The World Food Programme[a] (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security. According to the WFP, it provides food assistance to an average of 91.4 million people in 83 countries each year. From its headquarters in Rome and from more than 80 country offices around the world, the WFP works to help people who cannot produce or obtain enough food for themselves and their families. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its executive committee.
|World Food Programme|
|Formation||19 December 1961|
|Type||Intergovernmental organization, Regulatory body, Advisory board|
|United Nations General Assembly|
|United Nations portal|
WFP was first established in 1961 after the 1960 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Conference, when George McGovern, director of the US Food for Peace Programmes, proposed establishing a multilateral food aid programme. The WFP was formally established in 1963 by the FAO and the United Nations General Assembly on a three-year experimental basis. In 1965, the programme was extended to a continuing basis.
The objectives that the WFP hopes to achieve are to:
WFP food aid is also directed to fight micronutrient deficiencies, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, and combat disease, including HIV and AIDS. Food-for-work programmes help promote environmental and economic stability and agricultural production.
The WFP operations are funded by voluntary donations from governments of the world, corporations and private donors. The organization's administrative costs are only seven percent—one of the lowest and best among aid agencies. From 2008-2012, private voluntary donors donated around $500 million. In 2016, WFP received from donors in total US$5,933,529,247. The USA was the major donor of WFP with 2 billion US$, followed by the European Commission (894 million US$) and Germany (884 million US$).
The WFP is governed by an executive board which consists of representatives from 36 member states. David Beasley, from South Carolina, United States, is the current executive director, appointed jointly by the UN Secretary General and the director-general of the FAO for a five-year term. He heads the secretariat of the WFP. The European Union is a permanent observer in the WFP and, as a major donor, participates in the work of its executive board.
Its vision is a "world in which every man, woman and child has access at all times to the food needed for an active and healthy life."
The WFP has a staff of about 15,000 people, the majority of whom work in remote areas.
The Logistics Cluster is an Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) humanitarian coordination mechanism whose primary role is supporting emergency responses. One of eleven sectoral coordination bodies, it was set by UN General Assembly resolution 46/182 in December 1991 and extended in the Humanitarian Reform of 2005, with new elements adopted to improve capacity, predictability, accountability, leadership and partnership.
The Logistics Cluster provides coordination and information management services to support operational decision-making and improve the predictability, timeliness and efficiency of humanitarian emergency responses. Where necessary, the Logistics Cluster also facilitates access to common logistics services. Due to its expertise in the field of humanitarian logistics, the World Food Programme (WFP) was chosen by the IASC as the lead agency for the Logistics Cluster. WFP hosts the Global Logistics Cluster support team in its headquarters in Rome. WFP also acts as a ‘provider of last resort’ offering common logistics services, when critical gaps hamper the humanitarian response.
In 2013, the WFP reached 80.9 million people in 75 countries and provided 3.1 million tonnes of food, including nutritionally enriched Ready-to-use therapeutic foods. 7.8 million malnourished children received special nutritional support in 2013, and 18.6 million children received school meals or take-home rations.
In 2015, the WFP reached 76.7 million people in 81 countries. In emergencies, more than 50 million people were reached in order to improve their nutrition and food security. School meals were provided to 17.4 million children helping retain children in schools, supporting uninterrupted access to education.
The WFP has scaled up its use of cash and vouchers as food assistance tools. 7.9 million people received assistance through cash or voucher programmes in 2013. In the same year, the WFP purchased food in 91 countries; 86% of that food came from developing countries.
Among its other activities, the WFP has coordinated the five-year Purchase for Progress (P4P) pilot project. Launched in September 2008, P4P assists smallholder farmers by offering them opportunities to access agricultural markets and to become competitive players in the marketplace. The project spanned across 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America and trained 800,000 farmers in improved agricultural production, post-harvest handling, quality assurance, group marketing, agricultural finance and contracting with the WFP. The project resulted in 366,000 metric tons of food produced and generated more than $148 million in income for its smallholder farmers.
The WFP focuses its food assistance on those who are most vulnerable to hunger, which most frequently means women, children, the sick and the elderly. In fact, part of the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake consisted of distributing food aid only to women as experience built up over almost 5 decades of working in emergency situations has demonstrated that giving food only to women helps to ensure that it is spread evenly among all household members. School-feeding and/or take-home ration programmes in 71 countries help students focus on their studies and encourage parents to send their children, especially girls, to school.
The WFP has a system of classifications known as the Emergency Response Classifications designated toward situations that require immediate response.
This response is activated under the following criteria:
The Emergency Response Classifications are divided as follows, with emergency intensity increasing with each level:
Listed countries are currently classified as Level 3:
The WFP coordinates and cooperates with a number of official partners in emergencies and development projects. These partners include national government agencies such as DFID, ECHO, EuropeAid, USAID; UN agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD); non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children, Catholic Relief Services and Norwegian Refugee Council; as well as corporate partners such as Boston Consulting Group, DSM N.V., and Cargill.
In 2004, the WFP tasked Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama with heading the first student-led War on Hunger effort, after a 2002 Northwestern University pilot. Auburn founded the Committee of 19, which has not only led campus and community hunger awareness events but also developed a War on Hunger model for use on campuses across the country.
The WFP has launched a global advocacy and fundraising event called Walk the World. On one single day each year, hundreds of thousands of people in every time zone all over the world walk to call for the end of child hunger. In 2005, more than 200,000 people walked in 296 locations. In 2006, there were 760,000 participants in 118 countries all over the world. This event is part of the campaign to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, specifically to halve the number of people who suffer from hunger and poverty by 2015.
A growing number of grassroots global events and celebrations such as International Day of Peace, World Party Day participants, and Peace One Day recommend the WFP on radio broadcasts as an immediate reach out action, putting help within reach of anyone with the information that a quarter feeds a child for a day. Fill the Cup campaign takes just 25 US cents to fill one of the "red cups" that the World Food Programme uses to give hungry children a regular school meal of porridge, rice or beans. Christina Aguilera, Drew Barrymore and Sean Penn are among notable celebrities who endorse the WFP. The British singer Sami Yusuf joined with the WFP to support the drought-stricken in Horn of Africa through his personal campaign, LiveFeedAfrica and music video, Forgotten Promises.
In 2007, the WFP joined with Yum! Brands, the world's largest restaurant company, to launch the first annual World Hunger Relief Week, a global campaign to increase awareness about hunger, engage volunteers, and raise critically needed funds to help the WFP serve the world's areas of greatest need. World Hunger Relief Week 2007 leveraged the power of nearly 35,000 restaurants around the world, sparking a global movement to end hunger and generating an overwhelming outpouring of support from millions of customers, employees, franchisees and their families. Nearly one million Yum!, KFC, Pizza Hut, Taco Bell, Long John Silver's and A&W All American Food employees, franchisees and their families volunteered close to 4 million hours to aid hunger relief efforts in communities worldwide, while helping to raise $16 million throughout the World Hunger Relief Week initiative for the World Food Programme and other hunger relief agencies around the world. The initiative has been repeated every year since.
World Food Program USA, before 2010 known as Friends of the World Food Program, works to solve global hunger, building a world where everyone has the food and nutrition needed to lead healthy, productive lives. WFP USA raises support for these efforts in the United States by engaging individuals, organizations and businesses, shaping public policy and generating resources for WFP.
Kenyan economist James Shikwati says in an interview with Der Spiegel: "aid to Africa does more harm than good". According to him, the food aid increases corruption as local politicians have the opportunity to steal some of the aid to bribe voters or to sell the aid in the black markets killing the local agriculture. He claims that the WFP people as an organization "are in the absurd situation of, on the one hand, being dedicated to the fight against hunger while, on the other hand, being faced with unemployment were hunger actually eliminated". He suggests that WFP answers too easily to the calls of the corrupted governments, and supplies too much of food aid leading to reduction of the production of local farmers as "no one can compete with the UN's World Food Programme".
The World Food Programme was also criticized by José Ciro Martínez and Brent Eng in their essay "The Unintended Consequences of Emergency Food Aid: Neutrality, Sovereignty and Politics in the Syrian Civil War, 2012-15." due to an interview conducted with an employee of the organization who stated: "Most aid is still subject to strict control measures by the government, who also requests that it be distributed through state approved bodies such as SARC. I believe the government closely oversees if not completely controls these organizations." This statement was expanded upon by the authors as they noted that food aid given in Syria would go to the military and its men first.
The following is a chronological list of those who have held the Executive Director of the World Food Programme position:
Ahmed Muhammad Helmy Awwad (Arabic: أحمد محمد حلمي عواد; born November 18, 1969), is an Egyptian comedian actor, film producer, diplomat, and a renowned television personality. He started his career in 1993 on the Egyptian Satellite Broadcast. In 1998, he made his first movie Aboud Ala El Hodoud, which received commercial success. He is married to the Egyptian actress Mona Zaki.Amadou
Amadou is a spongy material derived from Fomes fomentarius and similar fungi that grow on the bark of coniferous and angiosperm trees, and have the appearance of a horse's hoof (thus the name "hoof fungus"). It is also known as the "tinder fungus" and is useful for starting slow-burning fires. The fungus must be removed from the tree, the hard outer layer scraped off, and then thin strips of the inner spongy layer cut for use as tinder.
Amadou was a precious resource to ancient people, allowing them to start a fire by catching sparks from flint struck against iron pyrites. Remarkable evidence for this is provided by the discovery of the 5,000-year-old remains of "Ötzi the Iceman", who carried it on a cross-alpine excursion before his death and subsequent ice-entombment.
Amadou has great water-absorbing abilities. It is used in fly fishing for drying out dry flies that have become wet. Another use is for forming a felt-like fabric used in the making of hats and other items. It can be used as a kind of artificial leather.
Before such uses, amadou needs to be prepared by being pounded flat, and boiled or soaked in a solution of nitre. One method of preparation starts by soaking a slice in washing soda for a week, beating it gently from time to time. After that it has to be dried; when dry it is initially hard and has to be pounded with a blunt object to soften it up and flatten it out.Christina Aguilera
Christina María Aguilera (Spanish: [aɣiˈleɾa]; born December 18, 1980) is an American singer, songwriter, actress and television personality. Her work has earned her five Grammy Awards, one Latin Grammy Award, and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. She has sold more than 75 million records worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling music artists. In 2009, she ranked at number 58 on Rolling Stone's list of 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Billboard recognized her as the 20th most successful artist of the 2000s, and in 2013, Time included Aguilera on their annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world.Born in Staten Island, New York and raised in Pennsylvania, she appeared on the television series Star Search and The Mickey Mouse Club in her early years. After recording "Reflection", the theme for Disney's 1998 film Mulan, Aguilera signed with RCA Records. Aguilera has been recognized as a pop icon and earned the title "Pop Princess" in her early years.Aguilera earned two number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with her self-titled debut album in 1999 and Back to Basics in 2006. Her albums Stripped (2002), Bionic (2010), Lotus (2012), and Liberation (2018) all reached the top-ten in the United States. Furthermore, her Spanish-language album Mi Reflejo and the holiday album My Kind of Christmas each topped Billboard component charts in 2000. Several of Aguilera's songs have experienced international success, including "Genie in a Bottle", "What a Girl Wants", and "Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You)" from her self-titled debut, which each topped the Billboard Hot 100, "Dirrty", "Beautiful", and "Fighter" from Stripped, "Ain't No Other Man", "Hurt" and "Candyman" from Back to Basics, and the collaborations "Lady Marmalade", "Moves like Jagger", "Feel This Moment", and "Say Something".
Beyond her music career, Aguilera starred in the film Burlesque (2010) and has been featured as a coach on six seasons of the reality competition television series The Voice since 2011. Aside from her work in the entertainment industry, Aguilera is involved in charitable activities through her work as a UN ambassador for the World Food Programme.Committee of 19
The Committee of 19 is a committee of students at Auburn University that direct the War on Hunger efforts on campus and in the local community. In 2004, Auburn University was chosen by the World Food Programme, an agency of the United Nations and the largest humanitarian organization in the world, to lead the first student-led efforts in the War on Hunger. The number 19 in the title is symbolic of the 19 cents per day that it takes the World Food Programme to feed a hungry child in the developing world. Today, that number is estimated to be closer to twenty-five cents. There are currently 22 members on the Committee of 19, representing various student organizations and the university's colleges and schools.David Beasley
David Muldrow Beasley (born February 26, 1957) is an American politician who is the Executive Director of the United Nations World Food Programme. Beasley, a member of the Republican Party, served one term as the 113th Governor of South Carolina from 1995 until 1999; he was defeated by Democrat Jim Hodges in the 1998 election.
Beasley, a native of Lamar, South Carolina, began his political career as a member of the Democratic Party, but switched to the Republican Party in September 1991, three years before his election as governor. His first run for public office came in 1978, when, as a 21-year-old junior attending Clemson University, he unexpectedly won a seat in the South Carolina House of Representatives. He later graduated from the University of South Carolina and the University of South Carolina School of Law.Drew Barrymore
Drew Blythe Barrymore (born February 22, 1975) is an American actress, producer, director, author, model and entrepreneur. She is a member of the Barrymore family of actors, and the granddaughter of John Barrymore. She achieved fame as a child actress with her role in E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982). She is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe, a Screen Actors Guild Award, and a BAFTA nomination.
Following a highly publicized childhood marked by drug and alcohol abuse, Barrymore released an autobiography, Little Girl Lost, in 1991. She went on to appear in a string of successful films throughout the decade, including Poison Ivy (1992), Boys on the Side (1995), Mad Love (1995), Scream (1996), Ever After (1998) and The Wedding Singer (1998). The latter was her first collaboration with Adam Sandler; they have since starred together in 50 First Dates (2004) and Blended (2014).
Barrymore's other films include Never Been Kissed (1999), Charlie's Angels (2000), Donnie Darko (2001), Riding in Cars with Boys (2001), Confessions of a Dangerous Mind (2002), Fever Pitch (2005), Music and Lyrics (2007), Going the Distance (2010), Big Miracle (2012) and Miss You Already (2015). Barrymore made her directorial debut with Whip It (2009), in which she also starred, and received a SAG Award and a Golden Globe for her performance in Grey Gardens (2009). She currently stars on the Netflix series Santa Clarita Diet.
In 1995, Barrymore and Nancy Juvonen formed the production company Flower Films. The pair have produced several projects in which Barrymore has starred. In 2013, Barrymore launched a range of cosmetics under the Flower banner, which has grown to include lines in makeup, perfume and eyewear. Her other business ventures include a range of wines and a clothing line. In 2015, she released her second memoir, Wildflower. Barrymore received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.Franca Sozzani
Franca Sozzani (Italian pronunciation: [ˈfraŋka sotˈtsaːni]; 20 January 1950 – 22 December 2016) was an Italian journalist and the editor-in-chief of Vogue Italia from 1988 until her death in 2016.George Stroumboulopoulos
George Mark Paul Stroumboulopoulos (; Greek: Γεώργιος Μάρκος Παύλος Στρουμπουλόπουλος; born August 16, 1972) is a Canadian media personality. He is best known as formerly being a VJ for the Canadian music television channel MuchMusic and being the host of the CBC Television talk show George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight (formerly The Hour) from 2005 to 2014. From 2014 to 2016, Stroumboulopoulos worked for Rogers Media, anchoring Hockey Night in Canada and the NHL on Rogers.Howard Graham Buffett
Howard Graham Buffett (born December 16, 1954) is an American businessman, former politician, philanthropist, photographer, farmer, and conservationist. He is the middle child of billionaire investor Warren Buffett. He is named after Howard Buffett, his grandfather, and Benjamin Graham, Warren Buffett's favorite professor.Josette Sheeran
Ambassador Josette Sheeran (born 12 June 1954) is a global economic and humanitarian diplomat and leader, with more than 25 years of experience in managing and transforming institutions to be more effective, transparent and relevant to current challenges and opportunities.
Ambassador Sheeran serves as the seventh President and CEO of Asia Society, a Rockefeller institution founded more than six decades ago with 14 centers around the world. She is responsible for advancing the organization’s global work in policy, conflict resolution, economics, track 2 dialogues, culture and education. Sheeran is also the United Nations Special Envoy for Haiti.Ms. Sheeran is former Vice Chair of the World Economic Forum.. While there, she helped found and advance global initiatives encompassing global, regional, and industry agendas such as Grow Africa, which has attracted $10 billion in private sector investment to end aid dependency and tackle hunger and malnutrition in Africa.
She was the eleventh Executive Director of the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in November 2006. Prior to this, Ms. Sheeran served as a diplomat and negotiator for the United States, and was unanimously confirmed by the Senate twice.
She served as United States Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs, and as deputy U.S. Trade Representative and Ambassador covering Asia, Africa, labor, environment, intellectual property, and trade capacity building. She was appointed coordinator of the Pakistan earthquake response by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, and developed economic recovery plans for front line areas in Pakistan, Afghanistan and beyond. She has served on the boards of OPIC, and the Millennium Challenge Corporation; as well as the lead U.S. representative to APEC and the OECD, and as alternative U.S. representative to the World Bank.KC Concepcion
Maria Kristina Cassandra Cuneta Concepcion (born April 7, 1985) is a Filipino actress and singer. She is also a National Ambassador Against Hunger of the United Nations' World Food Programme.Representative of the UNHCR and WFP, London
The Representative of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and the Representative of the World Food Programme in London are the diplomatic missions of the UNHCR and World Food Programme in the United Kingdom. They were formerly located at Strand Bridge House, a multi-use office building on the Strand near Aldwych.Sami Yusuf
Sami Yusuf is a British singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, composer, record producer, and humanitarian, born in Iran.
Yusuf gained international attention with the release of his debut album, Al-Mu’allim, in 2003. Now with over 34 million albums sold, he performs at venues around the world. The BBC, CNN, ARTE, FRANCE 24, Reuters, Time, Rolling Stone, and Music Week are among the media outlets that have covered him and his work. His seventh studio album, Barakah, was released in 2016.In recognition of his humanitarian work, in 2014 Yusuf was appointed United Nations Global Ambassador for the World Food Programme.ShareTheMeal
ShareTheMeal is a crowdfunding smartphone application to fight global hunger through the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP). It enables users to make small donations to specific WFP projects and to track its progress.
As of November 2017, ShareTheMeal has over 920,000 downloads and 17 million meals shared. Google awarded ShareTheMeal as one of the Best Apps of 2016 in the "Most Innovative" category. At Google I/O in May 2017, ShareTheMeal won the Google Play Award for Best Social Impact.
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