The World Heritage Committee is a committee which selects the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger, monitors the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It is composed of 21 states parties that are elected by the General Assembly of States Parties for a four-year term.
According to the World Heritage Convention, a committee member's term of office is six years, however many State's Parties choose to voluntarily limit their term to four years, in order to give other States Parties an opportunity to serve. All members elected at the 15th General Assembly (2005) voluntarily chose to reduce their term of office from six to four years.
The World Heritage Committee meets once a year to discuss the management of existing World Heritage sites, and accept nominations by countries.
|1||1977||27 June–1 July||Paris|
|2||1978||5 September–8 September||Washington, D.C.|
|3||1979||22 October–26 October||Cairo & Luxor|
|4||1980||1 September–5 September||Paris|
|5||1981||26 October–30 October||Sydney|
|6||1982||13 December–17 December||Paris|
|7||1983||5 December–9 December||Florence|
|8||1984||29 October–2 November||Buenos Aires|
|9||1985||2 December–6 December||Paris|
|10||1986||24 November–28 November||Paris|
|11||1987||7 December–11 December||Paris|
|12||1988||5 December–9 December||Brasília|
|13||1989||11 December–15 December||Paris|
|14||1990||7 December–12 December||Banff|
|15||1991||9 December–13 December||Carthage|
|16||1992||7 December–14 December||Santa Fe|
|17||1993||6 December–11 December||Cartagena|
|18||1994||12 December–17 December||Phuket|
|19||1995||4 December–9 December||Berlin|
|20||1996||2 December–7 December||Mérida|
|21||1997||1 December–6 December||Naples|
|22||1998||30 November–5 December||Kyoto|
|23||1999||29 November–4 December||Marrakech|
|24||2000||27 November–2 December||Cairns|
|25||2001||11 December–16 December||Helsinki|
|26||2002||24 June–29 June||Budapest|
|27||2003||30 June–5 July||Paris|
|28||2004||28 June–7 July||Suzhou|
|29||2005||10 July–17 July||Durban|
|30||2006||8 July–16 July||Vilnius|
|31||2007||23 June–1 July||Christchurch|
|32||2008||2 July–10 July||Quebec City|
|33||2009||22 June–30 June||Seville|
|34||2010||25 July–3 August||Brasília|
|35||2011||19 June–29 June||Paris|
|36||2012||25 June–5 July||Saint Petersburg|
|37||2013||17 June–27 June||Phnom Penh|
|38||2014||15 June–25 June||Doha|
|39||2015||28 June–8 July||Bonn|
|40||2016||10 July–20 July||Istanbul|
|41||2017||2 July–12 July||Kraków|
|42||2018||24 June–4 July||Manama|
|43||2019||30 June–10 July||Baku|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2017–2021|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||2017–2021|
Anamudi Shola National Park (Malayalam : ആനമുടി ഷോല ദേശീയ ഉദ്യാനം) is a protected area located along the Western Ghats in Idukki District, Kerala state, South India. It is composed of Mannavan shola, Idivara shola and Pullardi shola, covering a total area of around 7.5 km². Draft notification of this new park was released on Nov 21, 2003.The park is administered by Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Pambadum Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary.
The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Eravikulam National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.Bolghar
Bolghar (Tatar: Болгар, Chuvash: Пăлхар) was intermittently capital of Volga Bulgaria from the 8th to the 15th centuries, along with Bilyar and Nur-Suvar. It was situated on the bank of the Volga River, about 30 km downstream from its confluence with the Kama River and some 130 km from modern Kazan in what is now Spassky District. West of it lies a small modern town, since 1991 known as Bolgar. The UNESCO World Heritage Committee declared ancient Bolghar hill fort as a World Heritage Site in 2014.Central Highlands of Sri Lanka
Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is a recognised world Heritage Site in Sri Lanka. On 31 July 2010, the World Heritage Committee holding its 34th session in Brasília inscribed Central Highlands of Sri Lanka and Papahānaumokuākea of Hawaii as new World Heritage Sites. The site comprises the Peak Wilderness Protected Area, the Horton Plains National Park and the Knuckles Conservation Forest. These are rain forests, where the elevation reaches 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) above sea level. The region harbors a variety of mammal species including the bear monkey, Trachypithecus vetulus monticola, (a subspecies of purple-faced langur) and the Horton Plains slender loris, Loris tardigradus nycticeboides, (a subspecies of red slender loris).This is the first Sri Lankan World Heritage site to be designated in 22 years, since the Sinharaja Forest Reserve was enlisted in 1988. Originally submitted for inscription as a mixed cultural and natural site, the Committee recognized only the natural values of the site.Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape
The Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape is a World Heritage site which includes select mining landscapes in Cornwall and West Devon in the south west of England. The site was added to the World Heritage List during the 30th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Vilnius, July 2006. Following plans in 2011 to restart mining at South Crofty, and to build a supermarket at Hayle Harbour, the World Heritage Committee drafted a decision in 2014 to put the site on the List of World Heritage in Danger, but this was rejected at the 38th Committee Session at Doha, Qatar (July 2014), in favour of a follow-up Reactive Monitoring Mission.Cultural landscape
A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man".
"a landscape designed and created intentionally by man"
an "organically evolved landscape" which may be a "relict (or fossil) landscape" or a "continuing landscape"
an "associative cultural landscape" which may be valued because of the "religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element."Dresden Elbe Valley
The Dresden Elbe Valley is a cultural landscape and former World Heritage Site stretching along the Elbe river in Dresden, the state capital of Saxony, Germany. The valley, extending for some 20 kilometres (12 mi) and passing through the Dresden Basin, is one of two major cultural landscapes built up over the centuries along the Central European river Elbe, along with the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm downstream.
With respect to its scenic and architectural values, including the Dresden urban area as well as natural river banks and slopes, the Elbe Valley was entered on the World Heritage Site list of the UNESCO in 2004. However, in July 2006 it was designated a World Heritage in Danger and finally delisted in June 2009, in the course of the construction of the Waldschlösschen Bridge river crossing.Former UNESCO World Heritage Sites
The designation of World Heritage Site is a highly prestigious affair. Such a designation bestows not only honor but also has economic implications as it enhances tourism. World Heritage Sites may lose their designation when the UNESCO World Heritage Committee determines that the designated site is not properly managed or protected. First, however, the committee would place a site it is concerned about on its list of World Heritage in Danger of losing their designation and attempt to negotiate with the local authorities to remedy the situation. If remediation fails, the committee then revokes its designation. Two sites have been delisted by the committee: the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary in Oman and the Dresden Elbe Valley in Germany.List of World Heritage Sites in Italy
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Italy ratified the convention on June 23, 1978, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2018, Italy has a total of 54 inscribed properties, making it the state party with the most World Heritage sites.Sites in Italy were first inscribed on the list at the 3rd Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairo and Luxor, Egypt in 1979. At that session, one site was added: the "Rock Drawings in Valcamonica". A total of 25 (approximately half), of all Italian sites were added during the 1990s (where it was a member of the World Heritage Committee for the entire decade) with 10 sites added at the 21st session held in Naples, Italy in 1997. Italy has served as a member of the World Heritage Committee four times, specifically, 1978-1985 (8 years), 1987-1993 (7 years), 1993-1999 (7 years), and 1999-2001 (3 years).Out of Italy's 54 heritage sites, five are shared with other countries: "Monte San Giorgio" and "Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes" with Switzerland; "Historic Centre of Rome" with the Vatican; "Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps" with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia and Switzerland; and "Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar with Croatia and Montenegro. Five World Heritage Sites in Italy are of the natural type, all others are cultural sites (49). Therefore, Italy has the largest number of world "cultural" heritage sites followed by Spain with 41 cultural sites.List of World Heritage Sites in Northern and Central Asia
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 19 World Heritage Sites in six countries (also called "state parties") of Central and North Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the Asian part of Russia. The European part of Russia is included in Eastern Europe.Russia is home to the most inscribed sites with 8 sites, two of which are transborder properties shared with Mongolia in Eastern Asia. The first site from the region was the Itchan Kala in Uzbekistan inscribed in 1990. Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x). Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Northern and Central Asia, there are 11 cultural, 8 natural, and no mixed sites. All of the Russian sites (7) are natural and with the exception of Sayarka, all of the sites in Central Asia are cultural.The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." None of the sites in this region has ever been listed as endangered, but possible danger listing has been considered by UNESCO in a number of cases.List of World Heritage Sites in Norway
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. The Kingdom of Norway accepted the convention on 12 May 1977, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2017, there are eight World Heritage Sites in Norway, including seven cultural sites and one natural site.Norway's first two sites, Urnes Stave Church and Bryggen, were inscribed on the list at the 3rd session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cairo and Luxor, Egypt in 1979. The latest inscription, Rjukan–Notodden Industrial Heritage Site, was added to the list in 2015.In addition to its World Heritage Sites, Norway also maintains five properties on its tentative list.List of World Heritage Sites in Oceania
A World Heritage Site is a location that is listed by UNESCO as having outstanding cultural or natural value to the common heritage of humanity. The World Heritage Committee has designated 32 World Heritage Sites in Oceania. These are in 11 countries, with the majority of sites being located in Australia. The first three inscriptions from the region, the Great Barrier Reef, Kakadu National Park and the Willandra Lakes, were in 1981—three years after the list's creation. The region contains the world's three largest sites: Phoenix Islands Protected Area, Papahānaumokuākea and the Great Barrier Reef. In addition, the Tasmanian Wilderness is one of only two sites that meet seven out of the ten criteria for World Heritage listing (Mount Tai in China being the other).
Each year, the World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x). Some sites, designated "mixed sites", represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Oceania there are 7 cultural, 19 natural and 5 mixed sites. UNESCO may also specify that a site is in danger, stating "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." In 2013, the Committee added East Rennell to the List of World Heritage in Danger because of the threat of logging activities to the site's outstanding universal value.List of World Heritage Sites in Southern Asia
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 60 World Heritage Sites in six countries (also called "state parties") of Southern Asia: Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. Bhutan and Maldives, which are also located within the region, do not have any World Heritage Sites.In this region, India is home to the most inscribed sites (sixth globaly) with 37 sites. Besides India, the first sites from the Country Nepal were the Sagarmatha National Park and Kathmandu Valley. Nepal has a total of four sites. Sri Lanka has eight sites and Bangladesh has three sites. Pakistan has six sites. Two sites are located in Afghanistan, both of which are enlisted as endangered. Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list or delist sites that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x). Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Southern Asia, there are 46 cultural, 12 natural, and 1 mixed site.The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." Two sites in this region are currently listed as endangered.List of World Heritage in Danger
The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention, which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested". The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures. Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.
In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties. In the case of cultural sites, gradual changes due to geology, climate or environment can also be potential dangers.Before a property is inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, its condition is assessed and a potential programme for corrective measures is developed in cooperation with the State Party involved. The final decision about inscription is made by the committee. Financial support from the World Heritage Fund may be allocated by the committee for listed properties. The state of conservation is reviewed on a yearly basis, after which the committee may request additional measures, delete the property from the list if the threats have ceased or consider deletion from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List. Of the two Former UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Dresden Elbe Valley was delisted after placement on the List of World Heritage in Danger while the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was directly delisted. As of 2017, there are 54 entries (17 natural, 37 cultural) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Some sites have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year, such as the Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. Arranged by the UNESCO regions 22 of the listed sites are located in the Arab States (of which 7 are located in Syria and 5 in Libya), 15 in Africa (of which 5 are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 7 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 6 in Asia and the Pacific, and 4 in Europe and North America (all by 2017). The majority of the endangered natural sites (11) are located in Africa.In some cases, danger listing has sparked conservation efforts and prompted the release of funds, resulting in a positive development for sites such as the Galápagos Islands and Yellowstone National Park, both of which have subsequently been removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Despite this, the list itself and UNESCO's implementation of it have been the focus of criticism. In particular, States Parties and other stakeholders of World Heritage Sites have questioned the authority of the Committee to declare a site in danger without their consent. Until 1992, when UNESCO set a precedent by placing several sites on the danger list against their wishes, States Parties would have submitted a programme of corrective measures before a site could be listed. Instead of being used as intended, the List of World Heritage in Danger is perceived by some states as a black list and according to Christina Cameron, Professor at the School of Architecture, Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage, University of Montreal, has been used as political tool to get the attention of States Parties. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that UNESCO has referenced the List of World Heritage in Danger (without actually listing the site) in a number of cases where the threat could be easily addressed by the State Party. The Union also argues that keeping a site listed as endangered over a long period is questionable and that other mechanisms for conservation should be sought in these cases.List of World Heritage sites in Hungary
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Hungary accepted the convention on July 15, 1985, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list.Sites in Hungary were first inscribed on the list at the 11th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Paris, France in 1987. At that session, two sites were added: "Budapest, the Banks of the Danube with the district of Buda Castle" and "Hollókő". The names of these and other Hungarian sites were changed to their present names at the 27th session of the Committee in 2003. Sites were added one at a time in the years 1995, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. As of July 2014, Hungary has 8 total sites inscribed on the list. Of these two sites are shared with other countries: "Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape" with Austria; and the "Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst" with Slovakia. The latter is also the only natural site in Hungary.List of World Heritage sites in Madagascar
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention. The sites of natural and cultural heritage in Madagascar became eligible for inclusion on the list when that state ratified the convention on July 19, 1983.The first site in Madagascar, the Strict Nature Reserve of the Tsingy of Bemaraha, was inscribed on the list as a site of natural importance at the 14th Session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Banff, Canada in 1990. This was followed by the 2001 inscription of the Royal Hill of Ambohimanga, a historic village and royal palace compound of cultural importance featuring well-preserved 19th-century palaces and numerous other natural and architectural features of historic, political and spiritual significance to the Malagasy people. Most recently, in 2007 the natural site of the Rainforests of the Atsinanana was added to the list, comprising a cluster of six national parks distinguished by their highly endemic biodiversity. A fourth site, the capital of the 19th century Merina sovereigns of Madagascar at the Rova of Antananarivo, had originally been slated to become the nation's first cultural World Heritage site in 1995 but was destroyed by a fire shortly before the inscription was finalized.In addition to Madagascar's three established sites, a further seven sites are listed as tentative and are under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for elevation to official status. Five initial sites were inscribed on the tentative list in 1997: the Betafo Riziculture and Hydraulic Landscape, the Royal Compound of Tsinjoarivo), the Mahafaly Country of Southwestern Madagascar, the Cliff and Caves of Isandra, and Antongona. In 2008, two additional sites were added to the list: Anjanaharibe-Sud Special Reserve (an extension of the Rainforests of the Atsinanana) and the Dry Forests of the Andrefana.UNESCO placed the Rainforests of the Atsinanana on the list of World Heritage in Danger on July 30, 2010 following an increase in illegal logging in the parks since 2009 as a consequence of the 2009-2013 political crisis in Madagascar.Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park
Manovo-Gounda St. Floris National Park is a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Central African Republic prefecture Bamingui-Bangoran, near the Chad border. It was inscribed to the list of World Heritage Sites in 1988 as a result of the diversity of life present within it. Notable species include black rhinoceroses, elephants, Sudan cheetahs, leopards, red-fronted gazelles, and buffalo, giraffes, lions; a wide range of waterfowl species also occurs in the northern floodplains. The site is under threat due to its rare wildlife dying and animals species being wiped out. The western black rhinoceros that was indigenous to the Central African Republic has gone extinct in 2011. The site was added to the List of World Heritage in Danger after reports of illegal grazing and poaching by heavily armed hunters, who may have harvested as much as 80% of the park's wildlife. The shooting of four members of the park staff in early 1997 and a general state of deteriorating security brought all development projects and tourism to a halt. The government of the Central African Republic proposed to assign site management responsibility to a private foundation. The preparation of a detailed state of conservation report and rehabilitation plan for the site was recommended by the World Heritage Committee at its 1998 session. People are working on breeding programs to revive the natural wildlife.Pampadum Shola National Park
Pampadum Shola National Park is the smallest national park in Kerala state, South India. The park is administered by the Kerala Department of Forests and Wildlife, Munnar Wildlife Division, together with the nearby Mathikettan Shola National Park, Eravikulam National Park, Anamudi Shola National Park, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kurinjimala Sanctuary. The park adjoins the Allinagaram Reserved Forest within the proposed Palani Hills Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park.It is a part of Palani hills stretched up to Vandaravu peak.The Westerns Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including these parks, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.Ranthambore Fort
Ranthambore Fort lies within the Ranthambore National Park, near the town of Sawai Madhopur, the park being the former hunting grounds of the Maharajahs of Jaipur until the time of India's Independence. It is a formidable fort having been a focal point of the historical developments of Rajasthan. The fort was held by the Chahamanas (Chauhans) until the 13th century, when the Delhi Sultanate captured it.
In 2013, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee, Ranthambore Fort, along with 5 other forts of Rajasthan, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan.World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity.
To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area). It may signify a remarkable accomplishment of humanity, and serve as evidence of our intellectual history on the planet.The sites are intended for practical conservation for posterity, which otherwise would be subject to risk from human or animal trespassing, unmonitored/uncontrolled/unrestricted access, or threat from local administrative negligence. Sites are demarcated by UNESCO as protected zones. The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Program administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 states parties which are elected by their General Assembly.The programme catalogues, names, and conserves sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common culture and heritage of humanity. Under certain conditions, listed sites can obtain funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program began with the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World's Cultural and Natural Heritage, which was adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since then, 193 state parties have ratified the convention, making it one of the most widely recognized international agreements and the world's most popular cultural program.
As of July 2018, a total of 1,092 World Heritage Sites (845 cultural, 209 natural, and 38 mixed properties) exist across 167 countries. Italy, with 54 sites, has the most of any country, followed by China (53), Spain (47), France (44), Germany (44), India (37), and Mexico (35).