Wolverine

The wolverine (/ˈwʊlvəriːn/) (also spelled wolverene), Gulo gulo (Gulo is Latin for "glutton"), also referred to as the glutton, carcajou, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae. It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more closely resembling a small bear than other mustelids. A solitary animal,[2] it has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size, with the documented ability to kill prey many times larger than itself.

The wolverine is found primarily in remote reaches of the Northern boreal forests and subarctic and alpine tundra of the Northern Hemisphere, with the greatest numbers in Northern Canada, the American state of Alaska, the mainland Nordic countries of Europe, and throughout western Russia and Siberia. Its population has steadily declined since the 19th century owing to trapping, range reduction and habitat fragmentation. The wolverine is now essentially absent from the southern end of its European range.

Wolverine
Temporal range: Pleistocene-recent, 2.588–0 Ma
[1]
Wolverine 01
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Genus: Gulo
Species:
G. gulo
Binomial name
Gulo gulo
Subspecies

G. g. luscus
G. g. gulo

Gulo gulo distribution
Wolverine ranges
Synonyms

Mustela gulo Linnaeus, 1758
Ursus luscus Linnaeus, 1758

Taxonomy

Gulo gulo
Wolverine skull from the Pleistocene of Germany at the Berlin's Natural History Museum

Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most closely related to the tayra and martens, all of which shared a Eurasian ancestor.[3]

Within the Gulo gulo species, a clear separation occurs between two subspecies: the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus. Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island (G. g. vancouverensis) and the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska (G. g. katschemakensis). However, the most currently accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon.[2][4]

Recently compiled genetic evidence suggests most of North America's wolverines are descended from a single source, likely originating from Beringia during the last glaciation and rapidly expanding thereafter, though considerable uncertainty to this conclusion is due to the difficulty of collecting samples in the extremely depleted southern extent of the range.[4]

Physical characteristics

MSU V2P1b - Gulo gulo skull
Skull, as illustrated by N.N. Kondakov
Die vergleichende Osteologie (1821) Gulo gulo
Skeleton

Anatomically, the wolverine is a stocky and muscular animal. With short legs, broad and rounded head, small eyes and short rounded ears, it more closely resembles a bear than it does other mustelids. Though its legs are short, its large, five-toed paws with crampon-like claws and plantigrade posture enable them to climb up and over steep cliffs, trees and snow-covered peaks with relative ease.[5]

The adult wolverine is about the size of a medium dog, with a length usually ranging from 65–107 cm (26–42 in), a tail of 17–26 cm (6.7–10.2 in), and a weight of 5.5–25 kg (12–55 lb), though exceptionally large males can weigh up to 32 kg (71 lb).[6][7][8][9] Another outsized specimen was reported to scale approximately 35 kg (77 lb).[10][11] The males are as much as 30% larger than the females and can be twice the females' weight. According to some sources, Eurasian wolverines are claimed to be larger and heavier than North American with average weights in excess of 20 kg (44 lb) but this may refer more specifically to areas such as Siberia, as data from European wolverines shows they are typically around the same size as their American counterparts.[10][12] The average weight of female wolverines from a study in the Northwest territories of Canada was 10.1 kg (22 lb) and that of males 15.3 kg (34 lb).[13] In a study from Alaska, the median weight of ten males was 16.7 kg (37 lb) while the average of two females was 9.6 kg (21 lb).[14] In Ontario, the mean weight of males and females was 13.6 kg (30 lb) and 9.9 kg (22 lb).[15] The average weights of wolverines were notably lower in a study from the Yukon, averaging 7.3 kg (16 lb) in females and 11.3 kg (25 lb) in males, perhaps because these animals from a "harvest population" had low fat deposits.[16] In Finland, the average weight was claimed as 11 to 12.6 kg (24 to 28 lb).[17][18] The average weight of male and female wolverines from Norway was listed as 14.6 kg (32 lb) and 10 kg (22 lb).[19] Shoulder height is reported from 30 to 45 cm (12 to 18 in).[20] It is the largest of terrestrial mustelids; only the marine-dwelling sea otter, the giant otter of the Amazon basin and the semi-aquatic African clawless otter are larger, while the European badger may reach a similar body mass, especially in autumn.

Wolverines have thick, dark, oily fur which is highly hydrophobic, making it resistant to frost. This has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light-silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, and a pale buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side and crossing the rump just above a 25–35 cm (9.8–13.8 in) bushy tail. Some individuals display prominent white hair patches on their throats or chests.[5]

Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory and sexual signaling. The pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames "skunk bear" and "nasty cat." Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth that is rotated 90 degrees, towards the inside of the mouth. This special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion that has been frozen solid.[21][22]

Behavior

Video of a wolverine in the Helsinki Zoo

Diet and hunting

Wolverines are considered to be primarily scavengers.[23] A majority of the wolverine's sustenance is derived from carrion, on which it depends almost exclusively in winter and early spring. Wolverines may find carrion themselves, feed on it after the predator (often, a pack of wolves) has finished, or simply take it from another predator. Wolverines are also known to follow wolf and lynx trails, purportedly with the intent of scavenging the remains of their kills. Whether eating live prey or carrion, the wolverine's feeding style appears voracious, leading to the nickname of "glutton" (also the basis of the scientific name). However, this feeding style is believed to be an adaptation to food scarcity, especially in winter.[24]

The wolverine is also a powerful and versatile predator. Prey mainly consists of small to medium-sized mammals, but the wolverine has been recorded killing prey such as adult deer that are many times larger than itself. Prey species include porcupines, squirrels, chipmunks, beavers, marmots, moles, gophers, rabbits, voles, mice, rats, shrews, lemmings, caribou, roe deer, white-tailed deer, mule deer, sheep, goats, cattle, bison, moose,[25] and elk.[26] Smaller predators are occasionally preyed on, including martens, mink, foxes, Eurasian lynx,[27] weasels,[27] and coyote and wolf pups. Wolverines have also been known to kill Canadian lynx in the Yukon of Canada.[28] Wolverines often pursue live prey that are relatively easy to obtain, including animals caught in traps, newborn mammals, and deer (including adult moose and elk) when they are weakened by winter or immobilized by heavy snow. Their diets are sometimes supplemented by birds' eggs, birds (especially geese), roots, seeds, insect larvae, and berries.

Wolverines inhabiting the Old World (specifically, Fennoscandia) hunt more actively than their North American relatives.[29] This may be because competing predator populations in Eurasia are not as dense, making it more practical for the wolverine to hunt for itself than to wait for another animal to make a kill and then try to snatch it. They often feed on carrion left by wolves, so changes in wolf populations may affect the population of wolverines.[30] They are also known on occasion to eat plant material.[31]

Wolverines frequently cache their food during times of plenty. This is of particular importance to lactating females in the winter and early spring, a time when food is scarce.[32]

Natural enemies

Wolves are thought to be the wolverine's most important natural predator, with the arrival of wolves to a wolverine's territory presumably leading the latter to abandon the area.[8] Armed with powerful jaws, sharp claws, and a thick hide,[33] wolverines, like most mustelids, are remarkably strong for their size. They may defend kills against larger or more numerous predators such as wolves or bears.[34] By far, their most serious predator is the gray wolf, with an extensive record of wolverine fatalities attributed to wolves in both North America and Eurasia.[35][36][37][38] At least one account reported a wolverine's apparent attempt to steal a kill from a black bear, although the bear won what was ultimately a fatal contest for the wolverine.[39] There are a few accounts of brown bears killing and consuming wolverines as well and, although also reported at times to be chased off prey, in some areas such as Denali National Park, wolverines seemed to try to actively avoid encounters with grizzly bears as they have been reported to in areas where wolves start hunting them.[40][41] In another account, a wolverine was claimed to have killed an adult polar bear but this account may be dubious.[42][43]

Mating and reproduction

Successful males will form lifetime relationships with two or three females, which they will visit occasionally, while other males are left without a mate.[44] Mating season is in the summer, but the actual implantation of the embryo (blastocyst) in the uterus is stayed until early winter, delaying the development of the fetus. Females will often not produce young if food is scarce. The gestation period is 30–50 days, and litters of typically two or three young ("kits") are born in the spring. Kits develop rapidly, reaching adult size within the first year. The typical longevity of a wolverine in captivity is around 15 to 17 years, but in the wild the average lifespan is more likely between 8 and 10 years.[45] Fathers make visits to their offspring until they are weaned at 10 weeks of age; also, once the young are about six months old, some reconnect with their fathers and travel together for a time.[44]

Distribution

Wolverine on rock
Wolverine on rocky terrain

Wolverines live primarily in isolated arctic, boreal, and alpine regions of northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, and Fennoscandia; they are also native to European Russia, the Baltic countries, the Russian Far East, northeast China and Mongolia. In 2008 and 2009, wolverines were sighted as far south as the Sierra Nevada, near Lake Tahoe, for the first time since 1922.[46][47][48][49] According to a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service publication, as of 2014 "wolverines are found in the North Cascades in Washington and the Northern Rocky Mountains in Idaho, Montana, Oregon (Wallowa Range), and Wyoming. Individual wolverines have also moved into historic range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado, but have not established breeding populations in these areas."[50]

In 2004, the first confirmed sighting of a wolverine in Michigan since the early 19th century took place, when a Michigan Department of Natural Resources wildlife biologist photographed a wolverine in Ubly, Michigan.[51] The specimen was found dead at the Minden City State Game Area in Sanilac County, Michigan in 2010; no further wolverines have been spotted in Michigan.[52]

Most New World wolverines live in Canada and Alaska.[31]

Conservation

The world's total wolverine population is not known. The animal exhibits a low population density and requires a very large home range.[30] The wolverine is listed by the IUCN as Least Concern because of its "wide distribution, remaining large populations, and the unlikelihood that it is in decline at a rate fast enough to trigger even Near Threatened".[53]

The range of a male wolverine can be more than 620 km2 (240 mi2), encompassing the ranges of several females which have smaller home ranges of roughly 130–260 km2 (50–100 mi2). Adult wolverines try for the most part to keep nonoverlapping ranges with adults of the same sex.[22] Radio tracking suggests an animal can range hundreds of miles in a few months.

Female wolverines burrow into snow in February to create a den, which is used until weaning in mid-May. Areas inhabited nonseasonally by wolverines are thus restricted to zones with late-spring snowmelts. This fact has led to concern that global warming will shrink the ranges of wolverine populations.[44]

This requirement for large territories brings wolverines into conflict with human development, and hunting and trapping further reduce their numbers, causing them to disappear from large parts of their former range; attempts to have them declared an endangered species have met with little success.[30] In February 2013, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service proposed giving Endangered Species Act protections to the wolverine due to its winter habitat in the northern Rockies diminishing. This was as a result of a lawsuit brought by the Center for Biological Diversity and Defenders of Wildlife.[54][55]

The Wildlife Conservation Society reported in June 2009 that a wolverine researchers had been tracking for almost three months had crossed into northern Colorado. Society officials had tagged the young male wolverine in Wyoming near Grand Teton National Park and it had traveled southward for about 500 miles. It was the first wolverine seen in Colorado since 1919, and its appearance was also confirmed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife.[56] In May 2016 the same wolverine was killed by a cattle ranch-hand in North Dakota, ending a >800 mile trip by this lone male wolverine, dubbed M-56. This was the first verified sighting of a Wolverine in North Dakota in 150 years.[57] In February 2014, a wolverine was seen in Utah, the first confirmed sighting in that state in 30 years.[58]

Country Population in surveyed area Surveyed area Year State of population
Sweden 265+[5] Norrbotten[5] 1995–97[5] Stable[5]
Norway 150+[5] Snøhetta plateau and North[5] 1995–97[5] Decline[5]
Norway and Sweden - overall[59] 1065[59] Overall[59] 2012[59] Increase[59]
Finland 155–170[5] Karelia and North[5] 2008[5] Stable[5]
Finland - overall[59] 165-175[59] Overall[59] 2012[59] Increase[59]
Russia 1500[5] European Russia[5] 1970, 1990,[5] Decline[5]
Russia – Komi 885[5] 1990[5]
Russia – Archangelsk Oblast 410[5] Nenetsky Autonomous Area[5] 1990[5] Limited[5]
Russia – Kola Peninsula 160[5] Hunting Districts[5] 1990[5] Decline[5]
United States – Alaska[60] Unknown[60] Kobuk Valley National Park,[60] Selawik National Wildlife Refuge[60] 1998[60] Decline[60]
United States – Alaska[61] 3.0 (± 0.4 SE) wolverines/1,000 km2[61] Turnagain Arm and the Kenai Mountains[61] 2004[61] [61]
United States – Rocky Mountains[62] 28–52[62] Montana, Idaho, Wyoming[62] 1989–2007[62] Unknown[62]
United States – California[63] 3[63] Tahoe National Forest[63] 2008[63] Unknown[63]
Canada – Yukon 9.7 (± 0.6 SE) wolverines/1,000 km2[61] Old Crow Flats[61] 2004[61] [61]
Canada – Ontario[64] Unclear[64] Red Lake – Sioux Lookout to Fort Severn – Peawanuck[64] 2004[64] Stable to expanding[64]
Canada – Overall[65] 15,000–19,000[65] Overall[65] [65] Stable[65]

In captivity

Wolverine, Kristiansand Zoo
Captive at the Kristiansand Zoo, Norway

Around a hundred wolverines are held in zoos across North America and Europe, and they have been bred in captivity, but only with difficulty and high infant mortality.[66]

Name

The wolverine's questionable reputation as an insatiable glutton (reflected in the Latin genus name Gulo) may be in part due to a false etymology. The less common name for the animal in Norwegian, fjellfross, meaning "mountain cat", is thought to have worked its way into German as Vielfraß,[67] which means "glutton" (literally "devours much"). Its name in other West Germanic languages is similar (e.g. Dutch: veelvraat).

The Finnish name is ahma, derived from ahmatti, which is translated as "glutton". Similarly, the Estonian name is ahm, with the equivalent meaning to the Finnish name. In Lithuanian is ernis, in Latviantinis or āmrija.

The Eastern Slavic росомаха (rosomakha) and the Polish and Czech name rosomák seem to be borrowed from the Finnish rasva-maha (fat belly). Similarly, the Hungarian name is rozsomák or torkosborz which means "gluttonous badger".

In French-speaking parts of Canada, the wolverine is referred to as carcajou, borrowed from the Innu-aimun or Montagnais kuàkuàtsheu.[68] However, in France, the wolverine's name is glouton (glutton).

Purported gluttony is reflected neither in the English name wolverine nor in the names used in North Germanic languages. The English word wolverine (alteration of the earlier form, wolvering, of uncertain origin) probably implies "a little wolf". The name in Proto-Norse, erafaz and Old Norse, jarfr, lives on in the regular Icelandic name jarfi, regular Norwegian name jerv, regular Swedish name järv and regular Danish name jærv.

In culture

Bone pendant decorated with an engraved drawing of a wolverineDSCF6967
The Wolverine pendant of Les Eyzies, when wolverines were still found in southern France

Many cities, teams, and organizations use the wolverine as a mascot. For example, the US state of Michigan is, by tradition, known as "the Wolverine State", and the University of Michigan takes the animal as its mascot. The association is well and long established: for example, many Detroiters volunteered to fight during the American Civil War and George Armstrong Custer, who led the Michigan Brigade, called them the "Wolverines". The origins of this association are obscure; it may derive from a busy trade in wolverine furs in Sault Ste. Marie in the 18th century or may recall a disparagement intended to compare early settlers in Michigan with the vicious mammal. Wolverines are, however, extremely rare in Michigan. A sighting in February 2004 near Ubly was the first confirmed sighting in Michigan in 200 years.[69] The animal was found dead in 2010.[70]

Marvel Comics character James Howlett was given the name "Wolverine" because of his short stature, adamantium claws, and ferocity.

In the movie Red Dawn, the group of American-youth partisans fighting a communist invasion are The Wolverines, led by a character played by Patrick Swayze.

The wolverine figures prominently in the mythology of the Innu people of eastern Québec and Labrador. In at least one Innu myth, it is the creator of the world.[71]

Gallery

Brehms Het Leven der Dieren Zoogdieren Orde 4 Veelvraat (Gulo borealis)
Wolverine display at Arctic Interagency Visitor Center at Coldfoot
Gulo gulo 01
Wolverin pup in Sweden
Wolverine in Sweden

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External links

Chris Benoit

Christopher Michael Benoit (; May 21, 1967 – June 24, 2007) was a Canadian professional wrestler. During his 22-year career, Benoit worked for numerous promotions including the World Wrestling Federation/World Wrestling Entertainment (WWF/WWE), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), and New Japan Pro-Wrestling (NJPW). Industry journalist Dave Meltzer considered him "one of the top 10, maybe even the top 5, all-time greats".Benoit held 22 championships between WWF/WWE, WCW, NJPW, and ECW. He was a two-time world champion, having been a one-time WCW World Heavyweight Champion, and a one-time World Heavyweight Champion in WWE; he was booked to win a third world championship at a WWE event on the night of his death. Benoit was the twelfth WWE Triple Crown Champion and seventh WCW Triple Crown Champion, and the second of four men in history to achieve both the WWE and WCW Triple Crown Championships. He was also the 2004 Royal Rumble winner, joining Shawn Michaels as the only two men to win a Royal Rumble as the number one entrant. Benoit headlined multiple pay-per-views for WWE, including a victory in the World Heavyweight Championship main event match of WrestleMania XX in 2004.Benoit murdered his wife on June 22, 2007, his son on June 23, 2007, and hanged himself on June 24, 2007. Research suggests depression and brain damage from numerous concussions are likely contributing factors leading to the crime.

Death of Wolverine

"Death of Wolverine" is a 2014 comic book storyline published by Marvel Comics. The story has grown from both volume 5 (Marvel Now!) and volume 6 (All-New Marvel Now!) of the Wolverine main series.

Hugh Jackman

Hugh Michael Jackman (born 12 October 1968) is an Australian actor, singer, and producer. Jackman has won international recognition for his roles in a variety of film genres. He is known for his long-running role as Wolverine in the X-Men film series which he holds the Guinness World Record of longest career as a live-action Marvel superhero for. He is also recognized for his lead roles in films such as the romantic-comedy fantasy Kate & Leopold (2001), the action-horror film Van Helsing (2004), the magic-themed drama The Prestige (2006), the epic fantasy drama The Fountain (2006), the epic historical romantic drama Australia (2008), the film version of Les Misérables (2012), the thriller Prisoners (2013), and the musical The Greatest Showman (2017) which he received a Grammy Award for Best Soundtrack Album. His work in Les Misérables earned him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Actor and his second Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy in 2013.

In Broadway theatre, Jackman won a Tony Award for his role in The Boy from Oz. A four-time host of the Tony Awards themselves, he won an Emmy Award for one of these appearances. Jackman also hosted the 81st Academy Awards on 22 February 2009.

Jubilee (comics)

Jubilation "Jubilee" Lee is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with the X-Men. Created by writer Chris Claremont and artist Marc Silvestri, the character first appeared in The Uncanny X-Men #244 (May 1989).

Jubilee is a member of the human subspecies known as mutants, born with superhuman abilities. She can generate pyrotechnic energy blasts from her hands. Introduced as an orphaned "mall rat" from Beverly Hills, Jubilee joined the X-Men in the early 1990s, becoming the team's youngest member and often playing a sidekick role to her father-figure, Wolverine.

Jubilee eventually joined the junior team Generation X, and was a prominent character in the 1990s-era X-Men animated series. In late 2004, Marvel launched a self-titled six-part limited series for Jubilee set in Los Angeles, written by Robert Kirkman. In early 2011, she appeared in the four-part limited series Wolverine and Jubilee, written by Kathryn Immonen.

The character is one of the depowered mutants who later reappeared using technology-based powers in the New Warriors comic book series. In 2010, she was turned into a vampire during the "Curse of the Mutants" storyline.

Jubilee has cameo appearances in the first three X-Men films, portrayed by Katrina Florece in the first film, and by Kea Wong in its two sequels. In the 2016 film X-Men: Apocalypse, she is portrayed by Lana Condor.

Lady Deathstrike

Lady Deathstrike (Yuriko Oyama), occasionally spelled "Deathstryke," is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She is a foe of the X-Men, especially Wolverine.

Her father Lord Dark Wind created the adamantium-bonding process that was forced on Wolverine by Weapon X. A self-styled warrior, Lady Deathstrike hired the villain Spiral’s "body shoppe" to bond adamantium to her own skeleton in addition to other cyber-genetic enhancements. She has since worked as a mercenary and assassin and feels a need to prove herself by killing Wolverine. Lady Deathstrike is also the sister of Lord Deathstrike.

A mutant version of Lady Deathstrike, played by Kelly Hu and without any of Deathstrike's backstory, appeared as a brainwashed henchman of William Stryker in the 2003 film X2. She also re-appeared in X-Men: The Official Game, where she was revealed to be Silver Samurai's apprentice.

In 2009, Lady Deathstrike was ranked as IGN's 78th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

Logan (film)

Logan is a 2017 American superhero film starring Hugh Jackman as the X-Men character Wolverine. It is the tenth installment in the X-Men film series, as well as the third, and final, Wolverine solo film following, as well as a sequel to, X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009) and The Wolverine (2013). The film, which takes inspiration from "Old Man Logan" by Mark Millar and Steve McNiven, based in an alternate bleak future, follows an alternative universe where an aged Wolverine and an extremely ill Charles Xavier defend a young mutant named Laura from the villainous Reavers and Alkali-Transigen led by Donald Pierce and Zander Rice, respectively. The film is produced by Marvel Entertainment, TSG Entertainment and The Donners' Company, and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It is directed by James Mangold, who co-wrote the screenplay with Michael Green and Scott Frank, from a story by Mangold. In addition to Jackman, the film also stars Patrick Stewart, Richard E. Grant, Boyd Holbrook, Stephen Merchant, and Dafne Keen.Principal photography began in Louisiana on May 2, 2016, and ended on August 19, 2016, in New Mexico. The locations used for Logan were mainly in Louisiana, New Mexico, and Mississippi. Jackman makes his final appearance as Wolverine in the film, having portrayed the character in all of the films in the X-Men franchise up to that point.

Logan premiered at the 67th Berlin International Film Festival on February 17, 2017, and was theatrically released in the United States on March 3, 2017, in IMAX and standard formats. Critics praised the film for its screenplay, acting (particularly by Jackman, Stewart and Keen), Mangold's direction, action sequences, tone, deep themes, departure from traditional superhero films, and emotional depth. It became one of the best reviewed films in the X-Men series, with many critics regarding it as one of the greatest superhero films of all-time, and it was chosen by the National Board of Review as one of the top ten films of 2017. It was nominated for Best Adapted Screenplay at the 90th Academy Awards, becoming the first live-action superhero film ever to be nominated for screenwriting. It grossed over $619 million worldwide, and is the fifth-highest-grossing R-rated film ever, behind Deadpool, The Matrix Reloaded, Deadpool 2, and It.

Marvel Anime

Marvel Anime is a series of four anime television series and two direct-to-video films produced in collaboration between Marvel Entertainment and Japanese animation studio Madhouse. The four twelve-episode series, based on Iron Man, Wolverine, X-Men, and Blade, aired in Japan on Animax between October 2010 and September 2011. An English-language version aired in North America on G4 between July 2011 and April 2012. Each of the series, guided by writer Warren Ellis, largely features Japan as the setting for the storyline.

Old Man Logan

Old Man Logan is an alternative version of the Marvel Comics character Wolverine. This character is an aged Wolverine set in an alternate future universe designated Earth-807128, where the supervillains overthrew the superheroes. Introduced as a self-contained story arc within the Wolverine ongoing series by writer Mark Millar and artist Steve McNiven, the character became popular with fans. After the Death of Wolverine, X-23 took the mantle of Wolverine, but Old Man Logan was brought in to serve as an X-Man and featured in his own ongoing series.

Sabretooth (comics)

Sabretooth (Victor Creed) is a fictional character, a supervillain appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with the X-Men, in particular as an enemy of Wolverine. Created by writer Chris Claremont and artist/co-writer John Byrne, the character first appeared in Iron Fist #14 (August 1977). Sabretooth was originally portrayed as a non-powered serial killer but was later written as a mutant possessing bestial superhuman abilities, most notably a rapid healing factor, razor-sharp fangs and claws, and superhuman senses. He is a vicious assassin, responsible for numerous deaths both as a paid mercenary and for his personal pleasure.

Accounts as to the origin of his enmity with Wolverine are conflicted. It is known that Wolverine and Sabretooth were participants of the Cold War supersoldier program Weapon X, and that Sabretooth saw Wolverine as competition and therefore antagonized him. While Wolverine is depicted as suppressing his more savage qualities, Sabretooth does the opposite and embraces them, until the events of the 2014 storyline "AXIS".

The character has appeared in several X-Men animated series and video games, and was portrayed by Tyler Mane in the first X-Men film and by Liev Schreiber in the 2009 film X-Men Origins: Wolverine. In May 2008, Wizard magazine ranked Sabretooth #193 of the 200 best comic book characters of all time. In 2009, Sabretooth was ranked as IGN's 44th Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time.

The Wolverine (film)

The Wolverine is a 2013 superhero film featuring the Marvel Comics character Wolverine. The film, distributed by 20th Century Fox, is the sixth installment in the X-Men film series and the second film of the Wolverine solo film series. Hugh Jackman reprises his role from previous films as the title character, with James Mangold directing a screenplay written by Scott Frank and Mark Bomback, based on the 1982 limited series Wolverine by Chris Claremont and Frank Miller. In the film, which follows the events of X-Men: The Last Stand, Logan travels to Japan, where he engages an old acquaintance in a struggle that has lasting consequences. Stripped of his healing factor, Wolverine must battle deadly samurai while struggling with guilt over Jean Grey's death.

The film's development began in 2009 after the release of X-Men Origins: Wolverine. Christopher McQuarrie was hired to write a screenplay for The Wolverine in August 2009. In October 2010, Darren Aronofsky was hired to direct the film. The project was delayed following Aronofsky's departure and the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. In June 2011, Mangold was brought on board to replace Aronofsky. Bomback was then hired to rewrite the screenplay in September 2011. The supporting characters were cast in July 2012 with principal photography beginning at the end of the month around New South Wales before moving to Tokyo in August 2012 and back to New South Wales in October 2012. The film was converted to 3D in post-production.

The Wolverine was released on July 24, 2013, in various international markets, and on July 26, 2013, in the United States. The film received generally favorable reviews from film critics with acclamations for its plot, action scenes, performances (especially Jackman's), its humor, and its thematic profundity. The film earned $414 million worldwide, nearly 3.5 times its estimated production budget of $120 million, making it the fifth highest-grossing film in the series. A third Wolverine film, titled Logan, was released on March 3, 2017.

Wolverine (character)

Wolverine (birth name: James Howlett; colloquial: Logan, Weapon X) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, mostly in association with the X-Men. He is a mutant who possesses animal-keen senses, enhanced physical capabilities, powerful regenerative ability known as a healing factor, and three retractable claws in each hand. Wolverine has been depicted variously as a member of the X-Men, Alpha Flight, and the Avengers.

The character appeared in the last panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 before having a larger role in #181 (cover-dated Nov. 1974). He was created by Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, writer Len Wein, and Marvel art director John Romita Sr. Romita designed the character, although it was first drawn for publication by Herb Trimpe. Wolverine then joined a revamped version of the superhero team the X-Men, where eventually writer Chris Claremont and artist-writer John Byrne would play significant roles in the character's development. Artist Frank Miller collaborated with Claremont and helped revise the character with a four-part eponymous limited series from September to December 1982, which debuted Wolverine's catchphrase, "I'm the best there is at what I do, but what I do best isn't very nice."

Wolverine is typical of the many tough antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War; his willingness to use deadly force and his brooding nature became standard characteristics for comic book antiheroes by the end of the 1980s. As a result, the character became a fan favorite of the increasingly popular X-Men franchise, and has been featured in his own solo comic book series since 1988.

He has appeared in most X-Men adaptations, including animated television series, video games, and the live-action 20th Century Fox X-Men film series, in which he is portrayed by Hugh Jackman in nine of the ten films. The character is highly rated in many comics best-of lists, ranked #1 in Wizard magazine's 2008 Top 200 Comic Book Characters; 4th in Empire's 2008 Greatest Comic Characters; and 4th on IGN's 2011 Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.

Wolverine (comic book)

Wolverine is a number of Marvel Comics comic book series starring the X-Men member Wolverine. As of April 2013, 323 issues and 11 annuals have been published. It is the original flagship title created for the character.

Wolverine and the X-Men (TV series)

Wolverine and the X-Men is a 2009 American animated series by Marvel Animation. It is the fourth of five animated adaptations of the X-Men characters, the other four being Pryde of the X-Men, X-Men: The Animated Series, X-Men: Evolution, and an anime adaptation known simply as X-Men.

Wolverine in other media

Wolverine is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He is one of the few X-Men characters to be included in every media adaptation of the X-Men franchise, including film, television, computer and video games, and is the only one to have starred in his own video games.

X-23

Laura Kinney, originally known as X-23 and later the second known Wolverine, is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with the X-Men. The character was originally created by writer Craig Kyle for the X-Men: Evolution television series in 2003, before debuting in the NYX comic series in 2004. Since then she has headlined two six-issue miniseries written by Kyle and Christopher Yost, a one-shot and self-titled series written by Marjorie Liu, and All-New Wolverine by Tom Taylor.

X-23 was apparently the clone and later adopted daughter of Wolverine, created to be the perfect killing machine. For years, she proved herself a capable assassin working for an organization called the Facility. A series of tragedies eventually led her to Wolverine and the X-Men. She attended school at the X-Mansion, and eventually became a member of X-Force. Like Wolverine, X-23 has a regenerative healing factor and enhanced senses, speed, and reflexes. She also has retractable adamantium-coated bone claws in her hands and feet. In 2015, the character succeeded her father in adopting the name and costume of Wolverine in the series All-New Wolverine. In July 2018, the character returned to her original moniker of X-23.

The character has appeared in adaptations, including animated film and TV series and video games. She was portrayed by Dafne Keen in the 2017 film Logan.

X-Men (film series)

X-Men is an American superhero film series based on the fictional superhero team of the same name, who originally appeared in a series of comic books created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and published by Marvel Comics. 20th Century Fox obtained the film rights to the characters in 1994, and after numerous drafts, Bryan Singer was hired to direct the first film, released in 2000, and its sequel, X2 (2003), while Brett Ratner directed X-Men: The Last Stand (2006).

After each film earned higher box office grosses than its predecessor, several spin-off films were released, including a Wolverine trilogy from 2009 to 2017 and a Deadpool duology from 2016 to 2018. Three X-Men prequels were also released from 2011 to 2016. X-Men, X2, X-Men: First Class, The Wolverine, X-Men: Days of Future Past, Deadpool, Logan and Deadpool 2 were all met with positive reviews from critics, while X-Men: Apocalypse recieved mixed to positive reviews and X-Men: The Last Stand, alongside X-Men Origins: Wolverine received mixed to negative reviews.

With eleven films released, the X-Men film series is the seventh highest-grossing film series, having grossed over $5.7 billion worldwide. It is set to continue with the releases of Dark Phoenix and The New Mutants in 2019. The two films will be distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures after its purchase of 21st Century Fox.

Extant Carnivora species

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