Wing wall

A wing wall (also "wingwall" or "wing-wall") is a smaller wall attached or next to a larger wall or structure.

Hassenplug Covered Bridge entrance
The entrance to Hassenplug Covered Bridge in Mifflinburg, Pennsylvania is flanked by wing walls.

Bridges

In a bridge, the wing walls are adjacent to the abutments and act as retaining walls. They are generally constructed of the same material as those of abutments. The wing walls can either be attached to the abutment or be independent of it. Wing walls are provided at both ends of the abutments to retain the earth filling of the approaches. Their design depends upon the nature of the embankment and does not depend upon the type or parts of the bridge.[1]

The soil and fill supporting the roadway and approach embankment are retained by the wing walls, which can be at a right angle to the abutment or splayed at different angles. The wing walls are generally constructed at the same time and of the same materials as the abutments.

Classification of wing walls

Wing walls can be classified according to their position in plan with respect to banks and abutments. The classification is as follows:

  1. Straight Wing walls: used for small bridges, on drains with low banks and for railway bridges in cities (weep holes are provided).
  2. Splayed Wing walls: used for bridges across rivers. They provide smooth entry and exit to the water. The splay is usually 45°. Their top width is 0.5 m, face batter 1 in 12 and back batter 1 in 6, weep holes are provided.
  3. Return Wing walls: used where banks are high and hard or firm. Their top width is 1.5 m and face is vertical and back battered 1 in 4.[2] Scour can be a problem for wing walls and abutments both, as the water in the stream erodes the supporting soil.[3]

Other uses

Wing walls provide smooth entry of water into the bridge site and provide support and protect the embankment. Wing walls can serve as buttresses to support walls.[4] They can also be purely decorative.[5]

References

  1. ^ "Wing Walls". David Childs. Retrieved June 23, 2015.
  2. ^ Pierce, Phillip C.; Brungraber, Robert L.; Lichtenstein, Abba; Sabol, Scott; Morrell, J.J.; Lebow, S.T. (April 2005). "Covered Bridge Manual: Publication No. FHWA-HRT-04-098" (PDF). US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2006. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
  3. ^ Melville, Bruce; van Ballegooy, Sjoerd; Coleman, Stephen; Barkdoll, Brian (2006). "Scour Countermeasures for Wing-Wall Abutments". Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 132 (6): 563–574. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2006)132:6(563). Retrieved February 1, 2009.
  4. ^ Mahan, Dennis Hart (1873). Descriptive Geometry, as Applied to the Drawing of Fortification and Stereotomy. New York: John Wiley & Son. pp. 26–27. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
  5. ^ "Two wing walls make all the difference". Sunset. January 1989. Retrieved February 1, 2009.
Belmont Hall, Cheshire

Belmont Hall is a country house one mile (1.6 km) to the northwest of the village of Great Budworth, Cheshire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building. The house stands to the north of the A559 road. It is included in Simon Jenkins' England's Thousand Best Houses, and since 1977 has been occupied by Cransley School.

Canton Viaduct

Canton Viaduct is a blind arcade cavity wall railroad viaduct built in 1834–35 in Canton, Massachusetts, for the Boston and Providence Railroad (B&P).At its completion, it was the longest (615 feet) and tallest (70 feet) railroad viaduct in the world; today, it is the last surviving viaduct of its kind. It has been in continuous service for 183 years; it now carries high-speed passenger and freight rail service.

The Canton Viaduct's walls are similar to the ancient curtain wall of Rhodes (built about 400 BCE) with rusticated stone. It supports a train deck about 60 feet (18 m) above the Canton River, the east branch (tributary) of the Neponset River. The stream pool passes through six semi-circular portals in the viaduct, flowing to a waterfall about 50 feet downstream.

The viaduct was the final link built for the B&P's then 41-mile mainline between Boston, Massachusetts; and Providence, Rhode Island. Today, the viaduct serves Amtrak's Northeast Corridor, as well as Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) Providence/Stoughton Line commuter trains. It sits 0.3 miles (0.5 km) south of Canton Junction, at milepost 213.74, reckoned from Pennsylvania Station in New York City, and at the MBTA's milepost 15.35, reckoned from South Station in Boston.

Gilsum Stone Arch Bridge

The Gilsum Stone Arch Bridge carries Surry Road over the Ashuelot River in Gilsum, New Hampshire. Built in 1862-3, it is one of the highest stone arch bridges in the state. It has a span of 47'8", and an average height over the river of 36'6". The roadway is 43'6" above the riverbed. It stands on the site of four previous bridges, where the river passes through a deep gorge. The previous bridge was also a stone arch bridge, which was built in 1860 and collapsed (due to inferior construction) a few months later. It was designed by William Leonard Kingsbury, a local official; its builders are not known because the town's records were destroyed in a fire. The present bridge's vault is carefully constructed from dry-laid granite voussoirs that were shaped for a very precise fit, with larger stones at the lower ends of the arch, and a smaller ones at the crown. Some of the stones were left with rough surfaces, while others were hammered smooth.In contrast to the fine stonework of the arch, the abutments and retaining walls are constructed of split-faced granite in irregular courses, wedged in place by stone chips. The northeast abutment continues along the river as a wing wall up to a massive stone pier, the former site of a mill dam. The southeast abutment is a granite reconstruction of coursed ashlar over concrete, done in 1951. The original granite coping which lined the roadway shoulders has been replaced by concrete with steel guard cables, c. 1920s.The bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

Glanbrücken

Glanbrücken is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde Lauterecken-Wolfstein.

Glossary of architecture

This page is a glossary of architecture.

Grade II* listed buildings in Thanet

There are over 20,000 Grade II* listed buildings in England. This page is a list of these buildings in the district of Thanet in Kent.

Grist Mill Bridge (Lebanon, Maine)

The Grist Mill Bridge is a historic bridge in Lebanon, Maine, carrying Little River Road across the Little River. Although the bridge has a 20th-century wooden deck on rubblestone abutments and pier, it is functionally similar to the bridge's original deck, which was also a wooden structure that may have existed as early as 1774. The bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a rare example of a bridge in the state with some essential 18th-century elements intact.

Harvey B. Gantt Center

The Harvey B. Gantt Center for African-American Arts + Culture, formerly known as the Afro-American Cultural Center, is located in Charlotte, North Carolina and named for Harvey Gantt, the city's first African-American mayor and the first African-American student at Clemson University.

The 46,500 sq ft, four-story center was designed by Freelon Group Architects at a cost of $18.6 million — and was dedicated in October 2009 as part of what is now the Levine Center for the Arts.

Indian Lake Road Stone Arch Bridge

The Indian Lake Road Stone Arch Bridge is a former railroad bridge which now carries a hiking/biking path over Indian Lake Road, just east of M-24 near Orion, Michigan. It is one of only a small number of stone arch railroad bridges known to exist in Michigan. The bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.

Lake Overholser

Lake Overholser is a reservoir within the city limits of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Lake Overholser is formed by Overholser Dam on the North Canadian River in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. The lake is 2.9 miles (4.7 km) west of Bethany. Lake Overholser is named after Ed Overholser who was the 16th Mayor of the City of Oklahoma City.The lake was originally intended to assure an adequate supply of municipal water, since the city depended primarily on the North Canadian River as a source, supplemented by private wells. The need for flood control capability became obvious when the river flooded in 1923, it breached the Lake Overholser Dam, and inundated much of the city.

Lehigh Canal

The Lehigh Canal or the Lehigh Navigation Canal is a navigable canal, beginning at the mouth of Nesquehoning Creek on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania. It was built in two sections over a span of twenty years, beginning in 1818. The lower section spanned the distance between Easton, Pennsylvania and the town of Mauch Chunk, present-day Jim Thorpe, Pennsylvania. In Easton the canal met the Delaware and Morris Canals, with which goods could be brought further up the east coast. At its height, the Lehigh Canal was 72 miles (116 km) long.

Although the canal was used to transport a variety of products, its most significant cargoes were anthracite coal and pig iron. Cornerstones of the American Industrial Revolution, they defined the character of the towns surrounding the canal.The route consisted of the canals and dammed-off sections of the Lehigh River. Boatmen had to navigate their barges periodically from the canal through a lock onto the river or vice versa. This design saved time and money while the canal was being built, although it made for a slower, more difficult trip for canal-boat captains.

M-88–Intermediate River Bridge

The M-88–Intermediate River Bridge is a bridge located on M-88 over the Intermediate River in Bellaire, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999. It is a noteworthy product of Depression-era relief work.

Malpasset Dam

The Malpasset Dam was an arch dam on the Reyran River, located approximately 7 km north of Fréjus on the French Riviera (Côte d'Azur), southern France, in the Var département. It collapsed on December 2, 1959, killing 423 people in the resulting flood. The damage amounted to an equivalent total of $68 million.

Milecastle 29

Milecastle 29 (Tower Tye) was a milecastle of the Roman Hadrian's Wall. Its remains exist as a mutilated earth platform accentuated by deep robber-trenches around all sides, and are located beside the B6318 Military Road. Like Milecastles 9, 23, 25, and 51, a ditch has been identified around the Milecastle, and is still visible to a small extent. It has been postulated that this was as a result of the need for drainage on the site.

Patterson Viaduct

The Patterson Viaduct was built by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) as part of its Old Main Line during May to December 1829. The viaduct spanned the Patapsco River at Ilchester, Maryland. It was heavily damaged by a flood in 1866 and subsequently replaced with other structures.

St. Francis Dam

The St. Francis Dam was a curved concrete gravity dam, built to create a large regulating and storage reservoir for the city of Los Angeles, California. The reservoir was an integral part of the city's Los Angeles Aqueduct water supply infrastructure. It was located in San Francisquito Canyon of the Sierra Pelona Mountains, about 40 miles (64 km) northwest of downtown Los Angeles, and approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of the present day city of Santa Clarita.

The dam was designed and built between 1924 and 1926 by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, then named the Bureau of Water Works and Supply. The department was under the direction of its General Manager and Chief Engineer, William Mulholland.

At 11:57 p.m. on March 12, 1928, the dam catastrophically failed, and the resulting flood took the lives of what is estimated to be at least 431 people. The collapse of the St. Francis Dam is considered to be one of the worst American civil engineering disasters of the 20th century and remains the second-greatest loss of life in California's history, after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. The disaster marked the end of Mulholland's career.

USS Marshall (DD-676)

USS Marshall (DD-676) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, named for Lieutenant Commander Thomas W. Marshall, Jr. (1906–1942).

Marshall was laid down by the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co., Kearny, N.J., 29 April 1943; launched 29 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Thomas W. Marshall, mother of Lt. Comdr. Marshall; and commissioned 16 October 1943, Lt. Comdr. Sinclair B. Wright in command.

USS Umpqua (ATA-209)

USS Umpqua (ATA-209), originally designated ATR-136, was laid down as ATA-209 on 15 December 1944 at Port Arthur, Texas, by Gulfport Boiler and Welding Works; launched on 2 February 1945; and commissioned on 2 April 1945, Lt. Paul L. Cortney, USNR, in command.

She was the third United States Navy ship named for the Umpqua River, which was named for the Umpqua, a tribe of American Indians.

Following shakedown in the Gulf of Mexico, ATA-209 reported on the last day of April to Service Force, Atlantic. On 19 May, the auxiliary ocean tug departed New Orleans towing YF-756. She steamed via the Panama Canal and San Diego to Hawaii, arriving at Pearl Harbor early in July.

She operated on towing assignments between the Hawaiian Islands and the Marshalls until October when she set her course via San Francisco and the Panama Canal for Charleston. Arriving on 27 November, she reported to the Commandant, 6th Naval District, for duty; and, in April 1946, she was permanently assigned to that command. On 16 July 1948, she was named Umpqua.

Her primary job was that of towing ships, barges, and gunnery targets. She also participated in rescue and recovery operations. Her routine duties were performed mostly along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and in the Caribbean, and they occasionally took the tug as far north as Nova Scotia. In the 1950s, she took part in calibration of radio navigation systems; and, in the 1960s, she assisted in oceanographic operations towing MONOB I, the Bureau of Ships' mobile sound lab, to study sites in the Caribbean. In 1965, she varied her duties with the retrieval of a Titan III rocket booster in support of NASA tests. On two occasions, she towed old Liberty ship hulls loaded with unserviceable ammunition to a disposal area in the Atlantic where the ammunition was detonated, and the hulls were sunk.

In July 1967, Umpqua was transferred to the Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, and was assigned to Service Squadron 8. Umpqua continued her towing duties, assisting disabled and damaged naval vessels. Occasionally, she participated in torpedo recovery and mine-planting in conjunction with exercises of various Atlantic Fleet units. In May and June 1970, she towed Darby and Tweedy — formerly DE-218 and DE-532, respectively — to sea for use as targets for destruction.

In 1971, as her career with the United States Navy drew to a close, Umpqua took part in Operation Springboard one last time and made one of her longest tows when she pulled ammunition ship USS Great Sitkin (AE-17) 120 miles to Puerto Rico after the ship had gone dead in the water at sea. In June 1971, Umpqua began training a Colombian Navy crew in preparation for the transfer of the tug. On 1 July, she was decommissioned; her name was struck from the Navy list; and she was turned over to the government of Colombia under the Military Assistance Program.

Wagon Wheel, Oxnard, California

Wagon Wheel, Oxnard, California was originally developed as an office, motel and restaurant complex located in Oxnard, California, at the intersection of U.S. Route 101 and Pacific Coast Highway. Wagon Wheel Junction's convenient roadside location near the historic community of El Rio, California made it a popular stop for travelers between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, particularly during its heyday in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. It was demolished in 2011 as the area is being developed into 1500 residential units.The Wagon Wheel Bowling Alley was a 32-lane bowling alley built in the Wagon Wheel Junction across the street from the Wagon Wheel Motel in 1953. Designed by the Beverly Hills architect, Arthur Froehlich, known for his mid-century supermarkets and racetracks including the Hollywood Park Racetrack, and the Hanna Barbera Studio in Los Angeles 1962. The building had planer wall surfaces, an over-scaled wing wall and plate glass windows; the bowling alley included a restaurant and banquet room and was an example of the type of reductive Modernism that enjoyed great popularity in the mid-century. The bowling alley was known as Hoberg’s after its proprietor, Ed Hoberg. The building was in continuous operation as a bowling alley from 1953 until May 2015. Demolition of the building began in October, 2015 as part of the Wagon Wheel area redevelopment.

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