Willow

Willows, also called sallows and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 species[2] of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English sealh, related to the Latin word salix, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground.

Willow
Salix alba Morton
Salix alba 'Vitellina-Tristis'
Morton Arboretum
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
(unranked):
(unranked):
(unranked):
Order:
Family:
Tribe:
Saliceae[1]
Genus:
Salix

Type species
Salix alba L.
Species

About 400.[2]
See List of Salix species

Description

Salix silesiaca a5
At the base of the petiole a pair of stipules form. These may fall in spring, or last for much of the summer or even for more than one year (marcescence).

Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, which is heavily charged with salicylic acid, soft, usually pliant, tough wood, slender branches, and large, fibrous, often stoloniferous roots. The roots are remarkable for their toughness, size, and tenacity to live, and roots readily sprout from aerial parts of the plant[3].

The leaves are typically elongated, but may also be round to oval, frequently with serrated edges. Most species are deciduous; semievergreen willows with coriaceous leaves are rare, e.g. Salix micans and S. australior in the eastern Mediterranean. All the buds are lateral; no absolutely terminal bud is ever formed. The buds are covered by a single scale. Usually, the bud scale is fused into a cap-like shape, but in some species it wraps around and the edges overlap.[4] The leaves are simple, feather-veined, and typically linear-lanceolate. Usually they are serrate, rounded at base, acute or acuminate. The leaf petioles are short, the stipules often very conspicuous, resembling tiny, round leaves, and sometimes remaining for half the summer. On some species, however, they are small, inconspicuous, and caducous (soon falling). In color, the leaves show a great variety of greens, ranging from yellowish to bluish color.

Flowers

Young-catkin
Young male catkin

Willows are dioecious, with male and female flowers appearing as catkins on separate plants; the catkins are produced early in the spring, often before the leaves.

The staminate (male) flowers are without either calyx with corolla; they consist simply of stamens, varying in number from two to 10, accompanied by a nectariferous gland and inserted on the base of a scale which is itself borne on the rachis of a drooping raceme called a catkin, or ament. This scale is square, entire, and very hairy. The anthers are rose-colored in the bud, but orange or purple after the flower opens; they are two-celled and the cells open latitudinally. The filaments are threadlike, usually pale brown, and often bald.

The pistillate (female) flowers are also without calyx or corolla, and consist of a single ovary accompanied by a small, flat nectar gland and inserted on the base of a scale which is likewise borne on the rachis of a catkin. The ovary is one-celled, the style two-lobed, and the ovules numerous.

Cultivation

Almost all willows take root very readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground. The few exceptions include the goat willow (Salix caprea) and peachleaf willow (Salix amygdaloides). One famous example of such growth from cuttings involves the poet Alexander Pope, who begged a twig from a parcel tied with twigs sent from Spain to Lady Suffolk. This twig was planted and thrived, and legend has it that all of England's weeping willows are descended from this first one.[5][6]

Willows are often planted on the borders of streams so their interlacing roots may protect the bank against the action of the water. Frequently, the roots are much larger than the stem which grows from them.

Willows have a wide natural distribution from the tropics to the arctic zones and are extensively cultivated around the world.[7]

Hybrids and Cultivars

Weeping Willow by Pond
A weeping willow, an example of a hybrid between two types of willow

Willows are very cross-compatible, and numerous hybrids occur, both naturally and in cultivation. A well-known ornamental example is the weeping willow (Salix × sepulcralis), which is a hybrid of Peking willow (Salix babylonica) from China and white willow (Salix alba) from Europe.

The hybrid cultivar 'Boydii' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

Numerous cultivars of Salix L. have been developed and named over the centuries. New selections of cultivars with superior technical and ornamental characteristics have been chosen deliberately and applied to various purposes. Most recently, Salix has become an important source for bioenergy production and for various ecosystem services.

The first edition of the Checklist for Cultivars of Salix L. (willow) was compiled in 2015, which includes 854 cultivar epithets with accompanying information.


The International Poplar Commission of the FAO UN holds the International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRAs) for the genus Salix (willows). The ICRA for Salix produces and maintains The International Register of Cultivars of Salix L. (willow).

Ecological issues

Bourgoyen knotted willow and woodpile
Knotted willow and woodpile in the Bourgoyen-Ossemeersen, Ghent, Belgium
Kopfweiden 1
Berlin Britzer Garten coppiced willow tree in the spring of March 2018

Willows are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the mourning cloak butterfly.[9] Ants, such as wood ants, are common on willows inhabited by aphids, coming to collect aphid honeydew, as sometimes do wasps.

A small number of willow species were widely planted in Australia, notably as erosion-control measures along watercourses. They are now regarded as invasive weeds which occupy extensive areas across southern Australia and are considered 'Weeds of National Significance'. Many catchment management authorities are removing and replacing them with native trees.[10][11]

Substantial research undertaken from 2006 has identified that willows often inhabit an unoccupied niche when they spread across the bed of shallow creeks and streams and if removed, there is a potential water saving of up to 500 ML/per year per hectare of willow canopy area, depending on willow species and climate zone. This water could benefit the environment or provision of local water resources, especially during dry periods.[12][13][14] To aid management of willows, a remote sensing method has been developed to accurately map willow area along and in streams across southern Australia.[15]

Willow roots spread widely and are very aggressive in seeking out moisture; for this reason, they can become problematic when planted in residential areas, where the roots are notorious for clogging French drains, drainage systems, weeping tiles, septic systems, storm drains, and sewer systems, particularly older, tile, concrete, or ceramic pipes. Newer, PVC sewer pipes are much less leaky at the joints, and are therefore less susceptible to problems from willow roots; the same is true of water supply piping.[16][17]

Pests and diseases

Willow species are hosts to more than a hundred aphid species, belonging to Chaitophorus and other genera,[18] forming large colonies to feed on plant juices, on the underside of leaves in particular.[19] Corythucha elegans, the willow lace bug, is a bug species in the family Tingidae found on willows in North America.

Rust, caused by fungi of genus Melampsora, is known to damage leaves of willows, covering them with orange spots.[20]

Uses

Medicinal

The leaves and bark of the willow tree have been mentioned in ancient texts from Assyria, Sumer and Egypt as a remedy for aches and fever,[21] and in Ancient Greece the physician Hippocrates wrote about its medicinal properties in the fifth century BC. Native Americans across the Americas relied on it as a staple of their medical treatments. It provides temporary pain relief. Salicin is metabolized into salicylic acid in the human body, and is a precursor of aspirin.[22] In 1763, its medicinal properties were observed by the Reverend Edward Stone in England. He notified the Royal Society, which published his findings. The active extract of the bark, called salicin, was isolated to its crystalline form in 1828 by Henri Leroux, a French pharmacist, and Raffaele Piria, an Italian chemist, who then succeeded in separating out the compound in its pure state. In 1897, Felix Hoffmann created a synthetically altered version of salicin (in his case derived from the Spiraea plant), which caused less digestive upset than pure salicylic acid. The new drug, formally acetylsalicylic acid, was named Aspirin by Hoffmann's employer Bayer AG. This gave rise to the hugely important class of drugs known as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Manufacturing

Some of humans' earliest manufactured items may have been made from willow. A fishing net made from willow dates back to 8300 BC.[23] Basic crafts, such as baskets, fish traps, wattle fences and wattle and daub house walls, were often woven from osiers or withies (rod-like willow shoots, often grown in coppices). One of the forms of Welsh coracle boat traditionally uses willow in the framework. Thin or split willow rods can be woven into wicker, which also has a long history. The relatively pliable willow is less likely to split while being woven than many other woods, and can be bent around sharp corners in basketry. Willow wood is also used in the manufacture of boxes, brooms, cricket bats, cradle boards, chairmans and other furniture, dolls, flutes, poles, sweat lodges, toys, turnery, tool handles, veneer, wands and whistles. In addition, tannin, fibre, paper, rope and string can be produced from the wood. Willow is also used in the manufacture of double basses for backs, sides and linings, and in making splines and blocks for bass repair.

Other

Salix cinerea flowers-2
Male catkin of Salix cinerea with bee
Willow tree in spring, England
Willow tree in spring, England
Willow species with Honeysuckle woodbine
Willow tree with woodbine honeysuckle
Sandworm by Marco Casagrande @ Wenduine, Belgium
Environmental art installation "Sandworm" in the Wenduine Dunes, Belgium, made entirely out of willow
  • Agriculture: Willows produce a modest amount of nectar from which bees can make honey, and are especially valued as a source of early pollen for bees. Poor people at one time often ate willow catkins that had been cooked to form a mash.[24]
  • Art: Willow is used to make charcoal (for drawing) and in living sculptures. Living sculptures are created from live willow rods planted in the ground and woven into shapes such as domes and tunnels. Willow stems are used to weave baskets and three-dimensional sculptures, such as animals and figures. Willow stems are also used to create garden features, such as decorative panels and obelisks.
  • Energy: Willow is grown for biomass or biofuel, in energy forestry systems, as a consequence of its high energy in-energy out ratio, large carbon mitigation potential and fast growth.[25] Large-scale projects to support willow as an energy crop are already at commercial scale in Sweden.[26] Programs in other countries are being developed through initiatives such as the Willow Biomass Project in the US, and the Energy Coppice Project in the UK.[27] Willow may also be grown to produce charcoal.
  • Environment: As a plant, willow is used for biofiltration,[28] constructed wetlands, ecological wastewater treatment systems,[29] hedges, land reclamation, landscaping, phytoremediation,[30] streambank stabilisation (bioengineering), slope stabilisation, soil erosion control, shelterbelt and windbreak, soil building, soil reclamation,[31] tree bog compost toilet, and wildlife habitat.
  • Religion: Willow is one of the "Four Species" used ritually during the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, or the Feast of Tabernacles, cited in Leviticus 23:40. In Buddhism, a willow branch is one of the chief attributes of Kwan Yin, the bodhisattva of compassion. Christian churches in northwestern Europe and Ukraine and Bulgaria[32] often used willow branches in place of palms in the ceremonies on Palm Sunday.[33]

Culture

The willow is one of the four species associated with the Jewish festival of Sukkot, or the Feast of Tabernacles, cited in Leviticus 23:40. Willow branches are also used during the synagogue service on Hoshana Rabbah, the seventh day of Sukkot.

In China, some people carry willow branches with them on the day of their Tomb Sweeping or Qingming Festival. Willow branches are also put up on gates and/or front doors, which they believe help ward off the evil spirits that wander on Qingming. Legend states that on Qingming Festival, the ruler of the underworld allows the spirits of the dead to return to earth. Since their presence may not always be welcome, willow branches keep them away.[34] In traditional pictures of the Goddess of Mercy Guanyin, she is often shown seated on a rock with a willow branch in a vase of water at her side. The Goddess employs this mysterious water and the branch for putting demons to flight. Taoist witches also use a small carving made from willow wood for communicating with the spirits of the dead. The image is sent to the nether world, where the disembodied spirit is deemed to enter it, and give the desired information to surviving relatives on its return.[35] The willow is a famous subject in many East Asian nations' cultures, particularly in pen and ink paintings from China and Japan.

A gisaeng (Korean geisha) named Hongrang, who lived in the middle of the Joseon Dynasty, wrote the poem "By the willow in the rain in the evening", which she gave to her parting lover (Choi Gyeong-chang).[36] Hongrang wrote:

"...I will be the willow on your bedside."

In Japanese tradition, the willow is associated with ghosts. It is popularly supposed that a ghost will appear where a willow grows. Willow trees are also quite prevalent in folklore and myths.[37][38]

In English folklore, a willow tree is believed to be quite sinister, capable of uprooting itself and stalking travellers. The Viminal Hill, one of the Seven Hills of Rome, derives its name from the Latin word for osier, viminia (pl.).

Hans Christian Andersen wrote a story called "Under the Willow Tree" (1853) in which children ask questions of a tree they call "willow-father", paired with another entity called "elder-mother".[39]

"Green Willow" is a Japanese ghost story in which a young samurai falls in love with a woman called Green Willow who has a close spiritual connection with a willow tree.[40] "The Willow Wife" is another, not dissimilar tale.[41] "Wisdom of the Willow Tree" is an Osage Nation story in which a young man seeks answers from a willow tree, addressing the tree in conversation as 'Grandfather'.[42]

The Whomping Willow is featured throughout the Harry Potter series, most notably as a guardian for a backdoor entrance to the Shrieking Shack. This is especially important in the third and seventh installments of the series, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows respectively.

In Central Europe a "hollow willow" is a common figure of speech, alluding to a person one can confide secrets in. The metaphor was used e.g. in the poem Král Lávra (King Lear) by Czech poet Karel Havlíček Borovský (1854).

Willow is considered the national tree of Ukraine.

Selected species

The genus Salix is made up of around 400 species[2] of deciduous trees and shrubs:

See also

The recent name changes for well-known and economically important willows (Salix L.)[1]

References

  1. ^ "Genus Salix (willows)". Taxonomy. UniProt. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  2. ^ a b c Mabberley, D.J. 1997. The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press #2: Cambridge.
  3. ^ Dickmann, D. I.; Kuzovkina, J. (2014), "Poplars and willows of the world, with emphasis on silviculturally important species", Poplars and willows: Trees for society and the environment, CABI, pp. 8–91, doi:10.1079/9781780641089.0008, ISBN 9781780641089
  4. ^ George W. Argus (1986). The Genus Salix (Salicaceae) in the Southeastern United States. Systematic Botany Monographs. 9. American Society of Plant Taxonomists. pp. 1–170. doi:10.2307/25027618. ISSN 0737-8211. JSTOR 25027618.
  5. ^ Leland, John (2005). Aliens in the Backyard: Plant and Animal Imports Into America. University of South Carolina Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-57003-582-1.
  6. ^ Laird, Mark (1999). The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 1720-1800. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 403. ISBN 978-0-8122-3457-2.
  7. ^ Kuzovkina, Yulia A.; Weih, Martin; Romero, Marta Abalos; Charles, John; Hust, Sarah; McIvor, Ian; Karp, Angelas; Trybush, Sviatlana; Labrecque, Michel (15 April 2008), "Salix: Botany and Global Horticulture", Horticultural Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 447–489, doi:10.1002/9780470380147.ch8, ISBN 9780470380147
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector – Salix 'Boydii'". Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  9. ^ "Mourning Cloak". Study of Northern Virginia Ecology. Fairfax County Public Schools.
  10. ^ Albury/Wodonga Willow Management Working Group (December 1998). "Willows along watercourses: managing, removing and replacing". Department of Primary Industries, State Government of Victoria.
  11. ^ Cremer, Kurt W. (2003). "Introduced willows can become invasive pests in Australia" (PDF).
  12. ^ Doody, Tanya; Benyon, Richard (2011). "Quantifying water savings from willow removal in Australian streams". Journal of Environmental Management. 92 (3): 926–935. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.061. PMID 21106290.
  13. ^ Doody, Tanya; Nagler, Pamela; Glenn, Edward; Moore, Georgianne; Morino, Kiyomi; Hultine, Kevin; Benyon, Richard (2011). "Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems". Hydrological Processes. 25 (26): 4117–4131. Bibcode:2011HyPr...25.4117D. doi:10.1002/hyp.8395.
  14. ^ Doody, Tanya; Benyon, Richard; Theiveyanathan, S; Koul, Vijay; Stewart, Leroy (2013). "Development of pan coefficients for estimating evapotranspiration from woody vegetation". Hydrological Processes. 28 (4): 2129–2149. Bibcode:2014HyPr...28.2129D. doi:10.1002/hyp.9753.
  15. ^ Doody, Tanya; Lewis, Megan; Benyon, Richard; Byrne, Guy (2013). "A method to map riparian exotic vegetation (Salix spp.) area to inform water resource management". Hydrological Processes. 28 (11): 3809–3823. Bibcode:2014HyPr...28.3809D. doi:10.1002/hyp.9916.
  16. ^ Salix spp. UFL/edu, Weeping Willow Fact Sheet ST-576, Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson, United States Forest Service
  17. ^ "Rooting Around: Tree Roots Archived 19 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine", Dave Hanson, Yard & Garden Line News Volume 5 Number 15, University of Minnesota Extension, 1 October 2003
  18. ^ Blackman, R. L.; Eastop, V. F. (1994). Aphids on the World's Trees. CABI. ISBN 9780851988771.
  19. ^ David V. Alford (2012). Pests of Ornamental Trees, Shrubs and Flowers. p. 78. ISBN 9781840761627.
  20. ^ Kenaley, Shawn C.; et al. (2010). "Leaf Rust" (PDF).
  21. ^ "An aspirin a day keeps the doctor at bay: The world's first blockbuster drug is a hundred years old this week". Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  22. ^ W. Hale White. "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Therapeutics". Retrieved 2 April 2011.
  23. ^ The palaeoenvironment of the Antrea Net Find The Department of Geography, University of Helsinki
  24. ^ Hageneder, Fred (2001). The Heritage of Trees. Edinburgh : Floris. ISBN 0-86315-359-3. p.172
  25. ^ Aylott, Matthew J.; Casella, E; Tubby, I; Street, NR; Smith, P; Taylor, G (2008). "Yield and spatial supply of bioenergy poplar and willow short-rotation coppice in the UK" (PDF). New Phytologist. 178 (2): 358–370. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02396.x. PMID 18331429. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  26. ^ Mola-Yudego, Blas; Aronsson, Pär. (2008). "Yield models for commercial willow biomass plantations in Sweden". Biomass and Bioenergy. 32 (9): 829–837. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.01.002.
  27. ^ "Forestresearch.gov.uk". Forestresearch.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  28. ^ Guidi Nissim W., Jerbi A., Lafleur B., Fluet R., Labrecque M. (2015) "Willows for the treatment of municipal wastewater: long-term performance under different irrigation rates". Ecological Engineering 81: 395–404. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.04.067.
  29. ^ Guidi Nissim W., Voicu A., Labrecque M. (2014) "Willow short-rotation coppice for treatment of polluted groundwater". Ecological Engineering, 62:102–114 doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.10.005.
  30. ^ Guidi W., Kadri H., Labrecque L. (2012) "Establishment techniques to using willow for phytoremediation on a former oil refinery in southern-Quebec: achievements and constraints". Chemistry and Ecology, 28(1):49–64. doi:10.1080/02757540.2011.627857
  31. ^ Guidi Nissim W., Palm E., Mancuso S., Azzarello E. (2018) "Trace element phytoextraction from contaminated soil: a case study under Mediterranean climate". Environmental Science and Pollution Research, accepted doi:10.1007/s11356-018-1197-x
  32. ^ See Palm Sunday#Bulgaria
  33. ^ "ChurchYear.net". ChurchYear.net. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  34. ^ Doolittle, Justus (2002) [1876]. Social Life of the Chinese. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7103-0753-8.
  35. ^ Doré S.J., Henry; Kennelly, S.J. (Translator), M. (1914). Researches into Chinese Superstitions. Tusewei Press, Shanghai. Vol I p. 2
  36. ^ "The Forest of Willows in Our Minds". Arirang TV. 20 August 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
  37. ^ "In Worship of Trees by George Knowles: Willow".
  38. ^ "Mythology and Folklore of the Willow".
  39. ^ "Under The Willow Tree". Hca.gilead.org.il. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  40. ^ "Green Willow". Spiritoftrees.org. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  41. ^ The Willow Wife Archived 18 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Wisdom of the Willow Tree". Tweedsblues.net. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2011.
  43. ^ English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 617. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.

Bibliography

External links

International Register of Cultivars of Salix L. (willow)

Global Cultivation of Willows:

Rural Municipality of Willow Bunch No. 42

Willow Bunch No. 42 (2006 Population 407 ) is a rural municipality in south-east Saskatchewan, Canada encompassing 1,047.80 square kilometers in area. The rural municipality includes the hamlets of Lisieux, and Scout Lake. The rural municipality maintains its office in Willow Bunch, Saskatchewan. The rural municipality in conjunction with the provincial government is in charge of maintenance of highways in its area. As well, the municipality provides policing, fire protection and municipal governance for the rural district, with a reeve as its administrator. A 2-Volume history book of Rural Municipality was published in 1998.

Rural Municipality of Willow Creek No. 458

Willow Creek No. 458 is a rural municipality in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, located in the Census Division 14. The seat of the municipality is located in the Hamlet of Brooksby.

Salix alba

Salix alba, the white willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia. The name derives from the white tone to the undersides of the leaves.

It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter and an irregular, often-leaning crown. The bark is grey-brown, and deeply fissured in older trees. The shoots in the typical species are grey-brown to green-brown. The leaves are paler than most other willows, due to a covering of very fine, silky white hairs, in particular on the underside; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide. The flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in midsummer, the female catkins comprise numerous small (4 mm) capsules, each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down, which aids wind dispersal.

Salix caprea

Salix caprea (goat willow, also known as the pussy willow or great sallow) is a common species of willow native to Europe and western and central Asia.

Will-o'-the-wisp

In folklore, a will-o'-the-wisp, will-o'-wisp or ignis fatuus (pronounced [ˈfa.tu.us]; Medieval Latin for "fool's fire") is an atmospheric ghost light seen by travelers at night, especially over bogs, swamps or marshes. The phenomenon is known in English folk belief, English folklore and much of European folklore by a variety of names, including jack-o'-lantern, friar's lantern, hinkypunk and hobby lantern, and is said to mislead travelers by resembling a flickering lamp or lantern. In literature, will-o'-the-wisp sometimes have a metaphorical meaning, e.g. describing a hope or goal that leads one on but is impossible to reach, or something one finds sinister and confounding.Will-o'-the-wisp appear in folk tales and traditional legends of numerous countries and cultures; notable will-o'-the-wisp include St. Louis Light in Saskatchewan, Marfa lights of Texas, the Naga fireballs on the Mekong in Thailand, and the Hessdalen light in Norway. While urban legends, folkore, and superstition typically attribute will-o'-the-wisps to ghosts, fairies, or elemental spirits, modern science often explains them as natural phenomena such as bioluminescence or chemiluminescence, caused by the oxidation of phosphine (PH3), diphosphane (P2H4), and methane (CH4) produced by organic decay.

Willow (TV channel)

WILLOW (Willow Cricket and Willow Extra) is an American pay television sports channel which is completely devoted to airing overseas cricket events, including live and recorded matches and other cricket-related programming in English, with the majority of its advertising targeted towards the Indian subcontinent diaspora in North America. The network is carried both as a traditional subscription-television channel which airs on pay-TV providers, and a paid streaming service available online.

The network was launched on September 21, 2010 and broadcasts cricket matches and several cricket-based programs and coverage from around the world. The channel merged with NEO Cricket's American network in February 2013 as that provider drew down their American operations with the Willow name remaining.Willow has operated an Internet portal for live streaming of cricket events at willow.tv since 2010 for a monthly subscription fee. Willow has driven various innovations in the coverage of cricket, like video-based live scorecards and editorials. The website provides subscribers with video streams available on mobile apps and a streaming feed. A dedicated app for Willow was added for Apple TV on June 24, 2014. TV Everywhere access to the network's live feed on most devices was added for subscribers to pay-TV services, in time for IPL 11.

Willow (film)

Willow is a 1988 American high fantasy film directed by Ron Howard, produced and with a story by George Lucas, and starring Warwick Davis, Val Kilmer, Joanne Whalley, Jean Marsh, and Billy Barty. Davis plays the eponymous lead character and hero: a reluctant farmer who plays a critical role in protecting a special baby from a tyrannical queen who vows to destroy her and take over the world in a high fantasy setting.

Lucas conceived the idea for the film in 1972, approaching Howard to direct during the post-production phase of Cocoon in 1985. Bob Dolman was brought in to write the screenplay, coming up with seven drafts before finishing in late 1986. It was then set up at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and principal photography began in April 1987, finishing the following October. The majority of filming took place at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England, as well as Wales and New Zealand. Industrial Light & Magic created the visual effects sequences, which led to a revolutionary breakthrough with digital morphing technology. The film was released in 1988 to mixed reviews from critics, but was a modest financial success, received two Academy Award nominations, and has developed a cult following amongst fantasy fans.

Willow Grove, Pennsylvania

Willow Grove is a census-designated place (CDP) in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. A community in Philadelphia's northern suburbs, the population was 15,726 at the 2010 census. It is located in Upper Dublin Township, Abington Township and Upper Moreland Township. Willow Grove was once known for Willow Grove Park, an amusement park that was open from 1896 to 1976, now the site of Willow Grove Park Mall. Willow Grove is considered an edge city of Philadelphia with large amounts of retail and office space.Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base Willow Grove was located northwest of the Willow Grove CDP in Horsham Township. NAS JRB Willow Grove transitioned into Horsham Air National Guard Station in September 2011.

Willow Rosenberg

Willow Danielle Rosenberg is a fictional character created for the fantasy television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003). She was developed by Joss Whedon and portrayed throughout the TV series by Alyson Hannigan.

Willow plays an integral role within the inner circle of friends—called the Scooby Gang—who support Buffy Summers, a teenager gifted with superhuman powers to defeat vampires, demons, and other evil in the fictional town of Sunnydale. The series begins as Buffy, Willow, and their friend Xander are in 10th grade and Willow is a shy, nerdy girl with little confidence. She has inherent magical abilities and begins to study witchcraft; as the series progresses, Willow becomes more sure of herself and her magical powers become significant if inconsistent. Her dependence on magic becomes so consuming that it develops into a dark force that takes her on a redemptive journey in a major story arc when she becomes the sixth season's main villain, threatening to destroy the world in a fit of grief and rage.

The Buffy series became extremely popular and earned a devoted fanbase; Willow's intelligence, shy nature, and vulnerability often resounded strongly with viewers in early seasons. Of the core characters, Willow changes the most, becoming a complex portrayal of a woman whose powers force her to seek balance between what is best for the people she loves and what she is capable of doing. Her character stood out as a positive portrayal of a Jewish woman and at the height of her popularity, she fell in love with another woman, a witch named Tara Maclay. They became one of the first lesbian couples on U.S. television and one of the most positive relationships of the series. Despite not being a titular character, Willow Rosenberg holds the distinction of having the second largest number of appearances on episodes of Buffy and the spin-off series Angel. Alyson Hannigan appeared as Willow in all 144 episodes of Buffy, as well as guest appearances in three episodes of the spinoff Angel, for a total of 147 on screen appearances over the course of both series. She is also featured in an animated series and video game, both of which use Hannigan's voice, and the comics Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eight (2007–2011), Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Nine (2011-2013), Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Ten (2014-2016), Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Eleven (2016-2017) and Buffy the Vampire Slayer Season Twelve (2018) which use Hannigan's likeness and continues Willow's storyline following the television series.

Willow Run Air Force Station

Willow Run Air Force Station is a former United States Air Force station that operated to the east of Willow Run Airport in Michigan.

Willow Smith

Willow Camille Reign Smith (born October 31, 2000), known mononymously as Willow, is an American singer, songwriter, actress and dancer. She is the daughter of Will Smith and Jada Pinkett Smith, the younger sister of Jaden Smith and the half-sister of Willard Carroll "Trey" Smith III. Smith made her acting debut in 2007 in the film I Am Legend and later appeared in Kit Kittredge: An American Girl alongside Abigail Breslin. She received a Young Artist Award for her performance.

Smith launched her music career in the autumn of 2010 with the release of the singles "Whip My Hair" and "21st Century Girl", and signed to her current mentor Jay-Z's record label Roc Nation, becoming the youngest artist signed to the label. "Whip My Hair" peaked at number 11 on the Billboard Hot 100. The video was nominated for Video of the Year at the BET Awards of 2011. She released her debut album, ARDIPITHECUS, on December 11, 2015.

Willow Springs, Illinois

Willow Springs is a village in Cook and DuPage counties in the U.S. state of Illinois. The village was founded in 1892. The population was 5,524 at the 2010 census.

Willow Springs, Kern County, California

Willow Springs is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California, United States. It is located 7.5 miles (12 km) west of Rosamond, at an elevation of 2,523 feet (769 m).Willow Springs is the site of the Willow Springs International Motorsports Park.

A post office operated at Willow Springs from 1909 to 1918.The local springs provided water for Native American settlements, and early travelers. Willow Springs was an important stop on freight and stagecoach lines. Most of the masonry buildings were built around 1900 by Ezra Hamilton. The site is now registered as California Historical Landmark #103.

Willow Weep for Me

"Willow Weep for Me" is a popular song composed in 1932 by Ann Ronell, who also wrote the lyrics. The song form is AABA and it is written in 4/4 time, although it is occasionally adapted for 3/4 waltz time, as on recordings by Phil Woods (Musique du Bois, 1974) and Dr. Lonnie Smith (Jungle Soul, 2006.) It is mostly known as a jazz standard, having been recorded first by Ted Fio Rito (with vocal by Muzzy Marcellino) in October 1932 and by Paul Whiteman (with vocal by Irene Taylor) the following month. Both were hits in December 1932.It was a major hit for the British duo Chad & Jeremy. In January 1965, it reached No. 15 on the Billboard Hot 100, and went to No. 1 on the Adult Contemporary chart. It was included on their Yesterday's Gone album and many subsequent compilations.One account of the inspiration for the song is that, during her time at Radcliffe College, Ronell "had been struck by the loveliness of the willow trees on campus, and this simple observation became the subject of an intricate song."The song was rejected by publishers for several reasons. First, the song is dedicated to George Gershwin. A dedication to another writer was disapproved of at the time, so the first person presented with the song for publication, Saul Bornstein, passed it to Irving Berlin, who accepted it. Other reasons stated for its slow acceptance are that it was written by a woman and that its construction was unusually complex for a composition that was targeted at a commercial audience (i.e. radio broadcast, record sales and sheet music sales). An implied tempo change in the fifth bar, a result of a switch from the two eighth notes and an eighth-note triplet opening in each of the first four bars to just four eighth notes opening the fifth, then back to two eighth notes and an eighth-note triplet opening the sixth bar, which then has a more offset longer note than any of the previous bars, was one cause of Bornstein's concern. Notable recordings continued into the 1950s, starting with Stan Kenton's version with June Christy.

Willow flute

The willow flute, also known as sallow flute (Norwegian: seljefløyte, Swedish: sälgflöjt or sälgpipa, Finnish: pitkähuilu or pajupilli, Latvian: kārkla stabule, Lithuanian: švilpynė), is a Nordic folk flute, or whistle, consisting of a simple tube with a transverse fipple mouthpiece and no finger holes. The mouthpiece is typically constructed by inserting a grooved plug into one end of the tube, and cutting an edged opening in the tube a short distance away from the plug.

Similar but not identical instruments were made by peasants in Poland, usually using a different method described in sources as "kręcenie" (that nowadays means literally "rolling", at that time possibly also "drilling-gouging"), "ukręcanie", "ulinianie" (nowadays literally meaning: "making moulted"). Such instruments are mentioned in folk poems or songs.The willow flute is a type of overtone flute. It is played by varying the force of the air blown into the mouthpiece, with the end of the tube being covered by the finger or left open. The tones produced are based on the harmonic series. Playing the instrument with the end of the tube covered produces one fundamental and its overtones, playing it with the end of the tube left open produces another fundamental and series of overtones. Willow flutes cannot play an equal tempered scale.

Modern willow flutes are typically made of plastic (PVC tubing is often used), but the original willow flutes were made from sections of bark cut from green willow branches. Willow flutes could only be made this way during the spring, and became unplayable when the bark dried out.

Noted modern willow flute artists include the group Hedningarna and Anders Norudde of Sweden. Other Scandinavian groups that use the Seljefløyte in traditional arrangements include Eivind Groven, Steinar Ofsdal, Groupa and Bask.

There is also a Karelian variant of the willow flute that is made in Finnish Karelia and the Russian Republic of Karelia. It is made the same way as the willow flute, but instead of willow bark, it is made out of birch bark. The Karelian Folk Music Ensemble, based out of Petrozavodsk in Russian Karelia, uses this instrument in their music.

Willow ptarmigan

The willow ptarmigan () (Lagopus lagopus) is a bird in the grouse subfamily Tetraoninae of the pheasant family Phasianidae. It is also known as the willow grouse and in Ireland and Britain, where it was previously considered to be a separate species, as the red grouse. It is a sedentary species, breeding in birch and other forests and moorlands in northern Europe, the tundra of Scandinavia, Siberia, Alaska and northern Canada, in particular in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the state bird of Alaska. In the summer the birds are largely brown, with dappled plumage, but in the winter they are white with some black feathers in their tails (British populations do not adopt a winter plumage). The species has remained little changed from the bird that roamed the tundra during the Pleistocene. Nesting takes place in the spring when clutches of four to ten eggs are laid in a scrape on the ground. The chicks are precocial and soon leave the nest and while they are young, both parents play a part in caring for them. The chicks eat insects and young plant growth while the adults are completely herbivorous, eating leaves, flowers, buds, seeds and berries during the summer and largely subsisting on the buds and twigs of willow and other dwarf shrubs and trees during the winter.

Willow warbler

The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia. It is strongly migratory, with almost all of the population wintering in Sub-Saharan Africa.It is a bird of open woodlands with trees and ground cover for nesting, including most importantly birch, alder, and willow habitats. The nest is usually built in close contact with the ground, often in low vegetation. Like most Old World warblers (Sylviidae), this small passerine is insectivorous. In northern Europe, it is one of the first warblers to return in the spring though is later than the closely related chiffchaff.

Willows, California

Willows (formerly Willow) is a city in and the county seat of Glenn County, California. The city is a home to regional government offices, including the California Highway Patrol, California Department of Motor Vehicles, the United States Bureau of Reclamation and the main offices of the Mendocino National Forest, which comprises about one million acres of Federal land located mostly in mountainous terrain west of Willows. The population was 6,166 at the 2010 census, down from 6,220 at the 2000 census.

Willow–Spence Streets Historic District

The Willow–Spence Streets Historic District is a neighborhood that lies east of downtown Austin, Texas. Its houses, churches, and commercial buildings were built in the early twentieth century. It is bounded roughly by Interstate 35 to the west, East César Chávez Street to the north, and Spence Street to the south. It extends a few houses east of San Marcos Street along Willow and Canterbury Streets. It thus includes portions of Willow, Spence, Canterbury, San Marcos, and Waller Streets. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

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