Workforce productivity

Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a group of workers produce in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure. Workforce productivity, often referred to as labor productivity, is a measure for an organization or company, a process, an industry, or a country.

Workforce productivity is to be distinguished from employee productivity which is a measure employed at individual level based on the assumption that the overall productivity can be broken down to increasingly smaller units until, ultimately, to the individual employee, in order be used for example for the purpose of allocating a benefit or sanction based on individual performance (see also: Vitality curve).

In 2002, the OECD defined it as "the ratio of a volume measure of output to a volume measure of input".[2] Volume measures of output are normally gross domestic product (GDP) or gross value added (GVA), expressed at constant prices i.e. adjusted for inflation. The three most commonly used measures of input are:

  1. hours worked, typically from the OECD Annual National Accounts database[3]
  2. workforce jobs; and
  3. number of people in employment.
Labour productivity levels in Europe. OECD, 2015
Labour productivity levels in Europe. OECD, 2017[1]
LabourProdComparison
Labour productivity US, Japan, Germany

Measurement

Workforce productivity can be measured in 2 ways, in physical terms or in price terms.

  • the intensity of labour-effort, and the quality of labour effort generally.
  • the creative activity involved in producing technical innovations.
  • the relative efficiency gains resulting from different systems of management, organization, co-ordination or engineering.
  • the productive effects of some forms of labour on other forms of labour.

These aspects of productivity refer to the qualitative dimensions of labour input. If an organization is using labour much more intensely, one can assume it's due to greater labour productivity, since the output per labour-effort may be the same. This insight becomes particularly important when a large part of what is produced in an economy consists of services. Management may be very preoccupied with the productivity of employees, but the productivity gains of management itself is very difficult to prove. While labor productivity growth has been seen as a useful barometer of the U.S. economy’s performance, recent research has examined why U.S. labor productivity rose during the recent downturn of 2008–2009, when U.S. gross domestic product plummeted.[4]

The validity of international comparisons of labour productivity can be limited by a number of measurement issues. The comparability of output measures can be negatively affected by the use of different valuations, which define the inclusion of taxes, margins, and costs, or different deflation indexes, which turn current output into constant output.[5] Labor input can be biased by different methods used to estimate average hours[6] or different methodologies used to estimate employed persons.[7] In addition, for level comparisons of labor productivity, output needs to be converted into a common currency. The preferred conversion factors are Purchasing Power Parities, but their accuracy can be negatively influenced by the limited representativeness of the goods and services compared and different aggregation methods.[8] To facilitate international comparisons of labor productivity, a number of organizations, such as the OECD, the Groningen Growth Centre, International Labor Comparisons Program, and The Conference Board, prepare productivity data adjusted specifically to enhance the data’s international comparability.

Factors of labour productivity and quality

US productivity and real wages
U.S. productivity and average real earnings, 1947–2008

In a survey of manufacturing growth and performance in Britain and Mauritius, it was found that:

"The factors affecting labour productivity or the performance of individual work roles are of broadly the same type as those that affect the performance of manufacturing firms as a whole. They include: (1) physical-organic, location, and technological factors; (2) cultural belief-value and individual attitudinal, motivational and behavioural factors; (3) international influences – e.g. levels of innovativeness and efficiency on the part of the owners and managers of inward investing foreign companies; (4) managerial-organizational and wider economic and political-legal environments; (5) levels of flexibility in internal labour markets and the organization of work activities – e.g. the presence or absence of traditional craft demarcation lines and barriers to occupational entry; and (6) individual rewards and payment systems, and the effectiveness of personnel managers and others in recruiting, training, communicating with, and performance-motivating employees on the basis of pay and other incentives."[9]

It was further found that:

"The emergence of computers has been noted as a significant factor in increasing labor productivity in the late 1990s, by some, and as an insignificant factor by others, such as R.J. Gordon. Although computers have existed for most of the 20th century, some economic researchers have noted a lag in productivity growth caused by computers that didn't come until the late 1990s."[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ GDP per hour worked. OECD (Report). 2018. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  2. ^ OECD Manual: Measuring Productivity; Measurement of Aggregate and Industry-Level Productivity Growth. (2002)
  3. ^ "Defining and Measuring Productivity" (PDF). 2017-04-19. Retrieved 2017-10-13.
  4. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, The Labor Productivity Puzzle, May 2012
  5. ^ International Labor Comparisons Program International comparisons of manufacturing productivity and unit labor costs trends. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  6. ^ Susan Fleck International comparisons of hours worked: an assessment of the statistics. Monthly Labor Review, May 2009
  7. ^ Gerard Ypma and Bart van Ark Employment and Hours Worked in National Accounts: a Producer’s View on Methods and a User’s View on Applicability Groningen Growth and Development Centre, University of Groningen and The Conference Board
  8. ^ International Labor Comparisons Program International comparisons of GDP per capita and per employed person. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  9. ^ a b Manufacturing In Britain: A Survey Of Factors Affecting Growth & Performance, ISR/Google Books, revised 3rd edition. 2003, page 58. ISBN 978-0-906321-30-0 [1]

External links

Community health worker

Community health worker (CHW) are members of a community who are chosen by community members or organizations to provide basic health and medical care to their community capable of providing preventive, promotional and rehabilitation care to these communities. Other names for this type of health care provider include village health worker, community health aide, community health promoter, and lay health advisor.Community health workers contribute to community development and can help communities improve access to basic health services. They are most effective when they are properly trained to provide information and services to the community. Community health workers are the most promising form of delivering health services to resource-constrained areas. They are seen as secondary health services in most low-income countries are available as a service to the community.In many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, there are critical shortages of highly educated health professionals. Current medical and nursing schools cannot train enough workers to keep up with increasing demand for health care services, internal and external emigration of health workers, deaths from AIDS and other diseases, low workforce productivity, and population growth. Community health workers are given a limited amount of training, supplies and support to provide essential primary health care services to the population. Programs involving CHWs in China, Brazil, Iran and Bangladesh have demonstrated that utilizing such workers can help improve health outcomes for large populations in under-served regions. "Task shifting" of primary care functions from professional health workers to community health workers is considered to be a means to make more efficient use of the human resources currently available and improving the health of millions at reasonable cost.

Comparison of Canadian and American economies

The economies of Canada and the United States are similar because they are both developed countries and are each other's largest trading partners. However, key differences in population makeup, geography, government policies and productivity all result in different economies. While both countries are in the list of top ten economies in the world in 2018, the US is the largest economy in the world, with US$20.4 trillion, with Canada ranking tenth at US$1.8 trillion. The population of Canada in July 2018 was 37,058,856 while the population of the United States was 328,928,146 in November 2018, almost ten times larger than Canada. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s 2018 report, Canadians pay lower personal income taxes than Americans. According to KPMG the corporate tax rate in Canada was 26.50% compared to 27% in the United States based on January 2018 data. Canada's 2017 debt-to-GDP ratio was 89.7%, compared to the United States at 107.8%. In 2016, Canada ranked 24th and the US 30th out of 35 OECD countries in terms of tax revenue to GDP ratio. In the U.S. News & World Report's "2019 Best Countries Report", which ranked 80 countries, Canada ranked 7th on Open for Business compared to the United States which ranked 48th out of the 80 countries. Canada placed first on Quality of Life, 2nd on Citizenship, 6th on Entrepreneurship, and 3rd overall. The US ranked first in terms of Power and fourth in terms of Cultural Influence.

Economy of the United Kingdom

The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-orientated. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP), ninth-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP), and twenty second-largest by GDP per capita, comprising 3.5% of world GDP.In 2016, the UK was the tenth-largest goods exporter in the world and the fifth-largest goods importer. It also had the second-largest inward foreign direct investment, and the third-largest outward foreign direct investment. The UK is one of the most globalised economies, and it is composed of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.The service sector dominates, contributing around 80% of GDP; the financial services industry is particularly important, and London is the world's largest financial centre. Britain's aerospace industry is the second-largest national aerospace industry. Its pharmaceutical industry, the tenth-largest in the world, plays an important role in the economy. Of the world's 500 largest companies, 26 are headquartered in the UK. The economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas production; its reserves were estimated at 2.8 billion barrels in 2016, although it has been a net importer of oil since 2005. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England and North East Scotland being the richest areas per capita. The size of London's economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe.In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, and during the 19th century it had a dominant role in the global economy, accounting for 9.1% of the world's GDP in 1870. The Second Industrial Revolution was also taking place rapidly in the United States and the German Empire; this presented an increasing economic challenge for the UK. The costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UK's relative position. In the 21st century, however, the UK remains a great power with the ability to project power and influence around the world.Government involvement is primarily exercised by Her Majesty's Treasury, headed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach. The Bank of England is the UK's central bank, and since 1997 its Monetary Policy Committee has been responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, and forward guidance.

The currency of the UK is the pound sterling, which is the world's fourth-largest reserve currency after the United States Dollar, the Euro and the Japanese Yen, and is also one of the 10 most-valued currencies in the world.

The UK is a member of the Commonwealth, the European Union (currently negotiating withdrawal), the G7, the G20, the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the United Nations.

Guilford Technical Community College

Guilford Technical Community College (Guilford Tech, "G-Tech", or GTCC) is a public community college in the Piedmont Triad of North Carolina. Guilford Technical Community College also has a campus in Jamestown and High Point.

Human resource management

Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of people in an organization so that they help the business to gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. HR is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and on systems. HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, and Reward management (e.g., managing pay and benefit systems). HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, that is, the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and from governmental laws.Human resources' overall purpose is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. HR professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can specialize in recruiting, training, employee-relations or benefits, recruiting specialists, find, and hire top talent. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations, and reward programs. Employee relations deals with concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as in cases involving harassment or discrimination. Employee benefits' role includes developing compensation structures, family-leave programs, discounts and other benefits that employees can get. On the other side of the field are human resources generalists or business partners. These human-resources professionals could work in all areas or be labor-relations representatives working with unionized employees.

HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitions, talent management, succession planning, industrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce. New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a newcomer not being able to replace the person who worked in a position before. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing employee commitment and psychological ownership.

Integrated Benefits Institute

Integrated Benefits Institute (IBI) is a United States national not-for profit organization created in 1995 with more than 700 members providing modeling and measurement tools across benefits programs, research and analysis, and a discussion and education forum. IBI is an independent resource for health and productivity research, measurement and benchmarking.The Integrated Benefits Institute is supported by insurers, drug companies and employers.Examples of findings in IBI studies include:

Employers that shift too much of the cost of drugs to workers in their company health plans could wind up losing more than they save, through absenteeism and lost productivity

Employers severely underestimate the prevalence and lost productivity costs of depression

The importance of addressing co-morbidities—employees with multiple chronic health conditions drive the largest effects on productivity loss

Companies that effectively manage health-related productivity as a corporate best practice also tend to be more profitable

Intranet

An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization's staff. Often, a wide range of information and services are available on an organization's internal intranet that are unavailable to the public, unlike the Internet. A company-wide intranet can constitute an important focal point of internal communication and collaboration, and provide a single starting point to access internal and external resources. In its simplest form, an intranet is established with the technologies for local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). Many modern intranets have search engines, user profiles, blogs, mobile apps with notifications, and events planning within their infrastructure.

Intranets began to appear in a range of larger organizations from 1994.

Mobile enterprise

A mobile enterprise is a corporation or large organization that supports critical business functions and use of business applications via wireless mobile devices. In a mobile enterprise, employees use mobile devices to do any or all of the following: access email, manage projects, manage documents, provide customer relationship management, conduct enterprise resource planning, fill out invoices and receipts, accounting vouchers, work orders, purchase orders, etc. and manage a corporate calendar and address book. These are the most common applications though many other corporate mobile applications are being developed and used by organizations around the world.

A mobile enterprise generally implies aggressive use of mobile technology facilitated by Internet-based data transmissions. As long as wireless network connectivity is available, enterprise databases can be remotely accessed and updated from anywhere in the world, at any time, with any device equipped with a Web browser and by anyone with permission to access such services. A mobile enterprise leverages existing Internet infrastructure and TCP/IP installations. In a mobile enterprise, mobile clients are at parity with other traditional clients such as laptop and desktop computers. The emphasis is on expedient data interchange and communication; little or no emphasis is placed on the method of access.

Operations management

Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. Operations management is primarily concerned with planning, organizing and supervising in the contexts of production, manufacturing or the provision of services.It is concerned with managing an entire production system which is the process that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services), or delivers a product or services. Operations produce products, manage quality and creates service. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, hospitals, companies, working with suppliers, customers, and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing, finance and human resources. The operations function requires management of both the strategic and day-to-day production of goods and services.

In managing manufacturing or service operations several types of decisions are made including operations strategy, product design, process design, quality management, capacity, facilities planning, production planning and inventory control. Each of these requires an ability to analyze the current situation and find better solutions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of manufacturing or service operations.

Palestinian workers in Israel

Palestinian workers in Israel are Palestinian citizens of the Palestinian Authority who are employed by Israeli citizens in the State of Israel and Israeli settlement in the West Bank. Most of them work as unskilled laborers in sectors such as agriculture and construction. After Israel conquered the West Bank and the Gaza Strip the Palestinian residents of the occupied areas were given the opportunity to work within the Green Line and later in the Israeli settlements and Israeli manufacturing sites in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, in which a significant number of all Palestinians are employed by Israeli employers.

People Matters

People Matters is an HR media platform founded in 2009. People Matters aims to foster ideas between HR-related professionals. People Matters prints a homonym magazine, online publishing, conducts research and creates events focused on human resources. Abhijit Bhaduri, Anil Khandelwal and others have collaborated and written for People Matters.

In 2012 the HR Fund backed People Matters with 40 million rupees on first round, with the aim to help build a digital platform.

The magazine started in 2010 and can be found in news stands in Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Chennai and Bangalore. It has been named the best HR Magazine in Asia in 2012. Besides this monthly printed magazine People Matters has participated in numerous publications globally.The platform has created some awards and conferences to help spread ideas about HR, some of these have gained substantial influence on the country. People Matters partners with other companies like DDI and Oracle. People Matters has recently opened an office in Bangalore.

Plateau Systems

Plateau Systems is a provider of Talent Management Systems headquartered in Arlington, Virginia with offices across the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific. The company provides SaaS solutions that allow organizations to develop, analyze and manage organizational talent, one of the key factors that affect workforce productivity and operating performance.

Replicon (company)

Replicon, Inc. is a software company providing cloud time tracking applications including timesheet and expense management software, using SaaS, for automating employee time tracking, project time tracking, expense tracking and resource scheduling.

Romania and the euro

Romania is required by its EU accession agreement to replace the current national currency, the Romanian leu, with the euro, as soon as Romania fulfills all of the six nominal euro convergence criteria. The leu is not yet part of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II), of which minimum two years of stable membership is one of the six nominal convergence criteria to comply with to qualify for euro adoption. The current Romanian government in addition established a self-imposed criteria to reach a certain level of "real convergence", as a steering anchor to decide the appropriate target year for ERM II-membership and euro adoption. As of March 2018, the scheduled date for euro adoption in Romania is 2024, according to Liviu Dragnea, head of the ruling Party of Social Democrats.

Service chain optimization

Service chain optimization is the application of processes and tools that embrace all functions for improving the efficiency, productivity and, eventually, the profitability of service organizations.

In this regard, profitability of a service organization is measured by the revenue generated from service demand (in the form of service work orders being carried out), and by the costs due to activity of the enterprise's human resources (who provide the service). Service chains consider the full life-cycle of service demand from early stages of forecasting, through planning, scheduling, dispatch, execution and post-analysis.

Service chain optimization is closely related to the fields of workforce management and field service management; the activity performed by field service resources is managed through the latter while being planned and optimized through the former. This relationship is analogous to the relation between supply chain optimization and supply chain management in the domain of manufacturing. In this regard, the service chain benefits from demand forecasting, resource planning and scheduling, and long term analysis activities similarly to the manner these contribute in the supply chain (being typically managed by ERP systems and optimized by supply chain optimization systems).

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Following the French and Indian War, numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery. By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U.S. Moon landing. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy. The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U.S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity. The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.

WatchDox

WatchDox LTD (originally called Confidela) the secure collaboration company, was founded by Noam Livnat and Moti Rafalin in 2008. WatchDox developed the first end-to-end DRM (Digital Rights Management) File Sync and Share platform. Its main investors included Shlomo Kramer, Shasta Ventures, Gemini Israel Ventures, Blackstone and Millenium Technology Partners ().

In 2012 WatchDox acquired InstallFree as part of its strategy to provide a full suite of secure collaboration capabilities.

The company grew to about 100 employees, and over 300 top enterprise customers, including Coca-Cola, Nike, Disney, Chevron, Zurich Insurance, KPMG, Bloomberg, Corning, Sony Comerica, Blackstone, TPG, MLB and others. Gartner consistently rated WatchDox as a visionary product in the EFSS (Enterprise File Sync and Share) market and in 2017 named it the best product of its kind in the "workforce productivity" and "protection" categories.WatchDox grew to about $15 million in annual recurring revenue before it was acquired by BlackBerry Limited in April 2015. BlackBerry renamed the WatchDox product to BlackBerry Workspaces.

WatchDox was headquartered in Palo Alto, CA and its R&D center was located in Petah Tikva, Israel. After its acquisition by BlackBerry, WatchDox R&D center became BlackBerry's Israel R&D center (John Chen, BlackBerry's CEO, visited the WatchDox employees and the Israeli PM after the acquisition).

Workforce (disambiguation)

The Workforce is the labour pool used in employment.

Workforce may also refer to:

Workforce Productivity, an economics/engineering field

Workforce (brand), a brand of the American retailer The Home Depot

Workforce (comics), a superhero team in the DC Comics Universe

Workforce (horse), thoroughbred racehorse and 2010 Derby winner

Workforce (Star Trek: Voyager), episode 162 and 163 of the 1995 American TV series Star Trek: Voyager

Working time

Working time is the period of time that a person spends at paid labor. Unpaid labor such as personal housework or caring for children or pets is not considered part of the working week.

Many countries regulate the work week by law, such as stipulating minimum daily rest periods, annual holidays, and a maximum number of working hours per week. Working time may vary from person to person, often depending on economic conditions, location, culture, lifestyle choice, and the profitability of the individual's livelihood. For example, someone who is supporting children and paying a large mortgage might need to work more hours to meet basic costs of living than someone of the same earning power with lower housing costs. In developed countries like the United Kingdom, some workers are part-time because they are unable to find full-time work, but many choose reduced work hours to care for children or other family; some choose it simply to increase leisure time.Standard working hours (or normal working hours) refers to the legislation to limit the working hours per day, per week, per month or per year. If an employee needs to work overtime, the employer will need to pay overtime payments to employees as required in the law. Generally speaking, standard working hours of countries worldwide are around 40 to 44 hours per week (but not everywhere: from 35 hours per week in France to up to 112 hours per week in North Korean labor camps) and the additional overtime payments are around 25% to 50% above the normal hourly payments. Maximum working hours refers to the maximum working hours of an employee. The employee cannot work more than the level specified in the maximum working hours law.

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