The World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) is an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe.
World Union of National Socialists
Weltunion der Nationalsozialisten;
Всемирный Союз национал-социалистов;
Wereld Unie van nationaal-socialisten;
Unione mondiale dei nazionalsocialisti;
Union mondiale des nationaux-socialistes;
An tAontas Domhanda Sóisialaithe Náisiúnta;
Uniunea Mondială a Naţional Socialiştilor;
Unión Mundial de Nacional Socialistas;
ნაციონალ სოციალისტების მსოფლიო კავშირი
The movement came about when the leader of the American Nazi Party, George Lincoln Rockwell, visited England and met with National Socialist Movement chief Colin Jordan and the two agreed to work towards developing an international link-up between movements. This resulted in the 1962 Cotswold Declaration which was signed by neo-Nazis from the United States, United Kingdom, France (Savitri Devi), West Germany (Bruno Ludtke), Austria and Belgium. More member nations would join later throughout the decade including Argentina, Australia, Chile, Ireland, South Africa, and Japan.
Following Rockwell's assassination in 1967, control of the WUNS passed to Matt Koehl, who attempted to extend the influence of the group by appointing Danish neo-Nazi Povl Riis-Knudsen as general secretary. However a split began to develop over the insistence of Koehl that Nazism should also serve as a religion, and eventually he broke away from the WUNS to lead his own version of Nazi mysticism. The split fundamentally weakened the WUNS and its influence declined strongly, despite attempts by Jordan to reinvigorate it. Jordan remained the nominal leader of the organization until his death in 2009, when he was succeeded by Koehl, who was the titular leader until his own death in 2014.
A number of groups have become members of the WUNS or accepted association to the group down the years.
Given the leadership of Rockwell and Koehl, the American Nazi Party and its successor the National Socialist White People's Party were the main constituent groups of the WUNS.
It was also active in South America through the Partido Nacionalsocialista Chileno, a group set up in Chile by former 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Standartenführer Franz Pfeiffer and the Frente Nacional Socialista Argentino of Argentina was an affiliate group.
WUNS was represented in Denmark by the National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, a rump group of the old pre-war movement affiliated under Sven Salicath, a close follower of Rockwell, and by its replacement, the National Socialist Movement of Denmark.
The WUNS claims the affiliation of a number of minor movements, many of which appear to exist only on the internet.
The American Nazi Party (ANP) is an American neo-Nazi political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell; its headquarters are in Arlington, Virginia. Rockwell founded the organization as the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), but renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960. Since the late 1960s, a number of small groups have used the name "American Nazi Party" with most being independent from each other and disbanding before the 21st century. The party is based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in Germany during the Nazi era, and embraced its uniforms and iconography. Shortly after Rockwell's assassination in 1967, the organization appointed Rockwell's second in command, Deputy Commander Matt Koehl as the new leader. The American Nazi Party, now under Koehl's command, was subject to ideological disagreements between members in the 1970s and 1980s. "In 1982, Martin Kerr, a leader at the Franklin Road headquarters, announced that the organization was changing its name to the New Order and moving to the Midwest," effective January 1, 1983. Due to recruitment issues along with financial and legal trouble, Koehl was forced to relocate the group's headquarters from the DC area, eventually finding his way to scattered locations in Wisconsin and Michigan. After Koehl's death in 2014, long-time member and officer of the New Order, Martin Kerr assumed leadership and maintains the New Order website and organization.
A former member of the original American Nazi Party, Rocky Suhayda, founded his own organization using the American Nazi Party name and has been active since at least 2008. Suhayda claims Rockwell as its founder despite no direct legal or financial link between it and Rockwell's legacy organization. The one connection between the original American Nazi Party and Rocky Suhayda's group besides ideology is that they sell reprints of Rockwell's 1960s-era magazine The Stormtrooper on their website. Suhayda's American Nazi Party condemns the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States, the National Socialist Movement. Suhayda's party does not consider the NSM to be a national socialist group and Suhayda says the NSM founder, Clifford Herrington, husband of the founder of Joy of Satan, is a devil-worshiper.Colin Jordan
John Colin Campbell Jordan (19 June 1923 – 9 April 2009) was a leading figure in post-war neo-Nazism in Great Britain. In the far-right circles of the 1960s, Jordan represented the most explicitly "Nazi" inclination in his open use of the styles and symbols of the Third Reich. Through his leadership of organisations such as the National Socialist Movement and the World Union of National Socialists, Jordan advocated a pan-Aryan "Universal Nazism". Although later unaffiliated with any political party, Jordan remained an influential voice on the British far right.Eidgenössische Sammlung
Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was an American politician and neo-Nazi. In 1959, he was discharged from the United States Navy because of his political views and founded the American Nazi Party.
Rockwell denied The Holocaust and believed that Martin Luther King Jr. was a tool for Jewish communists wanting to rule the white community. He regarded Hitler as "the White savior of the twentieth century". He regarded blacks as a "primitive, lethargic race who desired only simple pleasures and a life of irresponsibility" and supported the resettlement of all American Negroes in a new African state to be funded by the U.S. government. He blamed the civil rights movement on the Jews. As a supporter of racial segregation, he agreed with and quoted many leaders of the Black nationalism movement such as Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X. In later years, Rockwell became increasingly aligned with other neo-Nazi groups, leading the World Union of National Socialists.
In August 1967, Rockwell was murdered by John Patler in Arlington County, Virginia. Patler had been expelled by Rockwell from his party in March 1967 for Marxist leanings.List of neo-Nazi organizations
This is a list of neo-Nazi organizations.Matthias Koehl
Matthias Koehl Jr. (January 22, 1935 – October 9/10, 2014) was an American Marine, a neo-Nazi politician and writer. He succeeded George Lincoln Rockwell as the longest serving leader of the American Nazi Party from 1967 to 2014.
Like the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano, Koehl was influenced by the occultism of the Greek-French writer Savitri Devi. He was also a close friend of the Dutch World War II Nazi collaborator Florentine Rost van Tonningen.National Action (Australia)
National Action was a militant Australian white supremacist group founded by a convicted criminal and neo-Nazi, Jim Saleam and former neo-Nazi David Greason. Saleam co-founded the group on Anzac Day, 1982, after having been a member of the short-lived National Socialist Party of Australia as a teenager during the 1970s.Jim Saleam’s criminal convictions include property offenses and fraud in 1984 and being an accessory before the fact in regard to organising a shotgun attack in 1989 on African National Congress representative Eddie Funde. Saleam served jail terms for both crimes. He pleaded not guilty to both charges, claiming that he was set up by police. The group was disbanded following the murder of a member, Wayne "Bovver" Smith, in the group's headquarters at Tempe. Saleam became NSW chairman of Australia First Party, and stood as its endorsed candidate several times.
The National Action co-founder David Greason's book, I was a Teenage Fascist, tells of Greason's own time within the Australian neo-Nazi movement and the events behind the founding of National Action.National Socialist Bloc
National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.
The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.
NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.National Socialist Flyers Corps
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).
During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.National Socialist Movement (United States)
The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a neo-Nazi organization based in Detroit, Michigan. It is a part of the Nationalist Front. The Party claimed to be the "largest and most active" National Socialist organization in the United States. Although classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center, it refers to itself as a "white civil rights organization", and compares itself to the NAACP. The party also objects to being referred to as "racist", and "Neo-Nazi", stating that such descriptions of their goals are unflattering and inaccurate. Each state has members in smaller groups within areas known as "regions". The NSM holds national meetings and smaller regional and unit meetings.In January 2019, the leadership of the group was turned over to James Hart Stern, a black activist, who announced his intention to undermine the group and "eradicate" it. In March 2019 in a press release Schoep said that Stern “does not speak for the NSM and he holds no legal standing with the NSM” and in addition to him speaking out against Stern he also noted that he was leaving and giving his position to Burt Colucci.National Socialist Movement of Norway
The National Socialist Movement of Norway (Norwegian: Norges Nasjonalsosialistiske Bevegelse, NNSB), formerly Zorn 88, is a Norwegian neo-Nazi group with an estimated fifty members, led by Erik Rune Hansen. Founded in 1988, it is a secretive group with tight membership regulation.The NNSB expresses admiration for Adolf Hitler and Vidkun Quisling, and is focused on historical revisionism and antisemitism, particularly Holocaust denial. It publishes the magazine Gjallarhorn, and in 1999 published The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Other recurrent topics include racial hygiene and Norse religion. Several of its members were active Nazis and members of Nasjonal Samling during World War II. The group has had ties to Erik Blücher and the magazine Folk og Land, and to Varg Vikernes. It has been part of international networks along with the World Union of National Socialists, the National Socialist Movement of Denmark, the (now-defunct) Swedish National Socialist Front, and Blood & Honour. Along with Scandinavian groups it has taken part in celebrations and memorials to Adolf Hitler and Rudolf Hess.In November 2007, a memorial ceremony at the German war cemetery in Oslo was attacked by anti-fascists, leaving five NNSB-members wounded, one severely. The NNSB pledged that it had no intentions of retaliating the attack.National Unity Party (Canada)
The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.November 9th Society
The November 9th Society (also known as the British First Party or N9S) is a British neo-Nazi group, formed in 1977 by Terry Flynn. The 9th of November has been a pivotal date in German history on several occasions: the execution of the liberal leader Robert Blum which effectively ended the German revolutions in 1848; the abdication of Wilhelm II, German Emperor and the end of the German Empire in 1918; the failed Nazi Beer Hall Putsch in 1923; and the beginning of Kristallnacht in 1938.Ossewabrandwag
The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.Otto Strasser
Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.
His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.Povl Riis-Knudsen
Povl Heinrich Riis-Knudsen (born 1950) is a prominent Danish neo-Nazi. Riis-Knudsen is best known as the author of the articles National Socialism: A Left Wing Movement (1984) and National Socialism: The Biological World View (1987).Savitri Devi
Savitri Devi Mukherji (30 September 1905 – 22 October 1982) was the pseudonym of the Greek-French-Italian writer Maximiani Portas (pronounced [mak.si.mja.ni pɔʁ.tɑ]; also spelled Maximine Portaz), a prominent proponent of deep ecology and Nazism, who served the Axis powers by committing espionage on the forces of the Allies of World War II in India. She wrote about animal rights movements and was a leading member of the Nazi underground during the 1960s.Devi authored the animal rights manifesto The Impeachment of Man in 1959 and was a proponent of Hinduism and Nazism, synthesizing the two, proclaiming Adolf Hitler to have been sent by Providence, much like an avatar of the Hindu God Vishnu. She believed Hitler was a sacrifice for humanity which would lead to the end of the Kali Yuga induced by those who she felt were the powers of evil: the Jews. Her writings have influenced neo-Nazism and Nazi occultism. Among Savitri Devi's ideas was the classifications of "men above time", "men in time", and "men against time". Rejecting Judeo-Christianity, she believed in a form of pantheistic monism; a single cosmos of nature composed of divine energy-matter.She is credited with pioneering neo-Nazi interest in occultism, deep ecology, and the New Age movement, and more contemporaneously has influenced the alt-right. She also influenced the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano. In 1982, Franco Freda published a German translation of her work Gold in the Furnace, and the fourth volume of his annual review, Risguardo (1980–), was devoted to Savitri Devi as the "missionary of Aryan Paganism".Savitri was an associate in the post-war years of Françoise Dior, Otto Skorzeny, Johannes von Leers, and Hans-Ulrich Rudel. She was also one of the founding members of the World Union of National Socialists.Strasserism
Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, two brothers initially associated with this position.
Otto Strasser, who strategically opposed the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.The Immortals (neo-Nazis)
The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.