Wirephoto

Wirephoto, telephotography or radiophoto is the sending of pictures by telegraph, telephone or radio.

Western Union transmitted its first halftone photograph in 1921. AT&T followed in 1924,[1] and RCA sent a Radiophoto in 1926. The Associated Press began its Wirephoto service in 1935 and held a trademark on the term AP Wirephoto between 1963 and 2004. The first AP photo sent by wire depicted the crash of a small plane in New York's Adirondack Mountains.[2]

Technologically and commercially, the wirephoto was the successor to Ernest A. Hummel's Telediagraph of 1895, which had transmitted electrically scanned shellac-on-foil originals over a dedicated circuit connecting the New York Herald and the Chicago Times Herald, the St. Louis Republic, the Boston Herald, and the Philadelphia Inquirer.[3][4]

Édouard Belin
Édouard Belin and his Belinograph

Édouard Belin's Belinograph of 1913, which scanned using a photocell and transmitted over ordinary phone lines, formed the basis for the AT&T Wirephoto service. In Europe, services similar to a wirephoto were called a Belino.

The first wirephoto systems were slow and did not reproduce well. In 1929, Dr. Vladimir Zworykin, an electronics engineer working for Western Electric, came up with a system that produced a better reproduction and could transmit a full page in approximately one minute.[5]

In the 1930s, wirephoto machines of any reasonable speed were very large and expensive and required a dedicated phone line. News media firms like Associated Press used expensive leased telephone lines to transmit wirephotos. In the mid-1930s a technology battle began for less expensive portable wirephoto equipment that could transmit photos over standard phone lines. A prototype device in the experimental stage was available in San Francisco in 1935 when the large Navy airship USS Macon crashed into the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California. A photo was taken and transmitted to New York City over regular phone lines. Later, a wirephoto copier and transmitter that could be carried anywhere and needed only a standard long-distance phone line was put into use by International News Photos.[6]

During the U.S. leaflet dropping campaign aimed towards the then Empire of Japan, near the end of WWII, Honolulu would transmit some radiophoto images to Saipan depicting proposed leaflet messages for the printing press on Saipan to produce.[7]

Wirephoto
Belinograph BEP-2V - MfK Bern
Belinograph BEP2V wirephoto machine by Édouard Belin, 1930
Process typePhysical
Analogue
Industrial sector(s)Wire Service
Photojournalism
Main technologies or sub-processesTelegraph
Telephone
Photography
Product(s)Telefaxed photographs
Leading companiesWestern Union
AT&T
Associated Press
etc.
Year of invention1920s

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "1924: Fax Service". AT&T Labs timeline. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  2. ^ "AP History 1901-1950: The Modern Cooperative Grows". Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  3. ^ Cook, Charles Emerson (April 1900). "Pictures by Telegraph (HTML transcription)". Pearson's Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  4. ^ "From Pearson's Magazine, April 1900 Pictures by Telegraph". Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  5. ^ "Photo Letters Sent in a Minute by Radio". Popular Science. September 1929. p. 62. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  6. ^ Schnurmacher, Emile C (July 1937). "Wire That Photo". Popular Mechanics. pp. 392–395, 128A–133A. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  7. ^ The Information War in the Pacific, 1945 Paths to Peace, Josette H. Williams.

Further reading

  • "Pictorial Telegraphy," Literary Digest, vol. 10, no. 19 (March 9, 1895), pg. 14.
1925 Rose Bowl

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. Its members are U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its standards and practices.The AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917.

The AP has counted the vote in U.S. elections since 1848, including national, state and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish, city and town across the U.S., and declares winners in over 5,000 contests.

The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English, Spanish and Arabic. AP content is also available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher.As of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters. The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It also operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative. As part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials.

Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.

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Bill Engeln

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Digital image

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Edith Hyde Robbins Macartney

Edith Hyde Robbins Macartney (1895 – April 1978) became the first-ever "Miss America" in 1919 in a contest held in New York City. She later became a fortune teller under the pseudonym Pandora.

Gerda Warko

Gerda Warko (born 1921) was a propagandist for the Nazi German government of Adolf Hitler. Educated in Staten Island, where she lived for thirteen years, Warko was captured by Allied (World War II) troops in May 1945. She was photographed along with Helen Sensburg shortly after their arrest in Germany.

Hastings Tribune

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In 2011, its circulation was 9356.

Hollis Stacy

Hollis Stacy (born March 16, 1954) is an American professional golfer. She became a member of the LPGA Tour in 1974, winning four major championships and 18 LPGA Tour events. She was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame in the veterans category in 2012.

Hurricane Madeline (1976)

Hurricane Madeline was a Category 4 hurricane that made landfall in Mexico in October 1976. Madeline formed on September 29, not far from Central America. The next day, the circulation dissipated, and as a result weakened to a remnant low. Four days later, on October 3, the low regenerated into a tropical depression. The system remained weak for three days as it drifted west-northwest. When it began to recurve towards Mexico on October 6, the cyclone rapidly intensified, eventually making landfall at peak intensity as a Category 4. Shortly after landfall, the cyclone rapidly dissipated.

Prior to the arrival of Madeline, 15,000 people evacuated form the coast, which had already been impacted by Hurricane Liza. Heavy damage was reported, along with seven fatalities. Two dams were flooded; extensive crop damage was reported.

Ike Altgens

James William "Ike" Altgens (; April 28, 1919 – December 12, 1995) was an American photojournalist, photo editor, and field reporter for the Associated Press (AP) based in Dallas, Texas, who became known for his photographic work during the assassination of President John F. Kennedy (JFK). Altgens was 19 when he began his AP career, which was interrupted by military service during World War II. When his service time ended, Altgens returned to Dallas and got married. He soon went back to work for the local AP bureau and eventually earned a position as a senior editor.

Altgens was on assignment for the AP when he captured two historic images on November 22, 1963. The second, showing First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy toward the rear of the presidential limousine and Secret Service agent Clint Hill on its bumper, was reproduced on the front pages of newspapers around the world. Within days, Altgens' preceding photograph became controversial after people began to question whether accused assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was visible in the main doorway of the Texas School Book Depository as the gunshots were fired at JFK.Altgens appeared briefly as a film actor and model during his 40-year career with the AP, which ended in 1979. He spent his later years working in display advertising, and answering letters and other requests made by assassination researchers. Altgens and his wife Clara died in 1995 at about the same time in their Dallas home. Both had suffered from long illnesses, and police said poisoning by a malfunctioning furnace also may have contributed to their deaths.

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Modern scanners typically use a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a contact image sensor (CIS) as the image sensor, whereas drum scanners, developed earlier and still used for the highest possible image quality, use a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as the image sensor. A rotary scanner, used for high-speed document scanning, is a type of drum scanner that uses a CCD array instead of a photomultiplier. Non-contact planetary scanners essentially photograph delicate books and documents. All these scanners produce two-dimensional images of subjects that are usually flat, but sometimes solid; 3D scanners produce information on the three-dimensional structure of solid objects.

Digital cameras can be used for the same purposes as dedicated scanners. When compared to a true scanner, a camera image is subject to a degree of distortion, reflections, shadows, low contrast, and blur due to camera shake (reduced in cameras with image stabilization). Resolution is sufficient for less demanding applications. Digital cameras offer advantages of speed, portability and non-contact digitizing of thick documents without damaging the book spine. As of 2010 scanning technologies were combining 3D scanners with digital cameras to create full-color, photo-realistic 3D models of objects.In the biomedical research area, detection devices for DNA microarrays are called scanners as well. These scanners are high-resolution systems (up to 1 µm/ pixel), similar to microscopes. The detection is done via CCD or a photomultiplier tube.

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Lenna

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In March 2016, parent company Digital First Media announced that the Oakland Tribune would fold into a new newspaper entitled the East Bay Times along with the company's other newspapers in the East Bay starting April 5, 2016. The former nameplates of the consolidated newspapers will continue to be published every Friday as weekly community supplements.

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King of the Roaring 20s: The Story of Arnold Rothstein is a 1961 American, biopic, drama, crime film directed by Joseph M. Newman, produced by Samuel Bischoff and starring David Janssen, Dianne Foster, Diana Dors and Jack Carson. During the prohibition era the gangster Arnold Rothstein rises to be a major figure in the criminal underworld. It is also known by the alternative title The Big Bankroll. It was based on a book by Leo Katcher.

Three Dog Night

Three Dog Night is an American rock band. They formed in 1967 with a line-up consisting of vocalists Danny Hutton, Cory Wells, and Chuck Negron. This lineup was soon augmented by Jimmy Greenspoon (keyboards), Joe Schermie (bass), Michael Allsup (guitar), and Floyd Sneed (drums). The band registered 21 Billboard Top 40 hits (with three hitting number one) between 1969 and 1975. Because Three Dog Night recorded many songs written by outside songwriters, they helped introduce mainstream audiences to writers such as Paul Williams ("An Old Fashioned Love Song") and Hoyt Axton ("Joy to the World").

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