Works team

A works team (sometimes factory team, company team) is a sports team that is financed and run by a manufacturer or other business. Sometimes, works teams contain or are entirely made up of employees of the supporting company.

Association football


A number of works teams were founded in the former Portuguese territory of Mozambique that still are currently major teams in that Portuguese-speaking African country (independent since 1975). Grupo Desportivo da Companhia Têxtil do Punguè and Textáfrica do Chimoio are examples of two works teams which were the teams of two textile companies. In addition, two major teams of the railway network achieved also notoriety - the Clube Ferroviário de Maputo and the Clube Ferroviário da Beira.

Other former and current works teams in Africa include Arab Contractors SC of Egypt (also a sporting club) and AS Police (Benin). Horseed FC is based in Horseed, Somalia. Seven times champion of the Somalia League, it is a former army team. Other works teams that have played in the Somali football leagues include Banaadir Telecom, Ports Authority, and Somali Police.


Works teams are common in Japan, with several J-League clubs starting life as such (e.g., Yokohama F. Marinos, who were originally Nissan F.C.). Modern examples include Honda F.C., Mitsubishi Motors Mizushima, F.C. Tokyo (formerly Tokyo Gas), and Sagawa Printing. The highest league Japanese works teams can compete in is the Japan Football League, the de facto national fourth division; the J. League specifically bars works teams from its ranks unless they professionalize and adopt the community they play in as a source of fan support.

Current and former works teams in South Korea include Busan Transportation Corporation FC, Gyeongju Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power FC, Ulsan Hyundai Mipo Dolphin FC, and Hanil Bank FC.

Other current and former Asian works teams include Nepal Police Club, Thai Farmers Bank F.C., Krung Thai Bank F.C., and Viettel F.C. (formerly The Cong, or the football team of the Vietnam People's Army).


Aankomst PSV met Europa Cup I op vliegveld Eindhoven ir. Frits Philips en PSVer, Bestanddeelnr 934-2545
Players of PSV posing with the European Cup together with Frits Philips, chairman of the BOD of Philips, after their 1988 European Cup Final victory over Benfica in Stuttgart

European former works teams include those of PSV Eindhoven (Philips), FC Sochaux-Montbéliard (Peugeot), Bayer Leverkusen (Bayer), VfL Wolfsburg (Volkswagen), Evian Thonon Gaillard F.C. (Groupe Danone), and FC Carl Zeiss Jena (Carl Zeiss).

The oldest football club in Spain is Recreativo de Huelva, formed on December 23, 1889 by Dr. William Alexander Mackay[1] and British workers employed by the Rio Tinto Company. Sevilla FC, started as a team made up of workers from the Seville Water Works, while Atlético Madrid was, from 1939–1947, called Athletic Aviación de Madrid, having merged with Aviación Nacional of Zaragoza, founded in 1939 by members of the Spanish Air Force.

The Portuguese conglomerate Companhia União Fabril (CUF) had also its own sports club, founded as a true works team in 1937. It was located in the Lisbon's industrial suburb of Barreiro, and was called Grupo Desportivo da CUF. The club, which was a major contender in the main Portuguese Football Championship, was disbanded and replaced by G.D. Fabril due to a military coup in 1974.

Several professional football clubs in the United Kingdom were also formed as works teams, including Manchester United (the team of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath); Arsenal (formed as Dial Square in 1886 by workers at the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich); West Ham United (formerly Thames Ironworks); Coventry City, founded by workers of the Singer bicycle company; and the Scottish team Livingston (formerly Ferranti Thistle).

A few amateur and semi-professional United Kingdom association football (soccer) works teams retain their companies' names, including Airbus UK; Cammell Laird; and Vauxhall Motors. Other former and current amateur and semi-professional U.K. works teams include Crawley Down Gatwick F.C., Civil Service F.C., Harrogate Railway Athletic F.C., United Services Portsmouth F.C., Metropolitan Police F.C., Stewarts & Lloyds Corby A.F.C., Royal Engineers A.F.C., Atherton Collieries A.F.C., Prescot Cables F.C., Stocksbridge Park Steels F.C., and Cardiff Civil Service. Bath City Football Club from Somerset, England, was formed in 1889 as Bath A.F.C. The team changed its name to Bath Railway in 1902, before settling on the name Bath City F.C. Included among Scottish amateur works teams are Inverurie Loco Works F.C., Colville Park A.F.C. (Ravenscraig steelworks), Shawfield Amateurs (White's Chemical Works) and Burntisland Shipyard A.F.C., while Glynhill Moorcroft A.F.C. began as Babcock & Wilcox F.C., the works team of the Renfrew engineering company.

In the League of Ireland a number of early clubs, including St James's Gate F.C., Fordsons, Jacobs, Midland Athletic and Dundalk all had their origins as a factory or works team. In Northern Ireland, Linfield F.C. was founded in Sandy Row in March 1886 by workers from the Ulster Spinning Company's Linfield Mill. Originally named the Linfield Athletic Club, its playing ground, "the Meadow", was situated behind the mill. Lisburn Distillery F.C. was created as [2] by employees of Dunville's Royal Irish Distillery in Grosvenor Street, Belfast in July 1879.

The name of football club Videoton FC (Hungary) comes from a Hungarian contract electronics manufacturer. The club, founded in 1941 by the defense manufacturing company Székesfehérvári Vadásztölténygyár, was made up of workers of the local factory in its early years.

Fotbal Club CFR 1907 Cluj was founded in 1907, when the city of Cluj-Napoca was part of Austro-Hungarian Empire, under the name Cluj Railway Sports Club (Kolozsvári Vasutas Sport Club). From 1907 to 1910, the team played in the municipal championship.

Dolina cupova - Grbavica Stadium 2015
The locomotive at the stadium of FK Željezničar, formed by railway employees.[3]

Fudbalski klub Željezničar (English: Football Club Željezničar) is a Bosnian professional football club based in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The name Željezničar means "railway worker", given because it was established by a group of railway workers.

More clubs in former Yugoslavia were formed by Yugoslav Railways employees, for instance, Serbian club ŽAK Subotica (Železničarski atletski klub Subotica, translation Railways athletic club Subotica) was a club formed and backed throughout its existence by the railways company. It was dissolved in 1945. In its place the new socialist authorities which replaced the monarchy in Yugoslavia formed FK Spartak Subotica which kept tight links with the railways company.[4] Željezničar Sarajevo, ŽAK Subotica and Spartak Subotica are the railways-backed clubs with best performances in the league, but besides these there were many others such as ŽAK Kikinda, Železničar Belgrade, Železničar Smederevo, Železničar Lajkovac, Železničar Niš, in Serbia, and Željezničar Doboj in Bosnia. In other parts of Yugoslavia there are other cases, in Macedonia, FK Rabotnički became owned in 1949 by the labour union of the railways company.[5] The link between the club and the railways was kept ever since with their followers even nowadays are known as Železničari and the railways simbol is part of club's logo. In Slovenia the railways had one club in each one of the two main Slovenian cites, NK Železničar Maribor[6] and NK Železničar Ljubljana. In relation with railways, Serbian club GFK Jasenica 1911 became known during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s as FK Mladost GOŠA because at that period the club was backed by the GOŠA, a former train wagons factory from Smederevska Palanka.

Other cases in Yugoslavia include HNK Borovo, which was formed in 1933 as SK BATA Borovo. The club was formed as the promotional team for the Bata Shoes factory in Borovo and it was founded by the BATA company founder, Tomáš Baťa himself.[7] The company had already earlier in 1922 became owner of the Czech club FC Zlín which was known between 1924 and 1948 as SK Bata Zlin.[8]

The best well known success story of a company and football club connection in Yugoslavia was the one of FK Zemun. Zemun, a city just in the outskirts of capital Belgrade, was known for many home-born notable players and some more or less successful football clubs ever since first half of the 1920s. SK Sparta Zemun played in the Yugoslav First League still in the 1930s. However, two decades after the end of the Second World War, the city had just a big number of small lower-leagues clubs. At that time Zemun was also home of Galenika a.d., a leading pharmaceutical company in Yugoslavia and one of the major of all South-Eastern Europe. The company owned a small club, FK Galenika, however by the late 1960s they decided to play a bigger role in football. FK Jedinstvo Zemun was at time the leading club in the city. In 1962 they achieved promotion to the Yugoslav Second League but they managed to stay at that level just two seasons. In 1969 they were playing third level, the Serbian Republic League, and were struggling financially. It was then that Galenika decided to take over the club and by merging it with its own minor club they formed FK Galenika Zemun. The company injected resources and backed the club financially, and the results immediately stated to show up. Right in the first season the club managed promotion back to the Yugoslav Second League where they will become among the strongest teams in the following decade. After several failed attempts Galenika Zemun achieved promotion to the Yugoslav First League in 1982 and that same year they reached the semi-finals of the Yugoslav Cup. Playing in the Yugoslav top level, during the 1980s the club played side-by-side with the big ones such as Red Star, Partizan Belgrade, Hajduk Split or Dinamo Zagreb, and Yugoslav football fans all became well aware of the name FK Galenika Zemun. Later, by the early 1990s the wars and the break-up of Yugoslavia started, Galenika suffered the financially asphyxiating consequences of the economic sanctions imposed to Serbia. The company had to drop its backing to the club and the club dropped the company name and became known just as FK Zemun. They managed to survive for some time during the 1990s in the First League of FR Yugoslavia, however the results were being worse each year, and by the turn of the millennium FK Zemun was relegated to the lower-leagues with just few occasional but flashy and inconsistent comebacks. Easy to conclude how the presence of Galenika in the club was fundamental for them to archive results and stability and without them Zemun supporters can only remember nostalgically the period when the club had its golden era thanks to the perfect wedding with a major local pharmaceutical company.

One of those minor clubs that emerged in Zemun was SK Naša Krila Zemun (Naša Krila means Our Wings), which existed only for three years between 1947 and 1950, and was formed and owned by the Yugoslav Air Force. The club managed to archive impressive record for such a shot existence, making its presence in two seasons in the Yugoslav First League and reaching the Yugoslav Cup final in 1947 and 1949. While the Yugoslav Air Force created its club in Serbia in Zemun, a suburb of the capital Belgrade, the Yugoslav Navy created their club in Croatia, in the major Yugoslav port, Split, and named it NK Mornar Split. However, just as Naša Krila, the club lived shortly, it was formed in 1946 and disbanded two years later.

and by the 1960s a new club, which was formed by a merger of a number of smaller ones, was making its way to the highlights of Yugoslav football.

Serbian club FK Smederevo 1924 was founded as a local iron factory SARTID football team. The club will be known by the company name since its foundation, in 1924, until 1944 when it became nationalized. In 1992 it will restore the name Sartid just as the club ownership returned to the Sartid metallurgical company and will remain till 2004, the year the company, by then now owned by U.S. Steel, left the direction of the club.

There are many other cases in Serbia, specially among medium-size clubs and their main local companies, such as FK Čukarički (known as Čukarički Sartid between 2001 and 2011 when it was owned by Stankom company), FK Hajduk Kula (known as FK Hajduk Rodić during the period it was backed by the Rodić company), FK Javor Ivanjica (known since summer 2014 as FK Javor Matis due to its backing from local Matis company), FK Sloboda Užice (known as FK Sloboda Point Sevojno after its merger with FK Sevojno in 2010 and backing from Point company), ČSK Čelarevo (also known as ČSK Pivara, owned and closely related throughout its history by beer manufacturer Pivara Čelarevo), FK Mladost Apatin (formed by the owner of a local clothing factory Tri Zvezde, it was named since its foundation in 1924 till 1950 as SK Tri Zvezde and during that time most of the players of the squad were also employees at the factory[9]).

FC Sheriff Tiraspol is based in the capital of Transnistria, was founded by the Sheriff security company in 1997.

Most of the Ukrainian Premier League clubs in Ukraine trace their roots to factory teams among several there is FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk that was originally formed as factory team of Bryanka Factory (today Dnipropetrovsk Metallurgical Plant). FC Shakhtar Horlivka traces its roots to the Football Association of the Gorlovka Artillery Works (FOGAZ). In times of the Soviet Union until the 1960s in Kiev was a sports club of Kiev Arsenal factory, SC Arsenal Kiev, which fielded number of teams in various sports such as association football, hockey, others. In 2001 there was an attempt to revive the club by the Kiev city authorities (see FC Arsenal Kiev). FC Zirka Kropyvnytskyi was originally formed by the Elvorti Factory personnel and after the Communist revolution it was renamed along with the factory. FC Zorya Luhansk was formed at the October Revolution Locomotive Factory (today Luhanskteplovoz). FC Metalist Kharkiv was formed at the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory (today Malyshev Factory). There also was a factory team of the Donetsk Steel Works (see FC Metalurh Donetsk). At the KryvbasOre (today Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Association) were created such teams like FC Hirnyk Kryvyi Rih and FC Kryvbas Kryvyi Rih. FC Metalurh Zaporizhia traces its roots to the team of Zaporizhstal. FC Torpedo Zaporizhia traces its roots to the team of ZAZ car factory. From Romania we have Rapid Bucharest that it was founded in 1923 by a group workers of the Grivița workshops under the name of Asociația culturală și sportivă CFR ("CFR Cultural and Sports Association").

North America

Bethlehem Steel F.C., which holds a record number of U.S. Open Cup wins, was the factory team of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation in Pennsylvania.

One of the most popular teams in Mexico, Cruz Azul, is a works team owned by Cooperativa La Cruz Azul S.C.L., an industrial cement company. The team was formed on May 22, 1927 by some of the company's workers.

South America

Several Argentinian clubs began life as the works teams of British-owned railway companies, including Rosario Central, Talleres de Córdoba, Ferro Carril Oeste, Club Ferrocarril Midland and Club Atlético Central Córdoba.

In Brazil, clubs that were born as works teams include São Paulo Railway (now Nacional), Cotonifício Rodolfo Crespi (now Juventus), Sport Club Corinthians Paulista (also a sporting club, formed by railway workers), and Bangu.

Uruguay has one of the best known clubs that began as a works team: Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club, or just CURCC, which was the basis for the later foundation of Peñarol, one of the top two clubs in that country.

Arguably, Club Universidad de Chile is a works team, having been formed by university students before becoming part of the university's brand until 1980. (A number of university teams around the world play professionally, including University of Pretoria F.C. in South Africa; FC Academia Chișinău in Moldova; Cardiff Metropolitan University F.C. in Wales (once called Inter CableTel A.F.C.); and Club Universidad de Guadalajara in Mexico.)

In Ecuador, a perfect example of a works team is CS Emelec, which was founded by the Empresa Eléctrica del Ecuador, Guayaquil's first electric company. For several decades, Emelec's players and directors were employees in the company, though such involvement decreased gradually until the company eventually folded in the 2000s (decade), the club being de facto autonomous for decades before.

Sociedad Deportiva Aucas is another important works team in Ecuador. Historically the most popular team in Quito, Aucas was founded and initially integrated and financed by employees of Royal Dutch Shell. They named the club after the Huaorani tribes that they encountered while prospecting for oil in the Ecuadorian Amazonian jungles.

Club Alianza Lima was founded as Sport Alianza in 1901 by workers in the Alianza Racing Horse Stud, then property of two-time President of Peru Augusto B. Leguía.

Rugby union

In rugby union, too has a works team tradition going back many decades, although the clubs have declined post professionalism in heartland countries, it has not been completely extinguished. As late as 1988 the Wales Captain played his club rugby for South Wales Police. As of 2017, Tata Steel play in the Second Flight of the WRU Club Pyramid. The British Army still plays occasional matches against Clubs, and has won the Middlesex Sevens in the 2000s.

Currently the strongest works teams are in Asia. The Top League in Japan features teams such as Suntory Sungoliath, Toyota Verblitz and IBM Big Blue. Samsung has a team in the Korean league.

American football

Works teams were common in the early days of professional football. The Columbus Panhandles were a famous works team; it consisted of Pennsylvania Railroad employees, including the famed Nesser Brothers, and eventually became a charter member of the National Football League.

The National Public Safety Football League is a modern-day example of a league of works teams, with each team in the league consisting of employees of a public department (usually police or fire) in a given city.

See also


  1. ^ "Nadie es profeta en su tierra: W. A. Mackay | Huelva Buenas Noticias, Periódico digital de Huelva y provincia centrado en informaciones positivas". Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  2. ^ V.R. Distillery Cricket Club
  3. ^ "Osnivanje kluba – FKZ". Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  4. ^ Otkud ime "Plavi golubovi" i BLUE MARINES at, 9-1-2011, retirved 4-3-2016 ‹See Tfd›(in Serbian)
  5. ^ ИСТОРИЈА section: Возобновување (1945-1949), at FK Rabotnički official website, retrieved 4-3-2016 (in Macedonian)
  6. ^ "80 letnica društva" (PDF) (in Slovenian). Železničarsko Športno Društvo. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  7. ^ Milorad Sijić: "Football in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia", pag. 172
  8. ^ Historie at FC Fastav Zlín official website, retrieved 4-3-2016 ‹See Tfd›(in Czech)
  9. ^ Fudbal u Kraljevini Jugoslaviji, Sijić, p. 173
1966 Mexican Grand Prix

The 1966 Mexican Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Ciudad Deportiva Magdalena Mixhuca on October 23, 1966. It was race 9 of 9 in both the 1966 World Championship of Drivers and the 1966 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. The race was the fifth Mexican Grand Prix. The race was held over 65 laps of the 5 km (3.1 mi) circuit for a race distance of 325 km (202 mi). It was the first run under the new three-litre formula.The race was won by British driver John Surtees driving a Cooper T81-Maserati, his first victory since leaving Scuderia Ferrari to join Cooper. Surtees lead home reigning world champion Australian owner-driver Jack Brabham, driving a Brabham BT20-Repco, H by eight seconds. A lap down in third place, also driving a Brabham BT20, was Brabham's teammate New Zealander Denny Hulme.

Surtees victory promoted him to second place in the championship, vaulting past Austrian driver Jochen Rindt of the Cooper works team.

1979 Belgian Grand Prix

The 1979 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 13 May 1979 at Zolder. It was the sixth race of the 1979 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1979 International Cup for F1 Constructors.

The 70-lap race was won by Jody Scheckter, driving a Ferrari. Scheckter collided with Clay Regazzoni's Williams-Ford on the second lap, but recovered to take his first victory of the season. Jacques Laffite finished second in a Ligier-Ford, having started from pole position, while Didier Pironi achieved his first podium finish with third in a Tyrrell-Ford.

The race also saw the first appearance of Alfa Romeo as a works team since 1951. Driving the Alfa Romeo 177, Bruno Giacomelli qualified 14th, ahead of both Renaults and both McLarens, before retiring following a collision with Elio de Angelis in the Shadow-Ford.

Ernst Jakob Henne

Ernst Jakob Henne ((1904-02-22)22 February 1904 – 23 May 2005(2005-05-23) (aged 101) ) was a German motorcycle racer and racecar driver.Henne was born in the village of Weiler, near Wangen im Allgäu. His father was a saddlemaker. In 1919 Henne was apprenticed to a become a motor vehicle mechanic. He started racing in 1923 in Mühldorf, finishing third on a Megola in his first race. In 1925 he competed in the Monza Grand Prix, his first major international event, where he placed sixth in the 350cc class.Henne soon became one of the most successful German motorcycle racers. After joining the BMW works team, he became the 1926 German champion in the 500cc class, 1927 German champion in the 750cc class and the 1928 winner of the Targa Florio.Starting on 9 September 1929 at 216.6 km/h (134.6 mph) on a supercharged 750 cc BMW, Henne achieved a total of 76 land speed world records, increasing his speed annually from 1929 to 1937. His last motorcycle land speed record was set on 28 November 1937 with a speed of 279.5 km/h (173.7 mph) on a fully faired 500cc supercharged BMW. This record stood for 14 years.Henne competed in the International Six Days Trial, and was a member of the winning German teams of 1933, 1934, and 1935. He also raced sports cars, winning the two-litre class of the 1936 Eifelrennen in the first appearance of the BMW 328.Having earned his pilot's licence in 1932, Henne was conscripted by the Luftwaffe during World War II, but was declared unfit due to the skull fractures and concussions he had suffered during his racing career. After the war, he developed a contract workshop with Mercedes-Benz. In 1991 he founded the Ernst-Jakob-Henne Foundation to help innocent victims of misfortune.

From 1996 until his death in 2005 at the age of 101, Henne lived in retirement with his wife on the Canary Islands.


In motorsports, a factory-backed racing team or driver is one sponsored by a vehicle manufacturer in official competitions. As motorsport competition is an expensive endeavor, some degree of factory support is desired and often necessary for success. The lowest form of factory backing comes in the form of contingency awards, based upon performance, which help to defray the cost of competing. Full factory backing can be often seen in the highest forms of international competition, with major motorsport operations often receiving hundreds of millions of euros to represent a particular manufacturer.

One-make series can also be backed by the factory, notably Ferrari Challenge and Porsche Supercup purely to allow themselves sell their competition specials of their models to customers and to organize series. These series commonly offer prize money and even sometimes a factory drive in an upper-level series.

In lower level racing, support from dealerships and importers may also be referred to as factory backing. In drifting, where factory backed teams are few and far between (Mopar and Pontiac of Formula D for example), works team/drivers are those backed by large or highly established tuning companies, as opposed to those entered by the drivers themselves or smaller and less well-off tuning companies. The advantage to this is drivers can get access to expensive prototype parts provided by the company that are not yet available to customers and in the event of their car being too badly damaged to compete, a back-up car will be available to them.

Ford Works Team (Australia)

The Ford Works Team (Australia) was a former Australian motor racing team that was supported by the Ford Motor Company of Australia. The team was formed in 1962 and was wound up when Ford withdrew from motor racing at the end of 1973. Drivers for the works team included Allan Moffat, Fred Gibson, Harry Firth, Bob Jane, Barry Seton, Bruce McPhee, John French, Ian Geoghegan and his brother Leo.

Harry Firth

Henry Leslie "Harry" Firth (18 April 1918 – 27 April 2014) was an Australian racing driver and team manager. Firth was a leading race and rally driver during the 1950s and 1960s and continued as an influential team manager with first the Ford works team and then the famed Holden Dealer Team (HDT) well into the 1970s. Firth’s nickname was "the fox", implying his use of cunning ploys as a team manager.Firth won the Bathurst 500, including its predecessor at Phillip Island, four times (twice in the final two races held at the Island and twice at Bathurst). He also won the Southern Cross Rally and the Australian Rally Championship. He was inducted into the V8 Supercars Hall of Fame in 2007.

Firth has often been described as a 'bush engineer', someone who could probably build a race winning engine from nothing more than a roll of wire, while leading Australian Motoring journalist and former part-time racer Bill Tuckey once wrote of Firth that as a driver, engineer and team manager, he was "As cunning as an outhouse rat".

On Sunday 27 April Harry Firth died peacefully in his sleep surrounded by his family, he was aged 96.

International Formula Master

International Formula Master, also known as Formula Super 2000, was a European-based junior single seater formula. The series was conceived as a competitor for Formula Three and made its debut at Valencia in 2007. European television channel Eurosport were backing the series and the series regularly supported the World Touring Car Championship during its European races.The championship started in 2005 as the 3000 Pro Series, organised by Peroni Promotion and based in Italy; it used Lola B99/50 chassis alongside 2002 cars. MTC Organisation took over for 2006 and renamed it F3000 International Masters, running a support series to the WTCC. In 2007 this series changed regulations, with N.Technology now running technical operations for MTC Organisation, and it became the International Formula Master. N.Technology had previously been involved in motorsport as an Alfa Romeo works team.

Jean Guichet

Jean Guichet (born 10 August 1927 in Marseilles, France) is a French industrialist and former racing driver. He is most well known for winning the 1964 24 Hours of Le Mans with co-driver Nino Vaccarella, driving a Ferrari 275 P for Scuderia Ferrari. Guichet raced sports cars and rallied from 1948 through the late 1970s. He began his racing career as a self-funded independent driver but would later drive for teams including Scuderia Ferrari, the Abarth works team, Ecurie Filipinetti, Maranello Concessionaires, and NART.Guichet is also known as the first owner of 1963 Ferrari 250 GTO chassis number 5111GT, one of only 36 produced. He successfully raced this car, including an overall win of the 1963 Tour de France with co-driver Jose Behra. Following Guichet's sale of the car in 1965 and multiple subsequent ownership changes, this car was sold privately in September 2013 for $52,000,000 USD. This broke the then-current record for world's most expensive car.

Lockheed XF-90

The Lockheed XF-90 was built in response to a United States Air Force requirement for a long-range penetration fighter and bomber escort. The same requirement produced the McDonnell XF-88 Voodoo. Lockheed received a contract for two prototype XP-90s (redesignated XF-90 in 1948). The design was developed by Willis Hawkins and the Skunk Works team under Kelly Johnson. Two prototypes were built (s/n 46-687 and -688). Developmental and political difficulties delayed the first flight until 3 June 1949, with Chief Test Pilot Tony LeVier at the controls. Performance of the design was considered inadequate due to being underpowered, and the XF-90 never entered production.

Lovell's Athletic F.C.

Lovell's Athletic F.C. was the works team for Lovell's sweet factory in Newport, Monmouthshire, Wales, which played professional football from 1918 until 1969.

Maserati in motorsport

Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants.

Mercedes-Benz in Formula One

Mercedes-Benz, through its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix Limited, is currently involved in Formula One as a constructor under the name of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport. The team is based in Brackley, Northamptonshire, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years. The team is also known by their nickname, the "Silver Arrows".

After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix, driver Juan Manuel Fangio won another three Grands Prix to win the 1954 Drivers' Championship and repeated this success in 1955. Despite winning two Drivers' Championships, Mercedes-Benz withdrew from motor racing in response to the 1955 Le Mans disaster and did not return to Formula One until rejoining as an engine supplier in association with Ilmor, a British independent high-performance autosport engineering company later acquired by Mercedes, in 1994.

In addition to its factory team, Mercedes currently supplies engines to Racing Point and Williams. The manufacturer has collected more than 180 wins as an engine supplier and is ranked second in Formula One history. Seven Constructors' and 11 Drivers' Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines.

Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, having achieved consecutive Drivers' and Constructors' Championships from 2014 to 2018. In 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLaren's 1988 record of 10. The record was extended the following year with 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes also collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren (1988) and Ferrari's (2002, 2004) record of 15. In 2016, they extended this record with 19 wins.

Samsung Galaxy (esports)

Samsung Galaxy (Korean: 삼성 갤럭시) was a professional esports works team of the South Korean corporation Samsung Electronics. During its existence it had teams competing in League of Legends, StarCraft and StarCraft II.

Samsung's League of Legends division was created on September 7, 2013, after MVP's two teams, MVP Blue and MVP White, were acquired by Samsung. Samsung Galaxy White won the 2014 World Championship. The two teams later merged and Samsung Galaxy went on to finish as the runners-up of the 2016 World Championship and the champions of the 2017 World Championship.

Shadow Racing Cars

Shadow Racing Cars was a Formula One and sports car racing team, founded and initially based in the United States although later Formula One operations were run from the British base in Northampton. The team held an American licence from 1973 to 1975 and a British licence from 1976 to 1980, thus becoming the first constructor to officially change its nationality. Their only F1 victory, at the 1977 Austrian Grand Prix, was achieved as a British team.

Shawfield Amateurs F.C.

Shawfield Amateurs Football Club were a Scottish football team located in the town of Rutherglen that competed in the Scottish Amateur Football League, and also the Scottish Cup in the 1940s and 1950s.


The Surtees Racing Organisation was a race team that spent nine seasons (1970 to 1978) as a constructor in Formula One, Formula 2, and Formula 5000.

Tochigi City FC

For the J. League club based in Utsunomiya, see Tochigi S.C.Tochigi City Football Club (栃木シティフットボールクラブ) is a Japanese football club based in Tochigi Prefecture.

The club was formed in 1947 as Hitachi Tochigi Soccer Club, the works team of the local Hitachi, Ltd. affiliate. In 2002 it adopted the moniker Uva (meaning "grape" in Italian, Portuguese and Spanish), after the vineyards of its home area, southern Tochigi Prefecture.

Ugo Sivocci

Ugo Sivocci (August 29, 1885 - September 8, 1923) was an Italian race car driver.Born in Salerno, Sivocci started his racing career as one of the pioneers of Italian bicycle racing, obtaining a second place in the 600 km long classic Corsa Nazionale. After World War I, he worked as an auto mechanic in Milan. Being a friend of Enzo Ferrari, he was hired by Alfa Romeo in 1920 to drive Alfa in three-man works team: (Alfa Corse) with Antonio Ascari and Enzo Ferrari. With the HP 20-30 ES Sport he finished 2nd in the Parma - Poggio Berceto race. In 1923 he began to drive the Alfa Romeo RL, and quickly won numerous races. In the same year, he won the Targa Florio with RL Targa Florio which was his major racing achievement. The race was a great success for Alfa Romeo as second (Ascari) and fourth places (Giulio Masetti)

were occupied by Alfa.

In the same year Sivocci was killed while testing Merosi's new P1 at Monza. On the same day of the accident, a press release of the engineer Nicola Romeo announced the withdrawal of other Alfa Romeo cars competing. Sivocci's car was painted with the green cloverleaf on a white background that was to become Alfa's good luck token.

His car was carrying number 17, which was never again assigned to Italian racing cars.

Youngstown Ohio Works

The Youngstown Ohio Works baseball team was a minor league club that was known for winning the premier championship of the Ohio–Pennsylvania League in 1905, and for launching the professional career of pitcher Roy Castleton a year later. A training ground for several players and officials who later established careers in Major League Baseball, the team proved a formidable regional competitor and also won the 1906 league championship.

During its brief span of activity, the Ohio Works team faced challenges that reflected common difficulties within the Ohio–Pennsylvania League, including weak financial support for teams. Following a dispute over funding, the team's owners sold the club to outside investors, just a few months before the opening of the 1907 season.The club's strong record and regional visibility spurred the growth of amateur and minor league baseball in the Youngstown area, and the community's minor league teams produced notable players throughout the first half of the 20th century. In the late 1990s, this tradition was rekindled, with the establishment of the Mahoning Valley Scrappers, a minor league team based in neighboring Niles, Ohio.


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