World Sportscar Championship

The World Sportscar Championship was the world series run for sports car racing by the FIA from 1953 to 1992.

The championship evolved from a small collection of the most important sportscar, endurance, and road racing events in Europe and North America with dozens of gentleman drivers at the grid, to a professional racing series where the world's largest automakers spent millions of dollars per year. The official name of the series changed throughout the years, however it has generally been known as the World Sportscar Championship from its inception in 1953. The World Sportscar Championship was, with the Formula One World Championship, one of the two major world championships in circuit motor racing.

In 2012 the World Sportscar Championship was revived and renamed as the World Endurance Championship.

World Sportscar Championship
CategorySports car racing
CountryInternational
Inaugural season1953
Folded1992
ClassesMulti class championship
Last Drivers' championFrance Yannick Dalmas
United Kingdom Derek Warwick
Last Teams' championFrance Peugeot Talbot Sport

Races

Among others, the following races counted towards the championships in certain years:

History

1953 to 1961

In the early years, now legendary races such as the Mille Miglia, Carrera Panamericana and Targa Florio were part of the calendar, alongside the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 12 Hours of Sebring, the Tourist Trophy and Nurburgring 1000 km. Manufacturers such as Ferrari, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche, and Aston Martin fielded entries, often featuring professional racing drivers with experience in Formula One, but the majority of the fields were made up of gentleman drivers (privateers) in the likes of Nardis and Bandinis. Cars were split into Sports Car and GT (production car) categories and were further divided into engine displacement classes. The Ferrari and Maserati works teams were fierce competitors throughout much of the decade, but although Maserati cars won many races the make never managed to clinch the World title.[1] The Mercedes-Benz work team pulled out of the championship after 1955 due to their crash at Le Mans, while the small Aston Martin factory team struggled to find success in 1957 and 1958 until it managed to win the championship in 1959. Notably absent from the overall results were the Jaguar works team, who did not enter any events other than Le Mans, despite the potential of the C- and D-Types.

1962 to 1965

In 1962, the calendar was expanded to include smaller races, while the FIA shifted the focus to production based GT cars. The World Sportscar Championship title was discontinued, being replaced by the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. They group cars into three categories with specific engine sizes; less than one litre, less than two litres, and over two litres. Hillclimbs, sprint races and smaller races expanded the championship, which now had about 15 races per season. The famous races like Le Mans still counted towards the prototype championship, however, the points valuation wasn't very tabular so the FIA returned to the original form of the championship with about 6 to 10 races.[2]

For 1963 the three engine capacity classes remained but a prototype category was added. For 1965 the engine classes became for cars under 1300 cc (Class I), under 2000 cc (Class II), and over 2000 cc (Class III). Class III was designed to attract more American manufacturers, with no upper limit on engine displacement.[3]

1966 to 1981

Ferrari 330 P4 1967
Ferrari 330 P4 at "1000 km di Monza", 1967

The period between 1966 and 1971 was possibly the most successful era of the World Championship, with S (5 L sports cars ) and P (3 L prototypes) classes, and cars such as the Ferrari 512S, Ferrari 330 P4, Ford GT40, Lola T70, Chaparral, Alfa Romeo 33, and Porsche's 908, 917 and the Ford GT40 battled for supremacy on classic circuits such as Sebring, Nürburgring, Spa-Francorchamps, Monza, Targa Florio, and Le Mans where the Ford's won 4 years in a row, in what is now considered the Golden Age of sports car racing.

In 1972 the Group 6 Prototype and Group 5 Sports Car classes were both replaced by a new Group 5 Sports Car class. These cars were limited to 3.0 L engines by the FIA, and manufacturers gradually lost interest. The new Group 5 Sports Cars, together with Group 4 Grand Touring Cars, would contest the FIA's newly renamed World Championship for Makes from 1972 to 1975. From 1976 to 1981 the World Championship for Makes was open to Group 5 Special Production Cars and other production based categories including Group 4 Grand Touring cars and it was during this period that the nearly-invincible Porsche 935 dominated the championship. Prototypes returned in 1976 as Group 6 cars with their own series, the World Championship for Sports Cars, but this was to last only for two seasons (1976-1977). In 1981, the FIA instituted a drivers championship.

1982 to 1992

In 1982, the FIA attempted to counter a worrying climb in engine output of the Group 5 Special Production Cars by introducing Group C, a new category for closed sports-prototypes (purpose built racing cars) that limited fuel consumption (the theory being that by limiting fuel consumption, engine regulations could be more relaxed). While this change was unwelcome amongst some of the private teams, manufacturer support for the new regulations was immense. Several of the 'old guard' manufacturers returned to the WSC within the next two years, with each marque adding to the diversity of the series. Under the new rules, it was theoretically possible for normally aspirated engines to compete with the (expensive to maintain) forced induction engines that had dominated the series in the '70s and early '80s. In addition, most races ran for either 500 or 1000 km, usually going over three and six hours, respectively, so it was possible to emphasize the "endurance" aspect of the competition as well. Group B cars, which was a GT class, were also allowed to race, but entries in this class were sparse, and Group B cars disappeared from the series, with sports-prototypes dominating the championship.

956 Rothmans 2
A works Rothmans Porsche 956 at Silverstone

Porsche was the first constructor to join the series, with the 956, but soon several other makes joined the series, including Jaguar Cars, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Toyota, Mazda and Aston Martin. As costs increased, a C2 class (originally named C Junior) was created for privateer teams and small manufacturers, with greater limits to fuel consumption. In this lower class, most cars used either the BMW M1 engine or the new Cosworth DFL, but, like in the main class, a variety of solutions were employed by each individual manufacturer. Alba, Tiga, Spice and Ecurie Ecosse were among the most competitive in this class. While the Group C formula had brought manufacturers back to the sport, it was again Porsche - with its 956 & 962 Group C line - that continued their domination of the sport.

For 1986, the World Endurance Championship became the World Sports-Prototype Championship.

Although the Group C formula was a success, with regular crowds of 50,000 to 70,000 at WSC events (a modern Grand Prix in Europe will have similar crowds), and upwards of 350,000 at the 24 hours of Le Mans, the FIA introduced new rules for 1991 at the behest of FIA vice president Bernie Ecclestone; 750 kg machines with contemporary normally aspirated engines, which were purpose-built 3500cc racing units. The new classification, known as Group C Category 1, was designed to mandate Formula One engines. Although power was generally less than existing Group C cars (around 650 bhp compared to around 750 bhp upwards) the new cars are considered to be among the quickest sportscars ever. However, the take up of these new regulations was slow and only a handful of Category 1 cars were ready for the 1991 season. Consequently, the FIA also allowed cars complying with pre-1991 Group C rules to contest the championship (as Group C Category 2 cars) during the one transitional year. They were however seriously handicapped in terms of weight, fuel allocation and grid positions. For 1991 the championship took on yet another new name, the FIA Sportscar World Championship and the new 3.5 litre rules took full effect for the 1992 championship with the old Group C cars no longer included.

1993 demise

The new generation of WSC racing engines, with the stated intent of cost reduction and improved competition, quickly proved highly suspect. Costs rose massively as works teams developed cars capable of qualifying around halfway up a Formula 1 grid, despite weighing some 200 kg more. Manufacturers again abandoned the sportscar series, realising they now had an engine suitable for F1. In particular, Mercedes and Peugeot elected to either concentrate on or move solely to F1. The more exotic engines were unaffordable for teams like Spice and ADA, thus after the manufacturers left the top class of sportscar racing, the series essentially collapsed. A lack of entries meant the 1993 season was cancelled before the first race.

In 1994, the World Sportscar title would return, this time in the hands of the International Motor Sports Association in North America for use in the IMSA GT series. The name would be used for the series' top class of prototypes until 1998 when the series ended.

In addition, 1994 also signaled the return of an international GT series after an absence of over a decade with the introduction of the BPR Global GT Series. The success of the series lead to a friendly takeover by the FIA in 1997, becoming the FIA GT Championship. Prototypes were mainly absent from European tracks (Le Mans being the sole notable exception) until 1997, which saw with the creation of the International Sports Racing Series which evolved into the short-lived FIA Sportscar Championship in 2001 until 2003. Sports prototypes then came exclusively under the control of the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO) and their sanctioned series, the American Le Mans Series in North America and the Le Mans Series in Europe. The FIA's championship for GTs was eventually promoted to world championship status in 2010, while the ACO launched their own international championship, the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup, the same year.

2012 return

Following the success of the ACO's Intercontinental Le Mans Cup (ILMC), the FIA reached an agreement with the ACO to create a new FIA World Endurance Championship for 2012. The series shares many elements of the ILMC, including the use of the 24 Hours of Le Mans as part of the series schedule. The series continues to utilize the ACO's two primary classes, Le Mans Prototypes and GT Endurance. Championship titles are awarded for constructors and drivers in prototypes, while a constructors cup are awarded in the GTE categories.[4][5]

Championship winners

Year Title Winning manufacturer
(1953 - 1984)
Winning team
(1985 - 1992)
Winning driver(s)
(1981 - 1992)
1953 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1954 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1955 World Championship for Sports Cars West Germany Mercedes-Benz - -
1956 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1957 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1958 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1959 World Championship for Sports Cars United Kingdom Aston Martin - -
1960 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1961 World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Ferrari - -
1962 International Championship for GT Manufacturers Italy Ferrari (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Fiat-Abarth (1.0)
- -
1963 International Championship for GT Manufacturers Italy Ferrari (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Fiat-Abarth (1.0)
- -
International GT Prototypes Trophy Italy Ferrari - -
1964 International Championship for GT Manufacturers Italy Ferrari (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Abarth-Simca (1.0)
- -
International GT Prototypes Trophy West Germany Porsche - -
1965 International Championship for GT Manufacturers United States Shelby (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Abarth-Simca (1.3)
- -
International GT Prototypes Trophy Italy Ferrari - -
1966 International Championship for Sports-Prototypes United States Ford (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
- -
International Championship for Sports Cars United States Ford (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Abarth (1.3)
- -
1967 International Championship for Sports-Prototypes Italy Ferrari (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
- -
International Championship for Sports Cars United States Ford (+2.0)
West Germany Porsche (2.0)
Italy Abarth (1.3)
- -
1968 International Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
United States Ford
West Germany Porsche
- -
1969 International Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
West Germany Porsche
West Germany Porsche
- -
1970 International Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
West Germany Porsche
West Germany Porsche
- -
1971 International Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
West Germany Porsche
West Germany Porsche
- -
1972 World Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
Italy Ferrari
West Germany Porsche
- -
1973 World Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
France Matra
West Germany Porsche
- -
1974 World Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
France Matra
West Germany Porsche
- -
1975 World Championship for Makes
International Cup for GT Cars
Italy Alfa Romeo
West Germany Porsche
- -
1976 World Championship for Makes West Germany Porsche - -
World Championship for Sports Cars West Germany Porsche - -
1977 World Championship for Makes West Germany Porsche - -
World Championship for Sports Cars Italy Alfa Romeo - -
1978 World Championship for Makes West Germany Porsche - -
1979 World Championship for Makes West Germany Porsche - -
1980 World Championship for Makes Italy Lancia - -
1981 World Endurance Championship Italy Lancia - United States Bob Garretson
1982 World Endurance Championship West Germany Porsche - Belgium Jacky Ickx
1983 World Endurance Championship West Germany Porsche (C)
Italy Alba-Giannini (C Jnr)
West Germany Porsche (B)
- Belgium Jacky Ickx
1984 World Endurance Championship West Germany Porsche (C)
Italy Alba-Giannini (C Jnr)
West Germany BMW (B)
- West Germany Stefan Bellof
1985 World Endurance Championship - West Germany Rothmans Porsche (C)
United Kingdom Spice Engineering (C2)
United Kingdom Derek Bell (C)
West Germany Hans-Joachim Stuck (C)
United Kingdom Gordon Spice (C2)
United Kingdom Ray Bellm (C2)
1986 World Sports Prototype Championship - Switzerland Brun Motorsport (C)
United Kingdom Ecurie Ecosse (C2)
United Kingdom Derek Bell (C)
Spain Jesús Pareja (C2)
France Joel Goughier (C2)
1987 World Sports Prototype Championship - United Kingdom Silk Cut Jaguar (C)
United Kingdom Spice Engineering (C2)
Brazil Raul Boesel (C)
United Kingdom Gordon Spice (C2)
Spain Fermin Velez (C2)
1988 World Sports Prototype Championship - United Kingdom Silk Cut Jaguar (C)
United Kingdom Spice Engineering (C2)
United Kingdom Martin Brundle (C)
United Kingdom Gordon Spice (C2)
United Kingdom Ray Bellm (C2)
1989 World Sports Prototype Championship - West Germany Team Sauber Mercedes (C)
United Kingdom Chamberlain Engineering (C2)
France Jean-Louis Schlesser (C)
United Kingdom Nick Adams (C2)
Spain Fermin Velez
1990 World Sports Prototype Championship - Germany Team Sauber Mercedes France Jean-Louis Schlesser
Italy Mauro Baldi
1991 World Sports Car Championship - United Kingdom Silk Cut Jaguar Italy Teo Fabi
1992 World Sports Car Championship - France Peugeot Talbot Sport (C1)
United Kingdom Chamberlain Engineering (Cup)
United Kingdom Derek Warwick (C1)
France Yannick Dalmas (C1)
France Ferdinand de Lesseps (Cup)

See also

References

  1. ^ Ludvigsen, Karl (2008). Red Hot Rivals: Epic Clashes for Supremacy. Haynes Publishing.
  2. ^ Krejci, Martin. "World Sportscar Championship". World Sports Racing Prototypes. Archived from the original on February 21, 2015.
  3. ^ Rogliatti, Gianni (1965), Logoz, Arthur (ed.), "The G.T. manufacturers championship", Auto-Universum 1966 (English edition), Zürich, Switzerland: Verlag International Automobile Parade, IX: 45
  4. ^ "2012 FIA World Endurance Championship". fia.com. Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 2011-06-03. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
  5. ^ "World Motor Sport Council". fia.com. Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. 2011-06-03. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-04.
  • Wimpffen, Janos (1999). Time and Two Seats. David Bull publishing. ISBN 0-9672252-0-5.
  • Ludvigsen, Karl (2008). Red Hot Rivals: Epic Clashes for Supremacy. Haynes Publishing.

External links

12 Hours of Sebring

The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida. The event is the second round of the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship and in the past has been a round of the now defunct World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series. In 2012, the race was the opening event of the FIA World Endurance Championship.

1955 World Sportscar Championship

The 1955 World Sportscar Championship season was the third season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured a series of six endurance races for sportscars, contested from 23 January to 16 October 1954.

The championship was won by Mercedes-Benz, the German manufacturer ending the dominance of Ferrari which had won both of the previous World Sportscar Championship titles.

1959 World Sportscar Championship

The 1959 World Sportscar Championship was the seventh FIA World Sportscar Championship. It was a series for sportscars that ran in many worldwide endurance events. It ran from 21 March 1959 to 5 September 1959, and comprised five races, following the 1000 km Buenos Aires being removed from the calendar, although the race did return in 1960.

The championship was won by Aston Martin.

1960 World Sportscar Championship

The 1960 World Sportscar Championship season was the eighth season of the FIA World Sportscar Championship. It was a series for sportscars that ran in many worldwide endurance events. It ran from 31 January 1960 to 26 June 1960, and comprised five races. The 1000 km Buenos Aires returned to the calendar at the expense of the RAC Tourist Trophy, which formed part of the inaugural FIA GT Cup.

1965 World Sportscar Championship

The 1965 World Sportscar Championship season was the 13th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship racing. It featured the 1965 International Championship for GT Manufacturers and the 1965 International Trophy for GT Prototypes. The season ran from 28 February 1965 to 19 September 1965 and comprised 20 races.

The International Championship for GT Manufacturers was contested by Grand Touring Cars in three engine capacity divisions. The Over 2000cc division was won by Shelby ahead of Ferrari, while Porsche prevailed in the 2000cc division and Abarth-Simca took the 1300cc division. The International Trophy for GT Prototypes was won by Ferrari, ahead of Porsche and Ford.

1967 World Sportscar Championship

The 1967 World Sportscar Championship season were the 15th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship racing. It featured the International Championship for Sports-Prototypes and the International Championship for Sports Cars. The former was open to Group 6 Sports-Prototypes and the latter to Group 4 Sports Cars. The season ran from 4 February 1967 to 3 September 1967 and comprised 14 races in total.

This was the last championship season to include a hill climb event, due to safety concerns. Also, growing speed at Le Mans caused a controversial CSI decision to limit the engine capacity of Group 6 Sports-Prototypes to 3 litres, beginning in 1968.

1969 World Sportscar Championship

The 1969 World Sportscar Championship season was the 17th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured the 1969 International Championship for Makes, which was a series for FIA Group 6 Prototype Sports Cars, Group 4 Sports Cars and Group 3 Grand Touring Cars and the 1969 International Cup for GT Cars, which was restricted to Group 3 Grand Touring Cars. The season ran from 1 February 1969 to 10 August 1969 and comprised 10 races.

Porsche won both the International Championship for Makes and the International Cup for GT Cars.

1970 World Sportscar Championship

The 1970 World Sportscar Championship season was the 18th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured the 1970 International Championship for Makes and the 1970 International Cup for GT Cars, which were contested concurrently from 31 January to 11 October over a ten race series. The International Championship for Makes, which was open to Group 6 Sports-Prototypes, Group 5 Sports Cars and Group 4 Special GT Cars, was won by German manufacturer Porsche. The International Cup for GT Cars was also won by Porsche.

1972 World Sportscar Championship

The 1972 World Championship for Makes and International Grand Touring Trophy seasons were the 20th season of the FIA World Sportscar Championship. It was a series for FIA Group 5 Sports Cars and FIA Group 4 Grand Touring Cars. It ran from 9 January 1972 to 22 July 1972, and was composed of 11 races.

1981 World Sportscar Championship

The 1981 World Sportscar Championship season was the 29th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured the 1981 FIA World Endurance Championship which was contested over a fifteen race series which ran from 31 January to 27 September. The former World Challenge for Endurance Drivers was renamed to the World Endurance Championship of Drivers for 1981 and the World Championship of Makes was renamed to the World Endurance Championship of Makes. Bob Garretson won the World Endurance Championship of Drivers and Lancia was awarded the World Endurance Championship of Makes.

1982 World Sportscar Championship

The 1982 World Sportscar Championship season was the 30th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship racing. It featured the 1982 World Endurance Championship for Drivers, which was contested over an eight round series, and the 1982 World Endurance Championship for Manufacturers, which was contested concurrently with the first five rounds of the Drivers Championship. The Drivers’ title was open to Group C Sports Cars, Group B GT Cars, Group 6 Two-Seater Racing Cars, Group 5 Special Production Cars, Group 4 GT Cars, Group 3 GT Cars, Group 2 Touring Cars and IMSA GTX, GTO and GTU cars. The Manufacturers title was limited to Group C Sports Cars and Group B GT Cars only. The series ran from 18 April 1982 to 17 October 1982.

1984 World Sportscar Championship

The 1984 World Sportscar Championship season was the 32nd season of FIA "World Sportscar Championship" motor racing. It featured the 1984 FIA World Endurance Championship, which was open to FIA Group C1, Group C2 and Group B cars and to IMSA GTP, GTX, GTO and GTU cars. The championship was contested over an eleven race series which ran from 23 April to 2 December 1984.The World Endurance Championship for Drivers was won by Stefan Bellof, the World Endurance Championship for Manufacturers by Porsche, the Group C2 Prototype FIA Cup by Alba Giannini, and the FIA Grand Touring Cup by BMW.

1988 World Sportscar Championship

The 1988 World Sportscar Championship season was the 36th season of FIA World Sportscar Championship motor racing. It featured the 1988 FIA World Sports Prototype Championship which was open to FIA Group C and Group C2 cars and to IMSA GTP, GTX, GTO and GTU cars. The championship was contested over an eleven race series which ran from 6 March to 20 November 1988.

Martin Brundle was awarded the World Sports Prototype Championship for Drivers, Gordon Spice and Ray Bellm jointly won the FIA Cup for Group C2 Drivers, Silk Cut Jaguar was awarded the World Sports Prototype Championship for Teams and Spice Engineering won the FIA Cup for Group C2 Teams.

6 Hours of Watkins Glen

The Six Hours of Watkins Glen (currently sponsored as the Sahlen's Six Hours of The Glen) is a sports car endurance race held annually at Watkins Glen International in Watkins Glen, New York. The race dates from 1948, and has been a part of the SCCA National Sports Car Championship, United States Road Racing Championship, World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship, Rolex Sports Car Series and currently the United SportsCar Championship.

Bob Garretson

Bob Garretson (born April 8, 1933) was an American racing driver.

Garretson was the owner-driver of a Porsche 935 sports car team named Garretson Developments in the early 1980s that competed part-time in both the World Sportscar Championship and IMSA GT Championship. In 1981 along with veteran Brian Redman and Bobby Rahal Garretson won the 24 Hours of Daytona. Despite not winning another race that season, Garretson won the 1981 World Endurance Championship for Drivers title. He sold the team and retired from racing shortly thereafter.

Frank Jelinski

Frank Jelinski (born 23 May 1958 in Bad Münder am Deister) is a retired German racing driver.

Jürgen Lässig

Jürgen Lässig (born February 25, 1943 in Tuttlingen) is a German former racing driver.

Lässig began competing in endurance sports car racing, often World Sportscar Championship races in the early 1980s for Obermaier Racing and drove in several 24 Hours of Le Mans races. He and the Kremer Racing team were the winners of the 1995 24 Hours of Daytona. He retired after the 1997 24 Hours of Le Mans driving for Kremer.

Maserati in motorsport

Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants.

Volkert Merl

Volkert Merl (born 10 February 1940) is a retired German racing driver.

Merl primarily competed for Joest Racing throughout his career in the early 1980s competing in the World Sportscar Championship and Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft (DRM). He won the 1980 24 Hours of Daytona with Rolf Stommelen and Reinhold Joest in a Porsche 935 and placed second in 1983 DRM championship points in a Porsche 956. That same year, he also finished 4th in the 24 Hours of Le Mans.

World Sportscar Championship seasons
World Sportscar Championship circuits (1953–1992)
Africa
Asia
Australia
Europe
North America
South America
Hillclimbs

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