The World Fantasy Awards are given each year by the World Fantasy Convention for the best fantasy fiction and fantasy art published in English during the preceding calendar year. The awards have been described by sources such as The Guardian as a "prestigious fantasy prize", and as one of the three most renowned speculative fiction awards, along with the Hugo and Nebula Awards (which cover both fantasy and science fiction). The World Fantasy Award—Life Achievement is given each year to individuals for their overall career in fields related to fantasy. These have included, for example, authors, editors, and publishers. The specific nomination reasons are not given, and nominees are not required to have retired, though they can only win once. The Life Achievement category has been awarded annually since 1975.
World Fantasy Award nominees are decided by attendees and judges at the annual World Fantasy Convention. A ballot is posted in June for attendees of the current and previous two conferences to determine two of the finalists, and a panel of five judges adds three or more nominees before voting on the overall winner of each category. Unlike the other World Fantasy Award categories, the nominees for the Life Achievement award are not announced; instead, the winner is announced along with the nominees in the other categories. The panel of judges is typically made up of fantasy authors, and is chosen each year by the World Fantasy Awards Administration, which has the power to break ties. The final results are presented at the World Fantasy Convention at the end of October. Through 2015, winners were presented with a statuette of H. P. Lovecraft; more recent winners receive a statuette of a tree.
During the 44 nomination years, 69 people have been given the Life Achievement Award. Multiple winners have been awarded 21 times, typically two co-winners, though five were noted in 1984. Since 2000 it has become an unofficial tradition for two winners to be announced, often with one winner primarily an author and the other not. While most winners have been authors and editors, five winners have been primarily artists of fantasy art and book covers, and four winners are best known for founding or running publishing houses that produce fantasy works.
|World Fantasy Award—Life Achievement|
|Awarded for||Outstanding service to the fantasy field|
|Presented by||World Fantasy Convention|
|Most recent winners||Charles de Lint, Elizabeth Wollheim|
In the following table, the years correspond to the date of the ceremony. Items in the Work(s) column are items and companies that the winner created or worked at; they are meant to be representative of the winner's career in the field of fantasy to that point, but the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement is not given for any specific achievement, and no such achievements are listed by the World Fantasy Convention as reasons for the award. In many cases the winner is well known for their non-fantasy works, such as science fiction novels, which are not listed.
|1975||Robert Bloch||Psycho, "That Hell-Bound Train"|||
|1976||Fritz Leiber||"Gonna Roll the Bones", Ill Met in Lankhmar|||
|1977||Ray Bradbury||Dandelion Wine, The Illustrated Man|||
|1978||Frank Belknap Long||The Hounds of Tindalos, The Horror from the Hills|||
|1979||Jorge Luis Borges||"The Garden of Forking Paths", Ficciones|||
|1980||Manly Wade Wellman||Worse Things Waiting, Who Fears the Devil?|||
|1981||C. L. Moore||Jirel of Joiry, Northwest of Earth|||
|1982||Italo Calvino||The Baron in the Trees, The Castle of Crossed Destinies|||
|1983||Roald Dahl||James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory|||
|1984||L. Sprague de Camp||The Goblin Tower, Land of Unreason|||
|Richard Matheson||Bid Time Return, I Am Legend|||
|E. Hoffmann Price||"Through the Gates of the Silver Key", Far Lands, Other Days|||
|Jack Vance||The Dying Earth, Lyonesse Trilogy|||
|Donald Wandrei[Note 1]||The Web of Easter Island, Strange Harvest|||
|1985||Theodore Sturgeon||Without Sorcery, E Pluribus Unicorn|||
|1986||Avram Davidson||The Phoenix and the Mirror, Vergil in Averno|||
|1987||Jack Finney||The Body Snatchers, Marion's Wall|||
|1988||Everett F. Bleiler||Editing Guide to Supernatural Fiction, A Treasury of Victorian Ghost Stories|||
|1989||Evangeline Walton||The Island of the Mighty, The Song of Rhiannon|||
|1990||R. A. Lafferty||Serpent's Egg, The Devil is Dead|||
|1991||Ray Russell||The Bishop's Daughter, The Devil's Mirror|||
|1992||Edd Cartier||Artwork for Unknown, Fantasy Press|||
|1993||Harlan Ellison||Deathbird Stories, Mefisto in Onyx|||
|1994||Jack Williamson||"Hocus Pocus Universe", Darker Than You Think|||
|1995||Ursula K. Le Guin||A Wizard of Earthsea, Always Coming Home|||
|1996||Gene Wolfe||The Book of the New Sun, Soldier of the Mist|||
|1997||Madeleine L'Engle||A Wrinkle in Time, A Swiftly Tilting Planet|||
|1998||Edward L. Ferman||Editing The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, The Best from Fantasy and Science Fiction|||
|Andre Norton||Witch World, The Halfblood Chronicles|||
|1999||Hugh B. Cave||Murgunstrumm and Others, Death Stalks the Night|||
|2000||Marion Zimmer Bradley||The Mists of Avalon, Darkover|||
|Michael Moorcock||Elric of Melniboné, The Knight of Swords|||
|2001||Frank Frazetta||Artwork such as Conan the Destroyer, Death Dealer|||
|Philip José Farmer||Hadon of Ancient Opar, Inside Outside|||
|2002||Forrest J Ackerman||Editing Famous Monsters of Filmland, work as a literary agent|||
|George H. Scithers||Editing Weird Tales, Amra|||
|2003||Lloyd Alexander||The Black Cauldron, The High King|||
|Donald M. Grant||Founding/running Donald M. Grant, Publisher, Centaur Press|||
|2004||Stephen King||The Dark Tower: The Gunslinger, It|||
|Gahan Wilson||Artwork for The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, The New Yorker|||
|2005||Tom Doherty||Founder of Tor Books, publisher for Ace Books|||
|Carol Emshwiller||The Mount, The Start of the End of It All|||
|2006||John Crowley||Little, Big, Great Work of Time|||
|Stephen Fabian||Artwork for Dungeons & Dragons, Ladies & Legends|||
|2007||Betty Ballantine||Co-founded Bantam Books, Ballantine Books|||
|Diana Wynne Jones||Howl's Moving Castle, Charmed Life|||
|2008||Leo and Diane Dillon||Artwork for Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears, Ashanti to Zulu|||
|Patricia A. McKillip||Harpist in the Wind, The Forgotten Beasts of Eld|||
|2009||Ellen Asher||Editor of Science Fiction Book Club, New American Library|||
|Jane Yolen||Owl Moon, Lost Girls|||
|2010||Brian Lumley||Necroscope, Blood Brothers|||
|Terry Pratchett||The Colour of Magic, Mort|||
|Peter Straub||Ghost Story, The Talisman|||
|2011||Peter S. Beagle||The Last Unicorn, "Two Hearts"|||
|Angélica Gorodischer||Kalpa Imperial, Opus dos|||
|2012||Alan Garner||The Weirdstone of Brisingamen, "The Owl Service"|||
|George R. R. Martin||A Song of Ice and Fire, Sandkings|||
|2013||Susan Cooper||The Dark Is Rising, The Grey King|||
|Tanith Lee||Death's Master, The Birthgrave|||
|2014||Ellen Datlow||Editing Omni, Year's Best Fantasy and Horror|||
|Chelsea Quinn Yarbro||The Palace, Ariosto|||
|2015||Ramsey Campbell||To Wake the Dead, Alone with the Horrors|||
|Sheri S. Tepper||The True Game, Beauty|||
|2016||David G. Hartwell||Editor of The New York Review of Science Fiction, Tor Books|||
|Andrzej Sapkowski||The Witcher Saga|||
|2017||Terry Brooks||Shannara series, Magic Kingdom of Landover series|||
|Marina Warner||Research and non-fiction works on fairy tales and myths|||
|2018||Charles de Lint||Newford series|||
|Elizabeth Wollheim||President, co-Publisher and co-Editor-in-Chief of DAW Books|||
Andrzej Sapkowski (Polish pronunciation: [ˈandʐɛj sapˈkɔfskʲi]; born 21 June 1948) is a Polish fantasy writer. He is best known for his book series, The Witcher. His books have been translated into about 20 languages.Betsy Wollheim
Elizabeth Rosalind 'Betsy' Wollheim (born 5 December 1951, New York) is the President, co-Publisher and co-Editor-in-Chief of science fiction and fantasy publisher DAW Books, 'a small private company, owned exclusively by its publishers.' The latter roles are shared with Sheila E. Gilbert. She had worked at DAW as an associate editor from 1975. She is a recipient of the World Fantasy Award—Life Achievement.
Her father, Donald A. Wollheim, with her mother Elsie B. Wollheim, established DAW Books in 1971. She took over leadership of DAW in 1985.Ellen Datlow
Ellen Datlow (born December 31, 1949) is an American science fiction, fantasy, and horror editor and anthologist.Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino (Italian: [ˈiːtalo kalˈviːno]; 15 October 1923 – 19 September 1985) was an Italian journalist and writer of short stories and novels. His best known works include the Our Ancestors trilogy (1952–1959), the Cosmicomics collection of short stories (1965), and the novels Invisible Cities (1972) and If on a winter's night a traveler (1979).
He was the most-translated contemporary Italian writer at the time of his death.List of awards and nominations received by Stephen King
Stephen King is an American author of contemporary horror, supernatural fiction, suspense, science fiction, crime fiction, and fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, miniseries, television shows, and comic books. King has published 54 novels, including seven under the pen name Richard Bachman and six non-fiction books. He has written nearly 200 short stories, most of which have been collected in book collections.
King has received multiple awards and nominations for his work, including multiple Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, and British Fantasy Society Awards as well as the National Medal of Arts, Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters and the O. Henry Award. He has also received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement (2004), the Canadian Booksellers Association Lifetime Achievement Award (2007), and the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America (2007).Manly Wade Wellman
Manly Wade Wellman (May 21, 1903 – April 5, 1986) was an American writer.
While his science fiction and fantasy stories appeared in such pulps as Astounding Stories, Startling Stories, Unknown and Strange Stories, Wellman is best remembered as one of the most popular contributors to the legendary Weird Tales, and for his fantasy and horror stories set in the Appalachian Mountains, which draw on the native folklore of that region. Karl Edward Wagner referred to him as "the dean of fantasy writers." Wellman also wrote in a wide variety of other genres, including historical fiction, detective fiction, western fiction, juvenile fiction, and non-fiction.
Wellman was a long-time resident of North Carolina. He received many awards, including the World Fantasy Award and Edgar Allan Poe Award. In 2013, the North Carolina Speculative Fiction Foundation inaugurated an award named after him to honor other North Carolina authors of science fiction and fantasy.
Three of Wellman's most famous recurring protagonists are (1) John, a.k.a. John the Balladeer, a.k.a. "Silver John", a wandering backwoods minstrel with a silver-stringed guitar, (2) the elderly "occult detective" Judge Pursuivant, and (3) John Thunstone, also an occult investigator.Robert Bloch
Robert Albert Bloch (; April 5, 1917 – September 23, 1994) was an American fiction writer, primarily of crime, horror, fantasy and science fiction, from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is best known as the writer of Psycho, the basis for the film of the same name by Alfred Hitchcock. His fondness for a pun is evident in the titles of his story collections such as Tales in a Jugular Vein, Such Stuff as Screams Are Made Of and Out of the Mouths of Graves.
Bloch wrote hundreds of short stories and over 30 novels. He was one of the youngest members of the Lovecraft Circle and began his professional writing career immediately after graduation, aged 17. He was a protege of H. P. Lovecraft who was the first to seriously encourage his talent. However, while Bloch started his career by emulating Lovecraft and his brand of "cosmic horror", he later specialized in crime and horror stories dealing with a more psychological approach.
Bloch was a contributor to pulp magazines such as Weird Tales in his early career, and was also a prolific screenwriter and a major contributor to science fiction fanzines and fandom in general.
He won the Hugo Award (for his story "That Hell-Bound Train"), the Bram Stoker Award, and the World Fantasy Award. He served a term as president of the Mystery Writers of America (1970) and was a member of that organization and of Science Fiction Writers of America, the Writers Guild of America, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and the Count Dracula Society. In 2008, The Library of America selected Bloch's essay "The Shambles of Ed Gein" (1962) for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American true crime.His favorites among his own novels were The Kidnapper, The Star Stalker, Psycho, Night-World, and Strange Eons. His work has been extensively adapted for the movies and television, comics and audio books.