The Universal Wrestling Corporation (UWC), formerly known as World Championship Wrestling (WCW), is an inactive American professional wrestling promotion, historically based in Atlanta, Georgia. It began as a regional (mid-Atlantic U.S.), National Wrestling Alliance (NWA)-affiliated "territory" promotion, Jim Crockett Promotions (JCP), until November 1988, when Ted Turner (through his Turner Broadcasting System business) bought the promotion, whose struggle to compete with Vince McMahon's World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) had left it near bankruptcy. Immediately after the buyout, the business was renamed the Universal Wrestling Corporation, and soon after as World Championship Wrestling, which had been the name of JCP's flagship television show. In its early years, WCW was buoyed by established NWA performers such as Ric Flair and Dusty Rhodes, along with emerging stars like Lex Luger, and Sting, who would go on to be dubbed "The Franchise of WCW".
In the mid-1990s, WCW dramatically improved its economic performance, largely due to the promotion of Eric Bischoff to Executive Producer; the hiring of renowned WWF stars Hulk Hogan, Randy Savage, Roddy Piper, Diesel (Kevin Nash) and Razor Ramon (Scott Hall); the introduction of the Monday Nitro series on cable TV, and the resultant Monday Night Wars with the WWF's Monday Night Raw; the creative and marketing execution of the New World Order (nWo) brand/stable of wrestlers, which involved Hulk Hogan's shift from perennial fan-favorite to prominent villain; and other innovative concepts. WCW also developed a popular cruiserweight division, which showcased an acrobatic, fast-paced, lucha libre-inspired style of wrestling.
Over the next several years, the promotion facilitated the main event rise of performers such as Bill Goldberg, Booker T, Diamond Dallas Page, Scott Steiner, Jeff Jarrett, Chris Benoit and The Giant (later Big Show in the WWF). WCW eclipsed the WWF in popularity throughout the United States for much of the latter-1990s, however, numerous financial and creative missteps led to the company losing its lead over the WWF. In 2001 selected assets were purchased by the WWF. Since 2001, WCW images and video footage have been widely distributed in WWE-owned media.
Two separate subsidiary companies exist as successors to WCW. WCW, Inc. is the WWE subsidiary established in Delaware in late 2000, initially as W. Acquisition Company, which holds the rights to the WCW video library and other intellectual property. The former WCW entity, which retained liabilities not acquired by WWF, was renamed back to the Universal Wrestling Corporation; it was listed as a subsidiary of Time Warner through 2017 and integrated into Turner Broadcasting System, although its parent (now renamed to WarnerMedia) was sold to AT&T in 2018.
|World Championship Wrestling|
(Top) The original WCW logo, (Bottom) The logo used from 1999 to 2001
(subsidiary of Turner Broadcasting System)
(subsidiary of Time Warner division Turner)
(subsidiary of WWF/E)
|Fate||Deactivated and renamed by AOL Time Warner; selected assets purchased by the WWF|
Georgia Championship Wrestling|
Jim Crockett Promotions
|Founded||October 11, 1988|
|Defunct||March 26, 2001|
One Centennial Tower|
Atlanta, Georgia 30303 United States
|Products||Television, Internet, merchandise|
|Owner||AT&T (Universal Wrestling Corporation)|
Number of employees
|~150 (March 1998)|
Turner Broadcasting System|
World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment Inc (2001-present) WCW Inc.
WarnerMedia (2001-present) Universal Wrestling Corporation
|Website||WCW at WWE.com|
The name "World Championship Wrestling" was first used as a brand and television show title in 1982. Jim Barnett (who had worked for the World Championship Wrestling promotion in Australia) came to Atlanta in the 1970s during an internal struggle over Georgia Championship Wrestling. Barnett ultimately became majority owner of the promotion, and began using his previous employer's name for his new promotion's television program in 1982. The promotion was eventually purchased by Jim Crockett Promotions.
Influential wrestling magazine Pro Wrestling Illustrated and its sister publications thereafter habitually referred to Jim Crockett Promotions as "World Championship Wrestling", "WCW" and most commonly "the World Championship area" and continued to do so until early 1988 when it began referring to the company solely as the NWA, reasoning that "it has become apparent that the NWA and the World Championship area are one and the same."
However, it was not until November 2, 1988 that an actual, National Wrestling Alliance (NWA)-affiliated promotion called 'World Championship Wrestling' appeared on the national scene. This entity was under the ownership of media mogul and cable-TV pioneer Ted Turner, based in Atlanta, Georgia. While initially the new company was called the Universal Wrestling Corporation (launched October 11, 1988), very shortly following the purchase the decision was made to utilize the familiar "World Championship Wrestling" TV show name, as the brand name for this new promotion.
WCW went through various changes in business and creative leadership during its existence. Some figures, like Jim Herd and Kip Frey, were mere TV executives completely lacking in wrestling-promotion experience; others, like Bill Watts, Ole Anderson, and Dusty Rhodes had extensive experience in the business, but were so entrenched in the outdated "territory" ways of operating (which their respective careers had thrived under) that they were ineffective at growing WCW's largely regional audience, into a national—and international—one (as Vince McMahon had successfully done with the WWF).
While Eric Bischoff has received much criticism for some mistakes in judgment as Executive Producer (and later, WCW President), he combined an understanding of wrestling (largely gained as a staffer with Verne Gagne's American Wrestling Association) with a willingness to make the changes needed to raise WCW's profile with mainstream media, its target audience and especially, TV advertisers. These changes including moving some television tapings from Atlanta to Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando, Florida, and, signing a mix of veteran U.S. main-event performers, and younger stars from promotions around the world (e.g., Rey Mysterio, Jr.).
Some of the creative freedoms that Bischoff granted main-event-level talent hurt the promotion, as such performers were less-than-cooperative in making stars out of the young performers—even though doing so (known in the industry as "doing what's best for the business instead of for just yourself") has been a staple of the industry, worldwide, since its inception. Once Bischoff was relieved of his duties in 1999, Vince Russo (a former senior storyline writer for the WWF), came aboard as lead writer of all of WCW's storylines. Although Russo would not last long in this role (departing for the first time in January 2000), WCW opted to bring Russo and Bischoff back in April 2000, in hopes that the duo might re-spark flagging fan interest in WCW. The two, however, did not get along well and Bischoff soon resigned from the sinking company. It was only a few months later that Russo would also depart after suffering from a concussion at the hands of Bill Goldberg (although he remained under contract for the rest of WCW's existence). Following Russo's departure, creative was handled by a booking committee which included Johnny Ace and Terry Taylor.
From 2000 to 2001, Monster Jam had a series of monster trucks based on wrestlers' names. These include nWo (2000), Sting (2000–2001), Nitro Machine (2000–present; currently Inferno), Madusa (2000–present) and Goldberg (2000–present; currently Max-D). The first to go was nWo, which only ran for a season. Next, all but Goldberg, Nitro, and Madusa were retired after the WCW sponsorship was lost. Nitro then became 'Flashfire', and then was converted into 'Inferno'. 'Madusa' has stayed the same since its creation, driven by its namesake Debrah Miceli. As for 'Goldberg', it was changed to 'Team Meents' in 2002, then into 'Maximum Destruction' (later shortened to 'Max-D'), which debuted in 2003 and continues to compete in the series and rivals the legendary Grave Digger in popularity on the circuit.
WCW also had a presence in NASCAR from the mid-1990s to 2000, sponsoring the #29 team in the Busch Grand National Series full-time and the #9 Melling Racing team in the Winston Cup Series part-time. In 1996, Kyle Petty's #49 car in the Busch Grand National series was sponsored by the nWo, and Wally Dallenbach Jr. briefly drove a WCW-sponsored for Galaxy Motorsports.
In mid-2000 until the end of the year, a number of potential buyers for WCW were rumored to show interest in the company. Ted Turner, however, did not have influence at Time Warner prior to the final merger of AOL and Time Warner in 2001, and most offers were rejected. Eric Bischoff, working with Fusient Media Ventures, made a bid to acquire the company in January 2001 (shortly following the AOL/Time Warner merger), and it appeared that WCW would continue.
One of the primary backers in the WCW deal backed out after AOL Time Warner refused to allow WCW to continue airing on its networks; leaving Fusient to take that offer off the table while it attempted to bring a new deal around. In the meantime, the World Wrestling Federation founded W. Acquisition Company in late-2000 and began speaking to the new AOL Time Warner about acquiring the WCW brand. Jamie Kellner was handed control over the Turner Broadcasting division, and deemed WCW, along with Turner Sports as a whole, to be out of line with its image. As a result, WCW programming was cancelled on TBS and TNT, leaving Vince McMahon's company, which at the time had an exclusive deal with Viacom, free to acquire the trademarks, video libraries and a few contracts of World Championship Wrestling through its new subsidiary W. Acquisition Company and was renamed WCW Inc. afterwards.
During the sale, WCW was in litigation, with various lawsuits pending, and AOL Time Warner still had to pay various performers their guaranteed deals, as many had contracts directly with the parent company, and not with WCW. Since WCW Inc. had acquired select assets, the company that was once World Championship Wrestling was reverted to the Universal Wrestling Corporation once again. Its only purpose now, however, was to deal with old contracts and lawsuits.
At the outset of WCW's existence, as well as that of its predecessors, the company was strongly identified with the Southern style of professional wrestling (i.e., "rasslin'"), which emphasized athletic and competitive in-ring performances over the showmanship and cartoon-like characterizations of the WWF. This identity persisted into the 1990s, even as the company signed stars who their audience had only ever known as WWF-only stars (e.g., Hulk Hogan, Randy Savage). WCW dominated pro wrestling's television ratings from mid-1996 to 1998 in the U.S. (i.e., for 84 straight weeks) mainly due to its incredibly popular New World Order storyline; but thereafter, began to lose heavy ground to the WWF, which had successfully rebounded from the WCW threat with its edgy, antihero-driven "Attitude" era that saw the rise of WWF superstars such as Stone Cold Steve Austin. Stale story lines; unimpressive pay-per-view main event performances; a policy of vastly overpaying all headliners – and even many middle-tier performers – exorbitant, guaranteed salaries; questionable booking decisions; plus eventual and sudden spending restrictions (imposed by corporate parent Time Warner), combined to eventually lead WCW to start operating at a quickly-ballooning loss, instead of a profit. As a result, AOL Time Warner sold the copyrights to WCW's name to the WWF for $2.5 million, in 2001. Shortly after the purchase, Vince McMahon purchased the entire WCW videotape library for an additional $1.7 million, bringing the final tally of World Championship Wrestling's sale to $4.2 million.
After the closure of WCW, two new wrestling promotions, World Wrestling All-Stars (WWA) and Xcitement Wrestling Federation (XWF), were formed in 2001. These companies took WCW performers who did not sign with the WWF after the merge. XWF hosted events until 2002 and WWA closed in 2003. The formation of Total Nonstop Action Wrestling by WCW's Jeff Jarrett and Ring of Honor in 2002, would take WCW's market position in the mid-to-late 2000's as the secondary wrestling promotion in North America.
WCW started out as a regional promotion in the late-1980s, focusing mainly on the Deep South. It started growing nationally a few years later, which led to its rivalry with the WWF – the major wrestling company left in North America (after almost single-handedly wiping out the old regional territory system it was born from). Even though WCW folded in 2001, its legacy lived on in the WWF. The WWF initially kept the WCW United States Championship, the WCW Cruiserweight Championship, the WCW World Tag Team Championship, and even the WCW World Heavyweight Championship active. Eventually, the titles were unified into their respective WWF counterparts. In 2003, by which time the World Wrestling Federation was renamed World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), the company resurrected the U.S. title.
When Hulk Hogan returned to WWE, it billed him as "Hollywood Hulk Hogan" – his WCW nickname. In 2004, WWE brought back WCW's Great American Bash pay-per-view; also that year, it released Starrcade: The Essential Collection as a three-disc DVD set. In August 2009, WWE released a DVD set, The Rise and Fall of WCW. Commemorating the 10th anniversary of purchasing WCW, WWE re-opened WCW.com, highlighting the history of the company that had once had the upper-hand in the professional wrestling marketplace, at one point, even threatening to drive WWE out of business. WWE released three documentaries showing highlights from WCW Nitro's history, The Very Best of WCW Monday Nitro, The Best of WCW Monday Nitro Volume 2 and The Best of WCW Monday Nitro Volume 3. All three documentaries are hosted by Diamond Dallas Page.
Though the Great American Bash pay-per-view has since been retired, WWE resurrected the Clash of the Champions name as a 2016 pay-per-view (as WWE Clash of Champions). In 2017, WWE brought back Starrcade as a SmackDown brand show. Also that year, WWE brought back the WarGames match with their WWE Network event NXT TakeOver: WarGames featuring their NXT brand.
WCW was a major focus in the WWE '12 video game released by THQ for Xbox 360, Sony PlayStation 3 and Nintendo Wii in 2011. In the game's "Road to Wrestlemania" Story Mode, many WCW superstars are featured (e.g., Arn Anderson, Ricky "The Dragon" Steamboat, Road Warrior Animal, Kevin Nash (a.k.a., Diesel in his initial WWF run), Booker T, and Vader).
WCW has also gone on to be featured in various modern WWE media. Various WCW programs can be seen on the WWE Network, including all episodes of WCW Monday Nitro from 1995–2001, all WCW pay-per-views and every WCW Clash of the Champions. WWE also has dedicated a section of their website specifically for WCW programming.
|NWA Western States Heritage Championship||A National Wrestling Alliance championship intended for mid-card wrestlers. It was used in WCW from 1988 to 1989|
|NWA World Heavyweight Championship||The world title of the National Wrestling Alliance. It was defended within WCW from 1988 until 1993|
|NWA World Tag Team Championship||The world tag team title of the National Wrestling Alliance. It was defended within WCW from 1992 through 1993|
|WCW Cruiserweight Championship||The title was established under WCW in 1996 and would continue to be used after WCW's purchase by the WWF until March 2008, when it was retired as the WWE Cruiserweight Championship|
|WCW Cruiserweight Tag Team Championship||The title was established under WCW in March 18, 2001 but was retired eight days later after the WCW's purchase by the WWF|
|WCW Light Heavyweight Championship||The title was established under WCW in 1991 and was defended until September 1992, when the title was retired|
|WCW Hardcore Championship||The title was established under WCW in 1999 and was defended until January 2001, when the title was retired later that year due to WCW being bought by the WWF|
|WCW International World Heavyweight Championship||The second world title of WCW. It was established in 1993 under WCW and was defended until 1994, when it was unified with the WCW World Heavyweight Championship|
|WCW United States Heavyweight Championship||The second highest ranked title used in WCW. It was established in 1975 under NWA Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling. Under World Wrestling Entertainment, the title remains active as the WWE United States Championship|
|WCW United States Tag Team Championship||The title was established in 1986 under NWA Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling and was defended within WCW until July 1992, when the title was retired|
|WCW Women's Championship||The title was established under WCW in 1996 and was defended until 1997, when the title was retired|
|WCW Women's Cruiserweight Championship||The title was established under WCW in 1997 but was retired later that year|
|WCW World Heavyweight Championship||The primary world title of WCW. It was established in 1991 under WCW and would continue to be used after WCW's purchase by the WWF until December 2001, when it was unified with the WWF Championship. The physical belt, known as the Big Gold Belt, returned in September 2002 as the World Heavyweight Championship. It was unified with the WWE Championship and was retired in 2013|
|WCW World Six-Man Tag Team Championship||The title was derived from the NWA World Six-Man Tag Team Championship of NWA Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling and was defended within WCW until 1991, when the title was retired|
|WCW World Tag Team Championship||The world tag team title of the WCW. It was established in 1975 under NWA Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling and would continue to be used after WCW's purchase by the WWF until November 2001|
|WCW World Television Championship||The title was established in 1974 under NWA Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling and was defended within WCW until April 2000, when the title was retired|
|WCW Monday Nitro||(September 1995 – March 2001)|
|WCW Thunder||(January 1998 – March 2001)|
|WCW WorldWide||(1975 – April 2001) Also known as World Wide Wrestling|
|WCW Saturday Night||(1971 – August 2000) Also known as WCW Saturday Morning, Georgia Championship Wrestling, and World Championship Wrestling|
|WCW Pro||(1985 – September 1998) Also known as NWA Pro Wrestling and Mid-Atlantic Championship Wrestling|
|WCW Main Event||(April 1988 – January 1998) Also known as NWA Main Event|
|WCW Prime||(February 1995 – October 1996)|
|WCW Clash of the Champions||(1988 – 1997) Also known as NWA Clash of the Champions|
|WCW Power Hour||(1989 – 1994) Also known as NWA Power Hour|
|Best of World Championship Wrestling||(1973 – 1987)|
Monday night is that one time during the week when I can forget that I'm the president of WCW, that I've got 150 employees to worry about.
The cruiserweight division had become the most exciting aspect of WCW.
WWE was looking to start a new cruiserweight division like the one that was popular in WCW.
[Bischoff] constantly trumpeted to anybody who would listen that Hogan and the nWo were the sole reason why WCW had pulled ahead of WWF in the ratings war. He never stopped to think that another reason may have been the hard work of the leprosy-afflicted cruiserweights.
The light heavyweight division, like WCW's cruiserweight division, can be a rousing success