Witchetty grub

The witchetty grub (also spelled witchety grub or witjuti grub[1]) is a term used in Australia for the large, white, wood-eating larvae of several moths. Particularly it applies to the larvae of the cossid moth Endoxyla leucomochla, which feeds on the roots of the witchetty bush (after which the grubs are named) that is widespread throughout Northern Territory and found in parts of Western Australia and South Australia.[2] The term may also apply to larvae of other cossid moths, ghost moths (Hepialidae), and longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae). The term is used mainly when the larvae are being considered as food. The grub is the most important insect food of the desert and has historically been a staple in the diets of Aboriginal Australians.[3]

Witchetty grub
Witchetty grubs (Endoxyla leucomochla) of the subfamily Zeuzerinae

The different larvae are said to taste similar, probably because they have similar wood-eating habits. Edible either raw or lightly cooked in hot ashes, they are sought as a high-protein food by Aboriginal Australians. The raw witchetty grub tastes similar to almonds, and when cooked, the skin becomes crisp like roast chicken, while the inside becomes light yellow, like a fried egg.[3]

The Arabana term for the grub is mako witjuti (with emphasis on initial syllables); mako means grub, and witjuti refers to the shrub, not the grub itself.[4] Similarly, Ngalea peoples referred to the grub as "mako wardaruka", meaning grubs of the wardaruka (Acacia ligulata) shrub. It has been suggested that the word witchetty comes from Adynyamathanha wityu, "hooked stick", and vartu, "grub". Traditionally, it is rare for people to dig for them.[3] Witchetty grubs feature as Dreamings in many Aboriginal paintings. When held, as a defense mechanism, the grubs will secrete a brown liquid.[3]

These grubs live in trees. They can also be found in black wattle trees, and are attributed as the reason why wattles die within 10 to 15 years. The roots of the Acacia kempeana shrub are another source of the grubs.

See also

References

  1. ^ "CSIRO - Witjuti grub".
  2. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2003). Insects and Spiders of the World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 625. ISBN 978-0-7614-7344-2.
  3. ^ a b c d Isaacs, Jennifer (2002). Bush Food: Aboriginal Food and Herbal Medicine. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: New Holland Publishers (Australia). pp. 190–192. ISBN 978-1-86436-816-1.
  4. ^ Tindale, Norman (1952). "On some Australian Cossidae including the moth of the witjuti (witchety) grub". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 76: 56.

External links

The dictionary definition of witchety grub at Wiktionary

Adnyamathanha language

Adnyamathanha (pronounced ; many other names, see below) or yura ngarwala is an Australian Aboriginal language. It is the traditional language of the Adnyamathanha and related peoples.

The name of the witchetty grub comes from Adnyamathanha.

Estimates of the number of people who speak Adnyamathanha are variable, though it is definitely severely endangered. According to Oates 1973 there were only 30 speakers, around 20 according to Schmidt in 1990, 127 in the 1996 census, and about 107 counted in the 2006 census.Yura ngarwala is a widely used term for the Adnyamathanha language. It translates literally to 'people speak'. However, in modern times yura has come to mean 'Adnyamathanha person', rather than 'person' generally, and thus the term translates to 'Adnyamathanha person speak'.

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Endoxyla leucomochla

Endoxyla leucomochla is a species of cossid moth endemic to Australia. The larva of the moth is commonly known as the "witchetty grub", and is widely used as bush tucker by Indigenous Australians.The caterpillars of the species live in underground tunnels where they feed on the sap from the roots of the witchetty bush (Acacia kempeana) and the small cooba (Acacia ligulata). The caterpillar grows to a length of about 7 cm, and pupates underground inside its tunnel.The adult moth is large (it has a wingspan of about 16 cm), with a fine mottled grey pattern and rusty red base on its wings. The moth has degenerate mouthparts, and is unable to feed itself, relying solely on nourishment obtained during its larval phase.Gallery

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Mimili, South Australia

Mimili is an Aboriginal community in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia, comprising one of the six main communities on "The Lands" (the others being Amata, Ernabella/Pukatja, Fregon/Kaltjiti, Indulkana and Pipalyatjara). At the 2006 census, Mimili had a population of 283.

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