World TeamTennis

World TeamTennis (WTT) is a mixed-gender professional tennis league played with a team format in the United States, which was founded in 1973.

Originally played on a no-line court, each match consists of five sets. Each set features a different configuration (men's singles, men's doubles, women's singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles). Prior to each match, coaches decide the order in which the sets will be played. Each player on a team usually plays in at least one of the five sets. Scoring is no-advantage; there is no requirement to win a game by two scores; at deuce, whoever scores the next point wins the game. The first team to reach five games wins each set. A nine-point tiebreaker is played if a set reaches four-all. One point is awarded for each game won. If necessary, extended play and a supertiebreaker are played to determine the winner of the match.

The league's season normally takes place in the summer months. Players from the ATP and WTA take a break from their tour schedules to partake in World TeamTennis.

World TeamTennis
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2019 World TeamTennis season
World TeamTennis logo
SportTeam tennis
Owner(s)Fred Luddy and Eric Davidson
CEOCarlos Silva
No. of teams8
Country United States
HeadquartersNew York City, New York, United States
Most recent
Springfield Lasers
Most titlesSacramento Capitals (6)
Washington Kastles (6)
TV partner(s)CBS
CBS Sports Network


First league

World Team Tennis (WTT) was founded in 1973 by Dennis Murphy, Dick Butera, Fred Barman, Jordan Kaiser, and attorney and promoter Larry King, each of whom organized and owned the various participating teams of the fledgling professional tennis league. Murphy had previously founded the World Hockey Association, and gave a number of WHA club owners preferential options on WTT franchises.

Charles "Chuck" Reichblum (now popularly known as "Dr. Knowledge"),[1] industrialist John H. Hillman III, and lawyer William "Bill" Sutton, who became the owners of the Pittsburgh Triangles, had, in 1972, founded the similar National Tennis League (NTL), a forerunner to WTT and Reichblum's brainchild. Founding members of WTT were reported to have been invited to join the NTL prior to formation of the competing WTT in 1973.[2][3]

The WTT was organized and started by Billie Jean King securing the professional women tennis players, and Dr. Leonard Bloom, along with Arthur Ashe and Wilt Chamberlain, securing the professional men players..

The league began play in May 1974, with George MacCall as Commissioner of the 16 teams: Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo-Toronto, Chicago, Cleveland, Denver, Detroit, Florida (Miami), San Diego/Hawaii, Houston, Los Angeles, Minnesota (Minneapolis-St.Paul), New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco.

The original league format included a four-colored tennis court, a 44-contest season, and teams of at least two men and two women. A match consisted of the first player or team to win five games, with a nine-point tiebreaker at four-all, and no-ad scoring in women's singles and doubles, men's singles and doubles, and mixed doubles. This made WTT the first professional sports league to grant equal status to each man and woman competing for their teams.[4]

WTT also held annual All-Star games for the seasons from 1975 to 1978. Marty Riessen (Cleveland) and Greer Stevens (Boston) won Most Valuable Players (MVP) honors for the inaugural all-star gala won by the East, 28–21, at the Inglewood Forum in Los Angeles. In 1976 the West All-Stars, led by Chris Evert and Betty Stöve, capped an incredible comeback when they defeated Billie Jean King and Evonne Goolagong in a super tiebreaker, 5–4, giving the West a stunning 28–27 overtime victory at the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum. After trailing at one stage by 24–17, the West, led by Stove and Dianne Fromholtz, won the final set plus two games in overtime to draw the West All-Stars even at 27.[5] Tom Okker (San Francisco) and Dianne Fromholtz (Los Angeles) won MVP honors that year. In the 1977 All Star Game held at the San Diego Sports Arena, Björn Borg (Cleveland-Pittsburgh) and Betty Stove (Seattle-Portland) captured MVP awards as the East bested the West, 23–18. WTT held its final All-Star event in Las Vegas in 1978.[6]

WTT was the first professional sports experience for Jerry Buss (eventual owner of the NBA's Los Angeles Lakers and the NHL's Los Angeles Kings), and for Bob Kraft (eventual owner of the NFL's New England Patriots and MLS's New England Revolution).

Elton John, a friend of Billie Jean King, wrote the hit single "Philadelphia Freedom" as a theme song for his favorite team.[7]

The first league ended play in 1978.

Second league

The league resumed play in 1981 as TeamTennis and fluctuated between four and twelve teams. In 1992, the name was changed back to World TeamTennis (WTT). In 2005, twelve teams competed.

Billie Jean King became Commissioner and major owner of the league in 1984, following her retirement from tournament tennis competition. She retired as Commissioner in February 2001 and Ilana Kloss became the new commissioner, a position she still holds. In March 2017, King sold WTT to venture capitalist Mark Ein and founder of ServiceNow Fred Luddy.

In 2013, World TeamTennis was re-branded Mylan World TeamTennis after Mylan, a generics and specialty pharmaceuticals company, announced a three-year agreement to serve as the title sponsor of WTT.[8]

Many top tennis players have participated in the league over the years, including King, Rod Laver, Björn Borg, Chris Evert, John McEnroe, Evonne Goolagong, Jimmy Connors, Martina Navratilova,[9] Andre Agassi, Pete Sampras, Michael Chang, Venus Williams, Serena Williams, Maria Sharapova, Lindsay Davenport, Kim Clijsters, Martina Hingis, John Isner, Sam Querrey, Sloane Stephens, Naomi Osaka, Frances Tiafoe and many more. Connors and Goolagong were not allowed to participate in the 1974 French Open due to their associations with WTT.[10][11] Connors' exclusion from the French Open denied him the opportunity to become the first male player since Rod Laver to win all four Major singles titles in a calendar year.




League play resumed in 1981 as TeamTennis with four California teams, expanding to eight teams in 1982. In 1985 a recreational league for non-professionals was added, which was co-branded with the professional league.


In 1992, the current name World TeamTennis was restored.

  • Minnesota Penguins, 1993
  • Idaho Sneakers, 1994–1997
  • New Jersey Stars, 1987–1995 (relocated and became the Delaware Smash)
  • Phoenix Smash, 1992–1994


In 2000 the current logo was adopted. In 2005 & 2006 the league consisted of 12 teams and in 2007 the Hartford FoxForce ceased operations. Prior to the 2008 season, the Houston Wranglers ceased operations and the Washington Kastles joined the league. In the 2009 season, 10 teams competed: Boston, NY Buzz, NY Sportime, Philadelphia, Washington DC, Kansas City, Newport Beach, Sacramento, Springfield, and St. Louis. Sacramento won the year-end Championship six times.

Before the start of the 2011 season the New York Buzz and the New York Sportimes merged into one New York team, the Sportimes.[14] During the 2011 season the Washington Kastles completed a perfect 16–0 schedule, winning their second championship in three seasons.

In 2012, the Washington Kastles completed their second consecutive perfect season, going 16–0 for the second season in a row to become the first professional sports franchise to go two complete seasons without a loss. Their 32-match winning streak is one shy of the major professional sports record of 33 consecutive wins set by the 1971–72 Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association. They began the next season with 2 wins making their streak 34 games, setting the new record.

In 2013, World TeamTennis was renamed Mylan World TeamTennis after Mylan signed a three-year deal as the title sponsor. The Kansas City Explorers relocated to Irving, Texas, and became the Texas Wild. On November 21, 2013, the Orange County Breakers were sold, relocated to Austin, Texas and renamed the Austin Aces.[15] On January 16, 2014, the New York Sportimes were sold, relocated to San Diego and renamed the San Diego Aviators.[16] On February 4, 2014, the Sacramento Capitals were relocated to Las Vegas and renamed the Las Vegas Neon.[17] On March 5, 2014 the Las Vegas Neon franchise was terminated, leaving the league with seven teams.[18]

On February 23, 2015, WTT announced that a new ownership group had taken control of the Texas Wild and moved the team to Citrus Heights, California, renaming it the California Dream.[19]

On January 13, 2016, WTT announced that the California Dream franchise had been terminated.[20] On February 17, 2016, the Boston Lobsters had ceased operations[21] and had been replaced with a new franchise called the New York Empire.[22] On March 13, 2017, Billie Jean King announced the sale of her majority share in WTT to Mark Ein, Washington Kastles founder and owner and Fred Luddy, owner of the San Diego Aviators.[23][24]

In March 2019, the league announced its expansion to eight teams for the 2019 season, with the creation of the Orlando Storm and the Vegas Rollers.[25]


Team City Stadium
New York Empire New York City Cary Leeds Center for Tennis & Learning
Orange County Breakers Newport Beach, California Palisades Tennis Club
Orlando Storm Orlando, Florida USTA National Campus
Philadelphia Freedoms Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Michael J. Hagan Arena
San Diego Aviators Carlsbad, California Omni La Costa Resort and Spa
Springfield Lasers Springfield, Missouri Mediacom Stadium at Cooper Tennis Complex
Vegas Rollers Paradise, Nevada Orleans Arena
Washington Kastles Washington, D.C. Kastles Stadium at Union Market[26]


References: [27][28]

Year Champion Runner-up Score
1974 Denver Racquets Philadelphia Freedoms 55–45
1975 Pittsburgh Triangles San Francisco Golden Gaters 74–65
1976 New York Sets San Francisco Golden Gaters 91–57
1977 New York Apples Phoenix Racquets 55–39
1978 Los Angeles Strings Boston Lobsters 108–93
1979–1980 no tournament
1981 Los Angeles Strings regular season champion, no playoffs
1982 Dallas Stars Phoenix Sunsets 27–22
1983 Chicago Fyre Los Angeles Strings 26–20
1984 San Diego Buds Long Beach Breakers 30–13
1985 San Diego Buds St. Louis Slims 25–24
1986 San Antonio Racquets Sacramento Capitals 25–23
1987 Charlotte Heat San Antonio Racquets 25–20
1988 Charlotte Heat New Jersey Stars 27–22
1989 San Antonio Racquets Sacramento Capitols 27–25
1990 Los Angeles Strings Raleigh Edge 27–16
1991 Atlanta Thunder Los Angeles Strings 27–16
1992 Atlanta Thunder Newport Beach Dukes 30–17
1993 Wichita Advantage Newport Beach Dukes 26–23
1994 New Jersey Stars Idaho Sneakers 28–25
1995 New Jersey Stars Atlanta Thunder 28–20
1996 St. Louis Aces Delaware Smash 27–16
1997 Sacramento Capitals regular season champion, finals rained out
1998 Sacramento Capitals New York OTBzz 30–13
1999 Sacramento Capitals Springfield Lasers 23–15
2000 Sacramento Capitals Delaware Smash 21–20
2001 Philadelphia Freedoms Springfield Lasers 20–18
2002 Sacramento Capitals New York Buzz 21–13
2003 Delaware Smash Sacramento Capitals 21–14
2004 Newport Beach Breakers Delaware Smash 23–17
2005 New York Sportimes Newport Beach Breakers 21–18
2006 Philadelphia Freedoms Newport Beach Breakers 21–14
2007 Sacramento Capitals New York Buzz 24–20
2008 New York Buzz Kansas City Explorers 21–18
2009 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 23–20
2010 Kansas City Explorers New York Sportimes 21–18
2011 Washington Kastles St. Louis Aces 23–19
2012 Washington Kastles Sacramento Capitals 20–19
2013 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 25–12
2014 Washington Kastles Springfield Lasers 25–13
2015 Washington Kastles Austin Aces 24–18
2016 San Diego Aviators Orange County Breakers 25–14[29]
2017 Orange County Breakers San Diego Aviators 22–18[30]
2018 Springfield Lasers Philadelphia Freedoms 19–18[31]
2019 Springfield Lasers New York Empire 20–19[32]

Multiple champions

Team Titles Years
Sacramento Capitals 6 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2007
Washington Kastles 6 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015
Los Angeles Strings 3 1978, 1981, 1990
Atlanta Thunder 2 1991, 1992
Charlotte Heat 2 1987, 1988
New Jersey Stars 2 1994, 1995
Orange County Breakers 2 2004, 2017
Philadelphia Freedoms 2 2001, 2006
San Antonio Racquets 2 1986, 1989
San Diego Buds 2 1984, 1985
Springfield Lasers 2 2018, 2019

See also


Inline citations

  1. ^ McCoy, Adrian "Person of interest: Charles Reichblum (Dr. Knowledge)", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 15, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  2. ^ AP "Plans for Pro Tennis League", The Daily Times, Salisbury, Maryland, October 5, 1972, page 20. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  3. ^ Shrum, Rick "Love Triangles: Pittsburgh adored its World Team Tennis franchise", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 10, 2000. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  4. ^ "World TeamTennis Firsts". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2009-12-17.
  5. ^ "Chrissie Evert in 1976 World Team Tennis All-Stars Match". chrisevertdotnet (Youtube). Retrieved 2012-07-05.
  6. ^ "Steve Dimitry's WTT Web Page". Steve Dimitry. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
  7. ^ King, Billie Jean; Jett, Tyler (July 20, 2012). "Philadelphia Freedom: The Story behind the Song". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved August 30, 2014.
  8. ^ "World TeamTennis and Mylan Announce Three-Year Collaboration". October 16, 2012. Retrieved October 13, 2013.
  9. ^ "Sports People: Tennis – King Wants Navratilova to Finish Year". The New York Times. 1994-07-15.
  10. ^ John Barrett, ed. (1975). World of Tennis '75. London: Queen Anne Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 9780362002171.
  11. ^ "Connors, Goolagong 'Can't Play'". The Palm Beach Post. May 22, 1974.
  12. ^ a b c "Struggling WTT Adds Three New Franchises". The San Bernardino County Sun. December 1, 1978. p. 65.
  13. ^ "WTT:Virginia Wade". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2009-12-17. References both "Sets" and "Apples".
  14. ^ "New York Sportimes to Play Two WTT Matches in Albany This Summer As World Team Tennis' New York Teams Consolidate"
  15. ^ "Mylan World TeamTennis team relocates to Austin; Andy Roddick to star on team"
  16. ^ "Mylan World TeamTennis team headed to San Diego"
  17. ^ "Mylan World TeamTennis team relocates franchise to Las Vegas"
  18. ^ "League Statement on Las Vegas Franchise Termination"
  19. ^ "Mylan World TeamTennis Returns to Sacramento Area in 2015 with California Dream". World TeamTennis. February 23, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
  20. ^ "Sacramento pro tennis team folds". The Sacramento Bee. January 13, 2016.
  21. ^ "WTT Updates Status of Boston Lobsters". OurSportsCentral. February 17, 2016.
  22. ^ "Mylan WTT 2016 Season Includes NYC Return, Expanded Broadcast Coverage". OurSportsCentral. February 17, 2016.
  23. ^ "World TeamTennis co-founder Billie Jean King sells majority stake of historic league to Mark Ein and Fred Luddy". World TeamTennis. March 13, 2017.
  24. ^ Christopher Clarey (March 13, 2017). "With a Racket in One Hand, World Team Tennis Passes a Torch With the Other". The New York Times.
  25. ^ Bill Bradley (March 5, 2019). "Las Vegas gains franchise in World Team Tennis league". Retrieved 2019-03-06.
  26. ^
  27. ^ "WTT History". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  28. ^ "Steve Dimitry's WTT Web Page". source data for 1981-2004. tennis-reference. Archived from the original on 2005-02-22. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
  29. ^ "Mylan World TeamTennis". Archived from the original on 2016-10-31. Retrieved 2016-11-27.
  30. ^ "Breakers Top Aviators 22-18 To Win 2017 Mylan WTT Title". Retrieved 2017-08-06.
  31. ^ "Lasers Claim First WTT Championship In Dramatic Final". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
  32. ^ "Hometown Boy Evan Song of Vegas Helps Springfield Lasers Repeat As Champions". World TeamTennis. Retrieved 2019-08-04.

General references

External links

2008 World TeamTennis season

The 2008 World TeamTennis season was the 33rd season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States.

The New York Buzz defeated the Kansas City Explorers, 21–18, in the WTT Final to win the King Trophy as WTT champions.

2010 World TeamTennis season

The 2010 World TeamTennis season was the 35th season of the top professional tennis league in the United States.

2011 World TeamTennis season

The 2011 World TeamTennis season was the 36th season of the top professional tennis league in the United States. Before the start of the 2011 season, the New York Buzz and the New York Sportimes merged into one New York team, the NY Sportimes.

2012 World TeamTennis season

The 2012 World TeamTennis season is the 37th season of the top professional tennis league in the United States. Before the start of the 2012 season, the St. Louis Aces announced they would not compete this year. The Newport Beach Breakers changed their name to the Orange County Breakers.

2013 World TeamTennis season

The 2013 World TeamTennis season is the 38th season of the top professional tennis league in the United States.

2014 World TeamTennis season

The 2014 World TeamTennis season was the 39th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2014. The Washington Kastles defeated the Springfield Lasers in the WTT Final to win their fourth consecutive King Trophy.

2015 World TeamTennis season

The 2015 World TeamTennis season was the 40th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2015. The Washington Kastles defeated the Austin Aces in the WTT Final to win their fifth consecutive King Trophy.

2016 World TeamTennis season

The 2016 World TeamTennis season was the 41st season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2016.The San Diego Aviators defeated the Orange County Breakers, 25–14 in extended play, in the WTT Finals to win the King Trophy as WTT champions.

2017 World TeamTennis season

The 2017 World TeamTennis season was the 42nd season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States. Pursuant to a sponsorship agreement with Mylan N.V., the official name of the league was Mylan World TeamTennis in 2017.The Orange County Breakers defeated the San Diego Aviators in the WTT Finals to win the King Trophy as WTT champions.

2018 World TeamTennis season

The 2018 World TeamTennis season was the 43rd season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States.

The Springfield Lasers defeated the Philadelphia Freedoms in the WTT Finals to win their first King Trophy as WTT champions.

2019 World TeamTennis season

The 2019 World TeamTennis season was the 44th season of the top professional team tennis league in the United States.

The Springfield Lasers defeated the New York Empire in the WTT Finals to defend the King Trophy as WTT champions.

Kansas City Explorers

The Kansas City Explorers were a World TeamTennis team that played at the Barney Allis Plaza in downtown Kansas City, Missouri, USA. The team also played in Kemper Arena from 1993 until 2001. Following the 2012 season, it was announced that the Explorers would be moving to Irving, Texas and renamed the Texas Wild). The move followed the team's twentieth season in Kansas City.

In 2015, the Wild moved to Citrus Heights, California and was renamed the California Dream.

New York Empire (tennis)

The New York Empire is a World TeamTennis (WTT) team that plays its home matches at the Cary Leeds Center for Tennis & Learning in Bronx, New York City.The team played its inaugural 2016 season at the Forest Hills Stadium in Forest Hills, New York, before moving to Flushing in 2017.

Orange County Breakers

The Orange County Breakers are a World TeamTennis (WTT) franchise founded in 2003, owned by Laguna Beach businessman Eric Davidson. The Breakers won the WTT Championship in 2004 and 2017. In 2014, the franchise moved to Greater Austin, Texas, where it was known as the Austin Aces. On December 14, 2015, the Aces announced that the team would move back to Orange County, California for the 2016 season and be renamed the Orange County Breakers. In 2016, the Breakers played their home matches at Breakers Stadium at the Newport Beach Tennis Club. In 2017, the Breakers returned to playing at the Palisades Tennis Club, the venue where they played from 2003 to 2006.

Philadelphia Freedoms

The Philadelphia Freedoms is a tennis team currently competing in World TeamTennis.

San Diego Aviators

The San Diego Aviators are a World TeamTennis (WTT) team that plays at the Omni La Costa Resort and Spa in Carlsbad, California in the United States of America. The team is the successor to two WTT franchises. The first was created in 1995, as the New York OTBzz, later renamed the Schenectady County Electrics and then the New York Buzz. The second was created in 2000, as the New York Hamptons, later renamed the New York Sportimes. The Aviators, founded in 1995, are the oldest continuously operating franchise in WTT. The team has won the King Trophy as WTT champions three times: once playing as the New York Sportimes in 2005, once as the New York Buzz in 2008, and once as the San Diego Aviators in 2016. As of 2016, the three championships is the second most of any active WTT franchise behind the Washington Kastles, who have won six.

Springfield Lasers

The Springfield Lasers are a World TeamTennis franchise. The franchise was purchased and donated to the city of Springfield, Missouri by the Cooper family in 1996. They play their home matches at Mediacom Stadium at Cooper Tennis Complex.

Sunrise Mall (Citrus Heights, California)

Sunrise Mall is a single-level regional shopping mall located at the intersection of Sunrise Boulevard and Greenback Lane in Citrus Heights, California, United States in the Sacramento metropolitan area. It is one of the area’s largest and most successful enclosed super regional shopping centers. The mall is the centerpiece of the Sunrise MarketPlace shopping district in Citrus Heights. Sunrise Mall is accessible from I-80 or Highway 50 from most locations in the greater Sacramento area.

Vegas Rollers

The Vegas Rollers are a World TeamTennis (WTT) franchise founded in 2019, owned by the league. The team was one of two expansion teams to enter the league in 2019 alongside Orlando Storm. Vegas Rollers will play their home matches at the Orleans Arena in Las Vegas, Nevada. The official Charity is the Marty Hennessy - Inspiring Children Foundation.

Grand Slams
Team tennis
Governing bodies
World TeamTennis (WTT)
Current teams
Former teams
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