Wood sandpiper

The wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola) is a small wader. This Eurasian species is the smallest of the shanks, which are mid-sized long-legged waders of the family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific glareola is from Latin glarea, " gravel".[2]

Wood sandpiper
Wood Sandpiper Safari Park
Wood sandpiper in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Safari Park, Gazipur City, Bangladesh
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Tringa
T. glareola
Binomial name
Tringa glareola

Rhyacophilus glareola (Linnaeus, 1758)

Description and systematics

It resembles a longer-legged and more delicate green (T. ochropus) or solitary sandpiper (T. solitaria) with a short fine bill, brown back and longer yellowish legs. It differs from the first of those species in a smaller and less contrasting white rump patch, while the solitary sandpiper has no white rump patch at all.[3]

However, it is not very closely related to these two species. Rather, its closest relative is the common redshank (T. totanus), and these two share a sister relationship with the marsh sandpiper (T. stagnatilis). These three species are a group of smallish shanks with red or yellowish legs, a breeding plumage that is generally subdued light brown above with some darker mottling and with a pattern of somewhat diffuse small brownish spots on the breast and neck.[3][4]


The wood sandpiper breeds in subarctic wetlands from the Scottish Highlands across Europe and Asia. They migrate to Africa, Southern Asia, particularly India, and Australia. Vagrant birds have been seen as far into the Pacific as the Hawaiian Islands. In Micronesia it is a regular visitor to the Mariana Islands (where flocks of up to 32 birds are reported) and Palau; it is recorded on Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands about once per decade. This species is encountered in the western Pacific region between mid-October and mid-May.[3][5][6][7] A slight westward expansion saw the establishment of a small but permanent breeding population in Scotland since the 1950s.

This bird is usually found on freshwater during migration and wintering. They forage by probing in shallow water or on wet mud, and mainly eat insects and similar small prey. T. glareola nests on the ground or uses an abandoned old tree nest of another bird, such as the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris).[3] Four pale green eggs are laid between March and May.

Adult wood sandpipers moult all their primary feathers between August and December, whilst immature birds moult varying number of outer primaries between December and April, much closer to their departure from Africa. Immatures are also much more flexible than adults in the timing and rate of their moult and refueling. Adults and immatures which accumulate fuel loads of c.50% of their lean body mass can potentially cross distances of 2397–4490 km in one non-stop flight.[8]

The wood sandpiper is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Widespread, it is considered a Species of Least Concern by the IUCN.[9]

Wood Sandpiper Photograph By Shantanu Kuveskar

Wood sandpiper Mangaon, Maharashtra, India

Tringa glareola - Laem Phak Bia

In non-breeding plumage

Tringa glareola MWNH 208

Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden

Wood sandpiper David Raju

From India

Wood Sandpiper in Perumbakkam, Chennai

Wood Sandpiper seen in Perumbakkam Lake , Chennai


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Tringa glareola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 174, 390. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  3. ^ a b c d Hayman, Peter; Marchant, John; Prater, Tony (1986). Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders of the world. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-60237-8.
  4. ^ Pereira, S.L.; Baker, A.J. (2005). "Multiple Gene Evidence for Parallel Evolution and Retention of Ancestral Morphological States in the Shanks (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae)". Condor. 107 (3): 514–526. doi:10.1650/0010-5422(2005)107[0514:MGEFPE]2.0.CO;2.
  5. ^ Wiles, Gary J.; Worthington, David J.; Beck, Robert E. Jr.; Pratt, H. Douglas; Aguon, Celestino F.; Pyle, Robert L. (2000). "Noteworthy Bird Records for Micronesia, with a Summary of Raptor Sightings in the Mariana Islands, 1988–1999" (PDF). Micronesica. 32 (2): 257–284.
  6. ^ VanderWerf, Eric A. (2006). "Observations on the birds of Kwajalein Atoll, including six new species records for the Marshall Islands" (PDF). Micronesica. 38 (2): 221–237.
  7. ^ VanderWerf, Eric A.; Wiles, Gary J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Knecht, Melia (2006). "Observations of migrants and other birds in Palau, April–May 2005, including the first Micronesian record of a Richard's Pipit" (PDF). Micronesica. 39 (1): 11–29.
  8. ^ Remisiewicz, M.; Tree, A. J.; Underhill, L. G.; Burman, M. S. (2017). "Age-specific variation in relationship between moult and pre-migratory fuelling in Wood Sandpipers Tringa glareola in southern Africa". Ibis. 159 (1): 91–102. doi:10.1111/ibi.12436.
  9. ^ "Species factsheet: Tringa glareola". www.birdlife.org. BirdLife International. 2008.

External links

Bakota Bay

Bakota Bay (Ukrainian: Бакотська затока) is a bay located on Dniester formed after construction of the Dniester Hydro Power Station. The bay is part of the Podilski Tovtry National Nature Park. Its area is about 1,590 ha (3,900 acres).

Birds of Boigu, Saibai and Dauan Islands (Torres Strait)

The Birds of Boigu, Saibai and Dauan Islands (the Top Western group of Torres Strait), are of particular interest to Australian birders because the islands are home to, and visited by, birds which are essentially New Guinea species not found, or only occasionally seen as vagrants, elsewhere on Australian territory. The islands lie only a few kilometres from the mainland of New Guinea, though they are politically part of the state of Queensland, Australia.

Boigu and Saibai are low-lying alluvial islands of swampland and mangroves, subject to periodic flooding, while Dauan is a smaller but higher granite island. From an Australian birder's perspective, local bird specialities include grey-headed goshawk, Gurney's eagle, rufous-bellied kookaburra, collared imperial-pigeon, orange-bellied fruit-dove, Papuan needletail, red-capped flowerpecker, streak-headed mannikin and singing starling.


Blindwells is a place in East Lothian, Scotland. Etymology "hidden" "springs"

A former open-cast coal mine north of Tranent on the north-east side of the A1, just east of the Prestonpans/Tranent junction, adjacent to the estates of the Earl of Wemyss and March. As of plans in 2010 it is intended that the Blindwells settlement will consist of around 1,600 houses, and is part of East Lothian's planned 4,800 house total. The settlement would include its own community centre, pre-school facility, primary and secondary schools and commercial aspects. Though the planned 1,600 houses implies a smaller development than the Scottish New Towns created in the sixties this could be expanded to accommodate another 2,500 to 3,000 houses in the future, for which a total of 130 hectares are earmarked.

Older maps also show a cluster of buildings at Riggonhead, on the bank to the south-east of the main pond, at NT416752, but all that remains there now are earth mounds which are frequently used by scrambler bikes.

A series of man-made earth embankments were constructed for the purpose of settlement tests, to demonstrate that the site is stable enough to be built on.

There has long been a pool on the northern part of the site and this has attracted some birds as it is currently one of the few standing open waters in East Lothian. Waterbirds regularly seen here include mute swan*, mallard*, common teal, wigeon, tufted duck, little grebe*, moorhen* and coot* (* confirmed breeding since 2008 ). Gadwall also bred in 2012 with two broods seen in 2014 and a further expansion since. Regular counts are undertaken for BTO Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS) monitoring. Other characteristic birds of the site include grey partridge*, common kestrel, common buzzard, stock dove, skylark*, common grasshopper warbler, sedge warbler*, tree sparrow, reed bunting* and yellowhammer*, with altogether 29 species confirmed to breed in the period 2008-2013, with 17 "probable" breeders and a further 9 "possible" breeders (using BTO Atlas classifications ). Scarcer species recorded include little egret, common shelduck, garganey, northern shoveler, greater scaup, smew (drake plus 3 redheads, Feb 2012), marsh harrier (occasional extended presence), hen harrier (18 November 2014), merlin, common quail, a total of 18 species of wading bird including little ringed plover, wood sandpiper, green sandpiper, spotted redshank, black-tailed godwit and bar-tailed godwit, also short-eared owl, barn owl, cuckoo, kingfisher, lesser whitethroat, garden warbler and water pipit (15 March 2015); long-eared owls bred on the perimeter of the site in 2017. There is rich insect fauna too with nine species of dragonfly and damselfly having been recorded including the rare Red-veined Darter (Sympetrum fonscolombii) (2nd record for Lothian) and Black Darter (Sympetrum danae), together with common breeding species Emerald Damselfly (Lestes sponsa), Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion puella), Common Blue Damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum), Blue-tailed Damselfly (Ischnura elegans), and scarcer breeders Common Hawker (Aeshna juncea), Four-spotted Chaser(Libellula quadrimaculata) and Common Darter (Sympetrum striolatum). There is a colony of grayling and narrow-bordered five-spot burnet moth, which is currently on the edge of its UK range in this part of Scotland (photo, right).. The pond supported abundant amphibians, including smooth newt, attracting Grey Herons.

The main pond, a precious habitat for the above species, was completely eliminated by earthworks for the new settlement in the fourth week of August 2018, ending one of the best wildlife sites in the local area.

Common redshank

The common redshank or simply redshank (Tringa totanus) is a Eurasian wader in the large family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific totanus is from Tótano, the Italian name for this bird.

Gower Ornithological Society

The Gower Ornithological Society is a society for professional and amateur birdwatchers covering the geographical areas of south Wales comprising Gower, Swansea, Neath and Port Talbot.

Kumana National Park

Kumana National Park in Sri Lanka is renowned for its avifauna, particularly its large flocks of migratory waterfowl and wading birds. The park is 391 kilometres (243 mi) southeast of Colombo on Sri Lanka's southeastern coast. Kumana is contiguous with Yala National Park. Kumana was formerly known as Yala East National Park, but changed to its present name on 5th September 2006.The park was closed from 1985 to March 2003 because of the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam) attacks. It was also affected by the Boxing Day tsunami in 2004.

List of birds of the Maldives

The following is a list of birds recorded in the Maldives. The small size and isolation of this Indian Ocean republic means that its avifauna is extremely restricted. Most of the species are characteristic of Eurasian migratory birds, only a few being typically associated with the Indian sub-continent.

Due to poorness of native avifauna, some people (especially resort owners) deliberately release non-native birds.

Some of them, like red lory and budgerigar are established in wild, but are not included in official checklists.

This can't pose threat to native ecosystems because Maldives have no endemic birds and all native land birds are common in India and Bangladesh also.


Lodmoor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), RSPB reserve and country park in Dorset, England. The country park features a visitor centre, model railway and pitch and putt golf course. The SSSI has a wetland habitat with native birds that are rare in the UK and a range of migratory species.

Marsh sandpiper

The marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) is a small wader. It is a rather small shank, and breeds in open grassy steppe and taiga wetlands from easternmost Europe to central Asia. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific stagnatilis is from Latin stagnum, "swamp".


MigrantWatch is a citizen science non-governmental organisation project in India for collection of information about bird migration. The organisation was conceived in July 2007 and is coordinated by the Science Programme of the National Centre for Biological Sciences, in association with Indian Birds journal.The goal of the MigrantWatch programme is to collect information on the arrival, presence and departure of migrant birds that spend the winter in India and to assess any changes that occur in the timing of migration. The MigrantWatch program provides a website where registered members can upload observations of migratory bird species,and access all the sighting records and maps with data plotted.

In the first year, the program targeted nine species of migratory birds:

Northern shoveller Anas clypeata

Marsh harrier, Circus aeruginosus

Wood sandpiper Tringa glareola

Common (or barn) swallow Hirundo rustica

Grey wagtail Motacilla cinerea

Brown shrike Lanius cristatus

Black redstart Phoenicurus ochruros

Greenish warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides

Rosy starling Sturnus roseusSubsequently, the list was increased to 30 migratory species.

Råbjerg Mile

Råbjerg Mile is a migrating coastal dune between Skagen and Frederikshavn, Denmark. It is the largest moving dune in Northern Europe with an area of around 2 km2 (0.4 mi2) and a height of 40 m (130 ft) above sea level. It is also the only major stretch of migrating dunes in Denmark. The dune contains a total of 4 million m3 of sand. The wind moves it in a north-easterly direction up to 18 metres (59 ft) a year. The dune leaves a low, moist layer of sand behind it, trailing back westwards towards Skagerrak, where the Mile originally formed more than 300 years ago. Over 250,000 people visit the dune every year.

Somawathiya National Park

Somawathiya National Park is one of the four national parks designated under the Mahaweli River development project. Somawathiya Chaitya, a stupa said to be containing a relic of the tooth of the Buddha, is situated within the park. The park was created on 2 September 1986, having been originally designated a wildlife sanctuary on 9 August 1966. The park is home to many megaherbivores. The national park is located 266 kilometres (165 mi) north-east of Colombo.

Sultanpur National Park

Sultanpur National Park (Hindi: सुल्तानपुर राष्ट्रीय वन्यजीव अभयारण्य) (formerly Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary) is located at Sultanpur village on Gurugram-Jhajhar highway , 15 km from Gurugram, Haryana and 50 km from Delhi in India.

Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien-Smith

Lieutenant Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien-Smith JP, DL, (7 Feb 1846 – 6 Aug 1918) was Lord Proprietor of the Isles of Scilly from 1872 – 1918.


Tringa is a genus of waders, containing the shanks and tattlers. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle.They are mainly freshwater birds, often with brightly coloured legs as reflected in the English names of six species, as well as the specific names of two of these and the green sandpiper. They are typically associated with northern hemisphere temperate regions for breeding. Some of this group—notably the green sandpiper—nest in trees, using the old nests of other birds, usually thrushes.

The willet and the tattlers have been found to belong in Tringa; these genus changes were formally adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union in 2006.The present genus in the old, more limited sense was even further subdivided into Tringa proper and Totanus, either as subgenera or as full genera. The available DNA sequence data suggests however that neither of these is monophyletic and that the latter simply lumps together a number of more of less closely related apomorphic species. Therefore it seems unwarranted to recognize Totanus even as a subgenus for the time being.

Ulban Bay

Ulban Bay (Russian: Ul'bansky Zaliv) is a bay in the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk, just south of the Shantar Islands. It is a southern branch of Academy Bay to the north. The Syran and Ulban rivers flow into its head.

Walthamstow Wetlands

Walthamstow Wetlands is a 211 ha (520 acres; 2.11 km2) nature reserve, containing the Walthamstow Reservoirs, in north east London. Opened on 20 October 2017, the site is particularly important for wildlife due to its position within the Lee Valley; a byway for migrating, wintering and breeding birds in the Greater London area. The site is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and is one of the largest urban wetland nature reserves in Europe. Visitors can freely access the site’s natural, industrial and social heritage in one of the capital’s most diverse and densely populated urban areas.The reservoirs, under the ownership of Thames Water, also form part of a larger Site of Metropolitan Importance for Nature Conservation, noted for the mixture of aquatic and terrestrial habitats on site, and for their London-wide importance (especially for birds).

The Walthamstow Wetlands project is managed by London Wildlife Trust, in partnership with Thames Water and London Borough of Waltham Forest. The project was made possible after the Heritage Lottery Fund provided £4.4 million in funding. In total Walthamstow Wetlands has a value of £8m from capital works and revenue funding over five years, with Thames Water committing £1.84m to the project.The Greater London Authority have also funded the Wetlands to Wetlands Greenway, improving the 3 km (1.9 mi) cycle links between Woodberry Wetlands in Manor House and Walthamstow Wetlands to encourage visitors to visit both sites.

Wanlip Meadows

Wanlip Meadows is a 16.2 hectares (40 acres) nature reserve south of Wanlip and north of Leicester. It is owned and managed by the Leicestershire and Rutland Wildlife Trust.These meadows, which are sometimes flooded by the River Soar, are grazed by cattle. There are many birds, including the uncommon Temminck's stint and wood sandpiper. Invertebartes include grass snakes, frogs and toads.There is access from a footpath along the west side of the River Soar.

Wildlife of Tamil Nadu

There are more than 2000 species of fauna that can be found in Tamil Nadu. This rich wildlife is attributed to the diverse relief features as well as favorable climate and vegetation in the Indian state. Recognizing the state's role in preserving the current environment, the government has established several wildlife and bird sanctuaries as well as national parks, which entail stringent protective measures. Tamil Nadu is also included in the International Network of Biosphere Reserves, which facilitates international recognition and additional funding. Currently, there are five national parks and 17 sanctuaries that serve as homes to the wildlife.

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