fusion jazz, ethnic jazz or non-Western jazz.[34] World fusion and global fusion are nearly synonymous with the genre term worldbeat, and though these are considered subgenres of popular music, they may also imply universal expressions of the more general term, world music.[8] Throughout the 1970s and 80s, fusion in the jazz music genre implied a blending of jazz and rock music, which is where the misleading assumption is rooted.[35]

Popular non-Western genres

Although it primarily describes traditional music, the world music category also includes popular music from non-Western urban communities (e.g. South African "township" music) and non-European music forms that have been influenced by other so-called third-world musics (e.g. Afro-Cuban music), although Western-style popular song sourced from non-English-speaking countries in Europe (e.g. French pop music) would not generally be considered world music.

Paris is one of the great European capitals for world music. For many years, the city has attracted numerous musicians from former colonies in West and North Africa. This scene is aided by the fact that there are many concerts and institutions that help to promote the music.

Algerian and Moroccan music have an important presence in the French capital. Hundreds of thousands of Algerian and Moroccan immigrants have settled in Paris, bringing the sounds of Amazigh (Berber), raï, and Gnawa music. Algerian raï also found a large French audience.

The West African community is also very large, integrated by people from Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast, and Guinea. They have introduced manding jeli music, mbalax and other styles.

After 1987

One origin of the term was the initiation of Fête de la Musique ("World Music Day") in 1982 in France. World Music Day has been celebrated on 21 June every year since then. On 29 June 1987 a meeting of interested parties gathered to capitalize on the marketing of this genre. Arguably popular interest was sparked with the release in 1986 of Paul Simon's Graceland album. The concept behind the album was to express his own sensibilities using the sounds he had fallen in love with while listening to artists from Southern Africa, including Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Savuka. This project and the work of Peter Gabriel and Johnny Clegg among others had, to some degree, introduced non-Western music to a wider audience. They saw this as an opportunity. Zila Khan is one of today's leading singers in World Music.

Before 1987, world music had a following but it was still difficult for interested parties to sell their music to the larger music stores. Although specialist music stores had been important in developing the genre over many years, the record companies, broadcasters and journalists had been finding it difficult to build a following because the music, itself, seemed too scarce. However, they were aware that the jazz and classical markets had developed a crossover audience. They decided the best way forward would be a collective strategy to bring the music to a wider audience.

At around this time, Cultural Co-operation started the Music Village Festival. This regular series of free world music festivals continues to run. They also started a network of world music artists to help promote their work.

1987 meeting

At the outset of the 1987 meeting, the musician Roger Armstrong advised the reason why something had to be done:

[He] felt that the main problem in selling our kind of material lay with the UK retail outlets and, specifically, the fact that they did not know how to rack it coherently. This discouraged [the retail stores] from stocking the material in any depth and made it more difficult for the record buyers to become acquainted with our catalogs.[36]

The first concern of the meetings was to select the umbrella name that this music would be listed under. Suggestions included "world beat" and prefixing words such as "hot" or "tropical" to existing genre titles. "World music" won after a show of hands, but initially it was not meant to be the title for a whole new genre—but just something the record labels could place on record sleeves to distinguish them during the forthcoming campaign. Afterward, they agreed that despite the publicity campaign, this wasn't an exclusive club—and that for the good of all, any label that sold this type of music could use the name.

Another issue was the distribution methods at the time. Most main labels were unhappy with the lack of specialist knowledge in their sales force, which led to poor service. Many larger outlets were reluctant to carry the music, because they favored larger releases they could promote within the store. It was difficult to justify a large presentation expense with limited stock going into stores.

Marketing

One of the marketing strategies used in the vinyl market at the time was the use of browser cards, which would appear in the record racks. As part of the "world music" campaign, it was decided that these would be a two color affair designed to carry a special offer package; to aid the retailer a selection of labels would also be included, presumably for shelf or rack edging.

In an unprecedented move, all of the world music labels coordinated together and developed a compilation cassette for the cover of the music magazine NME. The overall running time was 90 minutes, each package containing a mini-catalog showing the other releases on offer.

By the time of a second meeting it became clear that a successful campaign required its own dedicated press officer. The press officer would be able to juggle various deadlines and sell the music as a concept—not just to national stations, but also regional DJs keen to expand their musical variety. DJs were a key resource as it was important to make "world music" important to people outside London—most regions after all had a similarly heritage to tap into. A cost-effective way of achieving all this would be a leafleting campaign.

The next step was to develop a world music chart, gathering together selling information from around fifty shops, so that it would finally be possible to see which were big sellers in the genre—so new listeners could see what was particularly popular. It was agreed that the NME could again be involved in printing the chart and also Music Week and the London listings magazine City Limits. It was also suggested that Andy Kershaw might be persuaded to do a run down of this chart on his show regularly.

Relationship to immigration and multiculturalism

In most wealthy industrialized countries, large amounts of immigration from other regions has been ongoing for many decades. This has introduced non-Western music to Western audiences not only as "exotic" imports, but also as local music played by fellow citizens. Caribbean music in the United Kingdom or Chicano rock in the United States would be two obvious examples. But the process is ongoing and continues to produce new forms. In the 2010s several musicians from immigrant communities in the West rose to global popularity, such as Haitian-American Wyclef Jean, Somali-Canadian K'naan, Tamil-Briton M.I.A., or Lebanese-Colombian Shakira, often blending the music of their heritage with hip-hop or pop. Cuban-born singer-songwriter Addys Mercedes started her international career from Germany mixing traditional elements of Son with pop.[37]

The diverse nature of major Western cities has changed the pace of musical intermixing. Once, an established Western artist might collaborate with an established African artist to produce an album or two. Now, new bands and new genres are built from the ground up by young performers. For example, the Punjabi-Irish fusion band Delhi 2 Dublin is from neither India nor Ireland, but Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Country for Syria, an Istanbul based music collective, blends American Country music with the music of Syrian refugees and local Turkish music.[38]

In Vancouver, musicians and composers also work collectively to create original compositions for various combinations of ethnic and western instruments.

World Music Month

The World Music Month started in October 1987. It is a music festival held at the Town & Country Club in London, and it was the start of the winter season for both WOMAD and Arts Worldwide.

More and more international artists, many of whom are big stars in their own countries, are coming to England and North America on tour. They started off, like the Bhundu Boys, playing small clubs and pubs, but now many acts are so popular that they are filling larger venues.

Examples of radio shows that feature world music include World of Music on Voice of America, Transpacific Sound Paradise on WFMU, The Planet on Australia's ABC Radio National, DJ Edu presenting D.N.A: DestiNation Africa on BBC Radio 1Xtra, Adil Ray on the BBC Asian Network, Andy Kershaw's show on BBC Radio 3 and Charlie Gillett's show[39] on the BBC World Service.

2010s radio programs

World music radio programs today often play African hip hop or reggae artists, crossover Bhangra and Latin American jazz groups, etc. Common media for world music include public radio, webcasting, the BBC, NPR, and the (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). By default, non-region-specific or multi-cultural world music projects are often listed under the generic category of world music.

Criticisms

The generally accepted geographic standard for what designates world music is withstanding criticism for its universal asymmetry, where nearly every classifiable region under the term is defined, relative to Western music culture; this is primarily due to the fact that dominant corporate structures for music distribution and promotion originate in Europe and North America, as do the forums for establishing industry genre categories. Therefore, in market context, "ethnic" music is synthetically defined by a radius that extends from a Western center.

Some musicians and curators of music have come to dislike the term "world music". To these critics, "world music" is a parochial, catch-all marketing term for non-Western music of all genres. In October 1999, Luaka Bop label founder and ex-Talking Heads frontman David Byrne wrote an "I Hate World Music" editorial in The New York Times explaining his objections to the term. Byrne argued that the labelling and categorization of other cultures as "exotic" serves to attract an insincere consumption and deter other potential consumers.[40]

Awards

WOMEX 15 - Budapest, 2015.10.22 (1)
WOMEX 15 - Budapest

The BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music was an award given to world music artists between 2002 and 2008, sponsored by BBC Radio 3. The award was thought up by fRoots magazine's editor Ian Anderson, inspired by the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards. Award categories included: Africa, Asia/Pacific, Americas, Europe, Mid East and North Africa, Newcomer, Culture Crossing, Club Global, Album of the Year, and Audience Award. Initial lists of nominees in each category were selected annually by a panel of several thousand industry experts. Shortlisted nominees were voted on by a twelve-member jury, which selected the winners in every category except for the Audience Award category. These jury members were appointed and presided over by the BBC.[41] The annual awards ceremony was held at the BBC Proms and winners were given an award called a "Planet". In March 2009, the BBC made a decision to axe the BBC Radio 3 Awards for World Music.[42][43]

In response to the BBC's decision to end its awards program, the British world music magazine Songlines launched the Songlines Music Awards in 2009 "to recognise outstanding talent in world music".[44]

The WOMEX Awards were introduced in 1999 to honor the high points of world music on an international level and to acknowledge musical excellence, social importance, commercial success, political impact and lifetime achievement.[45] Every October at the WOMEX event, the award figurine—an ancient mother goddess statue dating back about 6000 years to the Neolithic age—is presented in an award ceremony to a worthy member of the world music community.

Festivals

Many festivals are identified as being "world music"; here is a small representative selection:

  • The WOMAD Foundation organizes festivals in countries around the world.[46]

Australia

  • The Globe to Globe World Music Festival takes place in the City of Kingston, Melbourne, for 2 days each year in January.[47]

Bangladesh

Belgium

Canada

  • Sunfest is an annual 4-day world music festival that happens in London, Ontario, primarily in Victoria Park that typically runs the weekend after Canada Day in early July. Sunfest is billed as Canada’s Premier Celebration of World Cultures.

Croatia

  • Ethnoambient is a two- or three-day world music festival held every summer (started 1998) in Solin, a town in center part of Dalmatia, south part of Croatia.

France

Germany

Hungary

Budapest Ritmo 2016
Budapest Ritmo Tent and MÜPA Center
  • Budapest Ritmo Festival takes place in Budapest, Hungary.
  • The WOMEX when in Budapest (2015)

Iceland

  • Fest Afrika Reykjavík takes place every September

India

  • The Lakshminarayana Global Music Festival (LGMF) takes place annually during December–January, often across several major cities in India. The LGMF has also traveled to 22 countries.[49]

Indonesia

  • Matasora World Music Festival held in Bandung, Java.

Iran

  • The Fajr International Music Festival is Iran's most prestigious Music Festival founded in 1986. The festival is affiliated with UNESCO and includes national and international competition sections. Since its establishment, many musicians from several countries like Austria, Germany, France participated in the event. The festival have enjoyed a strong presence of Asian countries as well.[50]

Italy

  • The Ariano Folkfestival is a five-day world music festival held every summer in Ariano Irpino, a small town in southern Italy.
  • The World Music Festival Lo Sguardo di Ulisse was first held in 1997 in Campania, Italy.

Macedonia

  • OFFest is a five-day world music festival held every summer (started 2002) in Skopje.

Malaysia

Mali

Morocco

  • Mawazine is a festival of world music that takes place annually in Rabat, Morocco, featuring Arab and international music icons.[52]

New Zealand

  • Festival in New Plymouth, New Zealand. Early March each year.[53]

Poland

  • The Cross-Culture Warsaw Festival, Poland. September each year.[54]
  • Brave Festival, Wrocław, Poland. July each year.
  • Ethno Port, Poznań, Poland. June each year.
  • Ethno Jazz Festival in Wrocław, Poland. Several events throughout the whole year.
  • Different Sounds (Inne brzmienia), Lublin, Poland. July each year.[55]
  • Francophonic Festival in Warsaw, Poland. March each year.
  • Nowa Tradycja (New Tradition), Warsaw, Poland. May each year.[56]
  • Siesta Festival, Gdańsk, Poland. First edition in April/May 2011.

Portugal

Romania

  • Plai Festival in Timisoara

Serbia

  • The Serbia World Music Festival is a three-day world music festival held every summer in Takovo, a small village in central Serbia.

Spain Spain's most important world music festivals are:

Sweden ,[57] Green World Yoga & Sacred Music Festival, June this year at Skåne.

Turkey

  • Konya Mystic Music Festival, held annually in Konya since 2004, in recent years in commemoration of Rumi's birthday. The festival features traditional music from around the world with a mystical theme, religious function and/or sacred content.[58]
  • Fethiye World Music Festival. The Fethiye World Music Festival presents musicians from different countries of the world for concerts that will contribute to the city’s arts and culture.[59]

Uganda

  • Milege World Music Festival has become a big festival in Uganda inviting musicians and fans from all over Africa and the rest of the world to enjoy live music, games, sports and so on. The festival runs for three consecutive days every November at the Botanical Gardens, Entebbe, Uganda

Ukraine

  • Svirzh World Music Festival (Lviv region)

United Kingdom

  • Glastonbury Festival held at Worthy Farm near Glastonbury each year
  • Musicport World Music Festival held annually at The Spa Pavilion, Whitby, North Yorkshire.
  • Music Village Festival is Europe's longest running festival of world cultures. It is held every two years in London and has been running since 1983. It is organised by the Cultural Co-operation
  • Drum Camp established in 1996 is a unique world music festival. Each event takes you on a musical journey around the world, combining ancient rhythmic traditions with the most modern and cutting edge grooves and beats.
  • WOMAD Festival has been running annually since 1986 and is currently held at Charlton Park in Wiltshire.

United States

See also

References

Citations

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  60. ^ Krassner, Paul (2005). Life Among the Neopagans in The Nation, August 24, 2005. Retrieved November 28, 2012.

Sources

  • Nidel, Richard (2004). World Music: The Basics. ISBN 0-415-96801-1. [2] accessdate 2010-04-24
  • Bernard, Yvan, and Nathalie Fredette (2003). Guide des musiques du monde: une selection de 100 CD. Rév., Sophie Sainte-Marie. Montréal: Éditions de la Courte échelle. N.B.: Annotated discography. ISBN 2-89021-662-4
  • Manuel, Peter (1988). Popular Musics of the Non-Western World: An Introductory Survey. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505342-7.
  • N'Dour, Youssou. "Foreword" to Nickson, Chris (2004). The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to World Music. ISBN 0-399-53032-0.
  • Sorce Keller, Marcello (1996). "Of Minority Musics, Preservation, and Multiculturalism: Some Considerations". In Echo der Vielfalt: traditionelle Musik von Minderheiten/ethnischen Gruppen = Echoes of Diversity: Traditional Music of Ethnic Groups/Minorities, Schriften zur Volksmusik 16, edited by Ursula Hemetek and Emil H. Lubej, 41–47. Vienna, Cologne, and Weimar: Böhlau Verlag. ISBN 3-205-98594-X. Reprinted in Sonus 18, no. 2 (Spring 1998): 33–41.
  • Wergin, Carsten (2007). World Music: A Medium for Unity and Difference? EASA Media Anthropology Network: http://www.media-anthropology.net/wergin_worldmusic.pdf.
  • World Music Network—Guides to World Music: http://www.worldmusic.net/guide/
  • Putumayo World Music—http://www.putumayo.com/
  • An Introduction to Music Studies, Chapter 6: Henry Stobart, ‘World Musics’.

External links

A. R. Rahman

Allahrakka Rahman (pronunciation ; born A. S. Dileep Kumar) known professionally as A. R. Rahman, is an Indian music director, composer, musician, singer and music producer. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Indian classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are six National Film Awards, two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, fifteen Filmfare Awards and seventeen Filmfare Awards South. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India.

In 2009, Rahman was included on the Time 100 list of the world's most influential people. The UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011. He is nicknamed "The Mozart of Madras" and "Isai Puyal" (English: the Musical Storm) in Tamil.With an in-house studio (Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai), Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, and theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated 200 million units sold worldwide. Rahman has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for a number of causes and charities.

In 2017, Rahman made his debut as a director and writer for the film Le Musk. His fans call themselves 'Rahmaniac'.

Big Time Rush (band)

Big Time Rush was an American pop music boy band formed in 2009. The group consisted of Kendall Schmidt, James Maslow, Logan Henderson, and Carlos Pena Jr. The group starred in Nickelodeon's television series Big Time Rush and signed to a record deal with Nick Records simultaneously with the television series, and then the group was eventually signed to Columbia Records. The show ran from November 28, 2009 to July 25, 2013. The pilot episode featured the group's first promotional single, "Big Time Rush". They have released three studio albums which all achieved success. The band stopped performing in 2014.

Fête de la Musique

The Fête de la Musique, also known as Music Day, Make Music Day or World Music Day, is an annual music celebration that takes place on 21 June. On Music Day the citizens of a city or country are allowed and urged to play music outside in their neighborhoods or in public spaces and parks. Free concerts are also organized, where musicians play for fun and not for payment.

The first all-day musical celebration on the day of the summer solstice was originated by the French Minister of Culture, Jack Lang, and by Maurice Fleuret, and was first celebrated in Paris in 1982. Music Day later became celebrated in 120 countries around the world.

Gipsy Kings

The Gipsy Kings are a group of flamenco, salsa and pop musicians from Arles and Montpellier in the south of France, who perform in Andalusian Spanish. Although group members were born in France, their parents were mostly gitanos, Spanish gypsies who fled Catalonia during the 1930s Spanish Civil War. They are known for bringing Catalan rumba, a pop-oriented music distantly derived from traditional flamenco music, to worldwide audiences. The group originally called itself Los Reyes.

Their music has a particular rumba flamenca style, with pop influences; many songs of the Gipsy Kings fit social dances, such as salsa and rumba. Their music has been described as a place where "Spanish flamenco and gypsy rhapsody meet salsa funk".

Grammy Award for Best World Music Album

The Grammy Award for Best World Music Album is an honor presented to recording artists for quality albums in the world music genre at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards. Honors in several categories are presented at the ceremony annually by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to "honor artistic achievement, technical proficiency and overall excellence in the recording industry, without regard to album sales or chart position".The award for Best World Music Album, reserved for international performers exhibiting "non-European, indigenous traditions", was first presented to Mickey Hart in 1992 for the album Planet Drum. In 1996, Academy trustees attempted to solve the problem of "compressing 75% or more of the world's music into a single award category" by broadening the definition of "world music" to include non-Western classical music. Beginning in 2001, award recipients included the producers, engineers, and/or mixers associated with the nominated work in addition to the recording artists. Following the 45th Grammy Awards (2003), the award was split into two separate categories for Best Traditional World Music Album and Best Contemporary World Music Album. In 2012, the two categories were merged back to Best World Music Album.Ry Cooder and Ravi Shankar are the only performing artist to win the award more than once: Cooder won in 1994 with Vishwa Mohan Bhatt and in 1995 with Ali Farka Touré; Shankar won in 2002 and posthumously in 2013. Brazilian artists have been presented with the award more than any other nationality, though it has been presented to musicians or groups from the United States three times, from India twice, and from France, Ireland, Mali and Panama once. Cape Verdean singer Cesária Évora, Gipsy Kings, and sitarist Anoushka Shankar share the record for the most nominations, with five each (none have yet won the award).

Gwen Stefani

Gwen Renée Stefani (; born October 3, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. She is a co-founder and the lead vocalist of the band No Doubt, whose singles include "Just a Girl" and "Don't Speak" from their 1995 breakthrough studio album Tragic Kingdom, as well as "Hey Baby" and "It's My Life" from later albums.

During the band's hiatus, Stefani embarked on a solo pop career in 2004 by releasing her debut studio album Love. Angel. Music. Baby. Inspired by pop music from the 1980s, the album was a critical and commercial success. It spawned three singles: "What You Waiting For?", "Rich Girl", and "Hollaback Girl". The last reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart while also becoming the first US download to sell one million copies. In 2006, Stefani released her second studio album The Sweet Escape. The album produced the singles "Wind It Up" and "The Sweet Escape". Her third solo album, This Is What the Truth Feels Like (2016), was her first solo album to reach number one on the Billboard 200 chart.

Stefani has won three Grammy Awards. As a solo artist she has received an American Music Award, Brit Award, World Music Award, and two Billboard Music Awards. In 2003, she debuted her clothing line L.A.M.B. and expanded her collection with the 2005 Harajuku Lovers line, inspired by Japanese culture and fashion. During this time Stefani performed and made public appearances with four back-up dancers known as the Harajuku Girls. She was married to British musician Gavin Rossdale from 2002 to 2016 and they have three sons. Billboard magazine ranked Stefani the 54th most successful artist and 37th most successful Hot 100 artist of the 2000–09-decade. VH1 ranked her 13th on their "100 Greatest Women in Music" list in 2012. Including her work with No Doubt, Stefani has sold more than 30 million albums worldwide.

Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (Tinley Park, Illinois)

Hollywood Casino Amphitheatre (originally World Music Theatre and formerly New World Music Theatre, Tweeter Center and First Midwest Bank Amphitheatre) is an outdoor music venue located in Tinley Park, Illinois that opened in 1990. It is one of the largest music venues in the Chicago area, with a capacity of up to 28,000 spectators; 11,000 reserved seats, 17,000 lawn seats.It is a venue pulling fans from the city of Chicago, as well as surrounding suburbs and neighboring states. It is one of only a few large outdoor amphitheatres in the Chicago area.

Nederlander Concerts and Jam Productions co-managed the venue from 1994 to 1999.

Hollywood Casino acquired the naming rights, beginning in 2015. The venue is owned by Live Nation.

List of reggae festivals

This is a list of notable reggae festivals by country. This list may have some overlap with list of jam band music festivals. Reggae festivals may include classic reggae and related or derivative genres such as ska, dancehall, dub, hip hop, ragga, reggae fusion, and drum and bass. Reggae originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s, influenced by Rastafarian culture, Jamaican dance music, traditional mento and calypso music, as well as American jazz and rhythm and blues, and evolved out of the earlier genres ska and rocksteady. By the 1970s, large festivals in Jamaica were being held featuring notable reggae bands, and the Wonder Dream Concert in 1975 in Jamaica was one of the first internationally noted festivals to focus on reggae. In 1979 Reggae Geel became the first reggae festival in Europe, and these concerts soon spread to other locales, becoming popular in regions such as Northern California. With the introduction of the electronic reggae genre ragga in the 1980s, reggae began to be featured at electronic music festivals as well.

Mariah Carey

Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1969 or 1970)

is an American singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and entrepreneur. Referred to as the "Songbird Supreme" by the Guinness World Records, she is noted for her five-octave vocal range, power, melismatic style, and signature use of the whistle register. She rose to fame in 1990 after signing to Columbia Records and releasing her eponymous debut album, which topped the US Billboard 200 for eleven consecutive weeks. Soon after, Carey became the first and only artist to have their first five singles reach number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, from "Vision of Love" to "Emotions".Following her marriage to Sony Music head Tommy Mottola, Carey became the label's highest-selling act with the follow-up albums Music Box (1993), Merry Christmas (1994), and Daydream (1995). These albums spawned some of Carey's most successful singles, including "Hero", "Without You", "All I Want for Christmas Is You", and "One Sweet Day"; the latter became the longest-running U.S. number-one single in history, with a total of sixteen weeks. After separating from Mottola, Carey adopted a new image and incorporated more elements of hip hop into her music with the release of Butterfly (1997). Billboard named her the most successful artist of the 1990s in the United States, while the World Music Awards honored her as the world's best-selling recording artist of the 1990s.

After eleven consecutive years charting a Billboard Hot 100 number-one single, Carey parted ways with Columbia in 2000 and signed a record-breaking $100 million recording contract with Virgin Records. However, following her highly publicized physical and emotional breakdown, as well as the critical and commercial failure of her film Glitter (2001) and its accompanying soundtrack, her contract was bought out for $50 million by Virgin and she signed with Island Records the next year. After a relatively unsuccessful period, she returned to the top of music charts with The Emancipation of Mimi (2005). It became the world's second best-selling album of 2005 and produced "We Belong Together", which spent fourteen non-consecutive weeks at number one on the US charts and made her the only artist to top the Billboard Hot 100 Decade-End chart twice. With the release of "Touch My Body" (2008), Carey gained her eighteenth number-one single in the United States, more than any other solo artist.

Throughout her career, Carey has sold more than 200 million records worldwide, making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), she is the third-best-selling female artist in the United States, with 64 million certified albums. In 2012, she was ranked second on VH1's list of the 100 Greatest Women in Music. Aside from her commercial accomplishments, Carey has won five Grammy Awards, nineteen World Music Awards, ten American Music Awards, and fourteen Billboard Music Awards, and has been consistently credited with inspiring a generation of singers.

Nelly Furtado

Nelly Kim Furtado ComIH (; born 2 December 1978) is a Canadian singer and songwriter. Furtado first gained fame with her debut album, Whoa, Nelly! (2000), which was a critical and commercial success that spawned two top 10 singles on the Billboard Hot 100, "I'm Like a Bird" and "Turn Off the Light". The first of the two singles won her a Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance. In 2003, she released her second album, Folklore, which was preceded by the lead single, "Powerless (Say What You Want)".

Furtado's third album, Loose (2006), became her best selling album with 12 million copies sold worldwide. The album spawned four successful number one singles; "Promiscuous", "Maneater", "Say It Right", and "All Good Things (Come to an End)". She released her first Spanish language album, Mi Plan, in 2009, which won her a Latin Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Album. In 2012, Furtado released her fifth album, The Spirit Indestructible. In 2017, Furtado released her sixth album, titled The Ride.

Furtado has sold over 40 million records worldwide, making her one of the most successful Canadian artists. She has won several awards throughout her career, including one Grammy Award from seven nominations, one Latin Grammy Award, ten Juno Awards, one BRIT Award, one Billboard Music Award, one MTV Europe Music Award, one World Music Award, and three Much Music Video Awards. Furtado has a star on Canada's Walk of Fame and was awarded Commander of the Order of Prince Henry on 28 February 2014, in Toronto by Aníbal Cavaco Silva, the former President of Portugal.

Nonesuch Records

Nonesuch Records is an American record company and label owned by Warner Music Group, distributed by Warner Bros. Records, and based in New York City. Founded by Jac Holzman in 1964 as a budget classical label, Nonesuch has developed into a label that records critically acclaimed music from a wide range of genres. Robert Hurwitz was president of the company from 1984 to 2017.

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan

Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (Urdu/Punjabi: نصرت فتح علی خان), born Anjum Pervaiz Ali Khan (13 October 1948 – 16 August 1997), was a Pakistani vocalist and musician, primarily a singer of Qawwali, a form of Sufi Islamic devotional music. Widely considered one of the greatest voices ever recorded, he possessed an extraordinary range of vocal abilities and could perform at a high level of intensity for several hours. Extending the 600-year old Qawwali tradition of his family, Khan is widely credited with introducing Qawwali music to international audiences. He is popularly known as "Shahenshah-e-Qawwali", meaning "The Emperor of Qawwali".Born in Faisalabad, Khan had his first public performance at the age of 16, at his father's chelum. He became the head of the family qawwali party in 1971. He was signed by Oriental Star Agencies, Birmingham, England in the early 1980s. Khan went on to release movie scores and albums in Europe, India, Japan, Pakistan and the U.S. He engaged in collaborations and experiments with Western artists, becoming a well-known world music artist. He toured extensively, performing in over 40 countries. In addition to popularising Qawwali music, he also had a big impact on contemporary South Asian popular music, including Pakistani pop, Indi-pop and Bollywood music.

Rough Guides

Rough Guides Ltd is a British travel guidebook and reference publisher, since November 2017 owned by APA Publications. Its travel titles cover more than 200 destinations. The series began with the 1982 Rough Guide to Greece, a book conceived by Mark Ellingham, who was dissatisfied with the polarisation of existing guidebooks between cost-obsessed student guides and "heavyweight cultural tomes".

Initially, the series was aimed at low-budget backpackers. The Rough Guides books have incorporated more expensive recommendations since the early 1990s, and books have had colour printing since the late 1990s, which are now marketed to travellers on all budgets. Much of the books' travel content is also available online.

Ellingham left Rough Guides in November 2007, after the company had celebrated "25 Rough Years" with a celebratory series of books, to set up a new green and ethical imprint, GreenProfile, at Profile Books. Rough Guides was run from 2003 until later in the decade by co-founder Martin Dunford (travel) and Andrew Lockett (reference), under the aegis of Penguin before their merger with Random House.

In 2017, Rough Guides was sold to APA Publications, parent of Insight Guides. It is now based at APA's offices in Tooley Street, near London Bridge.

The slogan of Rough Guides is "Make the Most of Your Time on Earth".

Skiffle

Skiffle is a music genre with jazz, blues, folk and American folk influences, usually using a combination of manufactured and homemade or improvised instruments. Originating as a term in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, it became extremely popular again in the UK in the 1950s, where it was associated with artists such as Lonnie Donegan, The Vipers Skiffle Group, Ken Colyer and Chas McDevitt. Skiffle played a major part in beginning the careers of later eminent jazz, pop, blues, folk and rock musicians such as The Beatles and Rory Gallagher. It has been seen as a critical stepping stone to the second British folk revival, blues boom and British Invasion of the US popular music scene.

Will Smith

Willard Carroll Smith II (born September 25, 1968) is an American actor, rapper and media personality. In April 2007, Newsweek called him "the most powerful actor in Hollywood". Smith has been nominated for five Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, and has won four Grammy Awards.

In the late 1980s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince. In 1990, his popularity increased dramatically when he starred in the NBC television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, which ran for six seasons until 1996. After the series ended, Smith transitioned from television to film and went on to star in numerous blockbuster films. He is the only actor to have eight consecutive films gross over $100 million in the domestic box office, eleven consecutive films gross over $150 million internationally, and eight consecutive films in which he starred open at the number one spot in the domestic box office tally.Smith has been ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes. As of 2014, 17 of the 21 films in which he has had leading roles have accumulated worldwide gross earnings of over $100 million each, with five taking in over $500 million each in global box office receipts. As of 2016, his films have grossed $7.5 billion at the global box office.

For his performances as boxer Muhammad Ali in Ali (2001) and stockbroker Chris Gardner in The Pursuit of Happyness (2006), Smith received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor.

World Music Awards

The World Music Awards is an international award show founded in 1989 under the high patronage of Albert II, Prince of Monaco. Awards are presented to the world's best-selling artists in the various categories and to the best-selling artists from each major territory. Sales figures are provided by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI). Nine awards are voted online by the public. The awards are gold-plated, each depicting an artist holding the world.

Many of the World’s best Performers have graced the World Music Awards stage including Alicia Keys, Andrea Bocelli, Avril Lavigne, Beyoncé, Bon Jovi, Britney Spears, Carlos Santana, Celine Dion, Cher, Chris Brown, Christina Aguilera, David Guetta, Destiny’s Child, Eminem, Enrique Iglesias, Enya, Fall Out Boy, Femi Kuti, 50 Cent, Flo Rida, Jacky Cheung, James Arthur, Jamiroquai, Jason Derulo, Kanye West, Kylie Minogue, Jennifer Lopez, Leona Lewis, Lionel Richie, Ludacris, Marc Anthony, Mariah Carey, Maroon 5, Michael Jackson, Miley Cyrus, Namie Amuro, Nelly Furtado, Outkast, Pharrell, Pink, Prince, Puff Daddy, Ricky Martin, Rihanna, Rod Stewart, Roxette, Savage Garden, The Scorpions, The Script, Seal, Shaggy, Shakira, Shania Twain, Stevie Wonder, Stromae, Tina Turner, Tinie Tempah,Tony Bennett, Vanessa-Mae, WillIAm, Will Smith and Whitney Houston to name a few. The World Music Awards is one of the most recognized Award shows on the planet with over two decades of media success! The Awards were last held in Monte Carlo in 2014.

World Music Network

World Music Network is a UK-based record label specializing in world music.The World Music Network website features news, reviews, live music listings, and guide sections on world music. It also features an online "Battle of the Bands" competition.

Worldbeat

Worldbeat is a music genre that blends pop music or rock music with world music or traditional music. Worldbeat is similar to other cross pollination labels of contemporary and roots genres, and which suggest a rhythmic, harmonic or textural contrast between its modern and ethnic elements.

Zakir Hussain (musician)

Zakir Hussain (born 9 March 1951) is a tabla virtuoso, composer, percussionist, music producer, film actor and eldest son of legendary tabla player Ustad Allah Rakha.He was awarded the Padma Shri in 1988, and the Padma Bhushan in 2002, by the Government of India presented by President Abdul Kalam. He was also awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1990, given by the Sangeet Natak Academy, India's National Academy of Music, Dance & Drama. In 1999, he was awarded the United States National Endowment for the Arts' National Heritage Fellowship, the highest award given to traditional artists and musicians.

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