Williamson Mound Archeological District

The Williamson Mound Archeological District is an archaeological site in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of Maud in Butler County,[3] the mound appears to have been the work of peoples of the Hopewell tradition.[4]

Although a small hole was dug into the top of the Williamson Mound at some point before 1972, the mound remains in premium condition. It sits atop a ridgeline above an intermittent stream in a rural part of increasingly urbanized Butler County.[4]

As one of the best preserved Hopewell mounds in its region, the Williamson Mound is potentially a significant archaeological site.[4] For this reason, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.[1]

Williamson Mound Archeological District
Williamson Mound Archaeological District
View from the west
Williamson Mound Archeological District is located in Ohio
Williamson Mound Archeological District
Williamson Mound Archeological District is located in the United States
Williamson Mound Archeological District
LocationEast of U.S. Route 42 on the western edge of the Wetherington Golf and Country Club[2]
Nearest cityMaud, Ohio
Coordinates39°22′1″N 84°23′4″W / 39.36694°N 84.38444°WCoordinates: 39°22′1″N 84°23′4″W / 39.36694°N 84.38444°W
Area25 acres (10 ha)
NRHP reference #75001334[1]
Added to NRHPMay 29, 1975


  1. ^ a b National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ Koleszar, Stephen C. An Archaeological Survey of Southwestern Ohio. Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 1970, 54.
  3. ^ 44 FR 7552
  4. ^ a b c Owen, Lorrie K., ed. Dictionary of Ohio Historic Places. Vol. 1. St. Clair Shores: Somerset, 1999, 108.
Armstrong culture

The Armstrong culture were a Hopewell group in the Big Sandy River Valley of Northeastern Kentucky and Western West Virginia from 1 to 500 CE.

Carrier Mills Archaeological District

The Carrier Mills Archaeological District is a group of prehistoric archaeological sites located along the Saline River south of Carrier Mills, Illinois. The sites were inhabited over the period from 2500 B.C. to 700 A.D. The oldest three sites date from the Late Archaic period, which encompassed the first 1500 years of occupation at the district; these sites include two small campsites and a larger base camp. Several sites were inhabited during the Early Woodland period, which lasted until 500 B.C.; these sites are distinguished by fragments of pottery, which was developed during this period. The Early Woodland period sites are likely to have been a part of the Crab Orchard culture, a local subtype of the Hopewell tradition. A number of sites date from the Middle Woodland Period, which spanned from 300 B.C. to 500 A.D.; these sites appear to have adopted the technology, but not the traditions, of the Hopewell culture. A single projectile point from the Late Woodland period has also been recovered from the site.The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on August 25, 1978.

Ellis Mounds

The Ellis Mounds are a complex of Native American mounds near Marysville in Union County, Ohio, United States. These three mounds form an east-west line on a small ridgeline in a farm field. Believed to have been built by Hopewellian peoples, the mounds are important because they may reveal information about daily life in the Hopewell culture. Archaeologists who study the Hopewell have generally concentrated on their largest ceremonial centers: as a result, while the mortuary customs of the Hopewell are well known, other aspects of their culture are little understood. For this reason, a site such as Ellis that bears the potential of yielding information about such aspects is valuable indeed, especially because its date has not yet been established: Ellis may have been built as early as 300 BC and as late as AD 600. Furthermore, the location of the mounds outside of the Hopewellian heartland farther south may demonstrate the spread of Hopewell influence, since excavations in numerous locations have demonstrated the necessity of assembling a complex society with many workers in order to construct the ceremonial mounds for which the Hopewell are well known.In 1974, the archaeological significance of the Ellis Mounds was recognized when they were listed on the National Register of Historic Places. They are one of seven National Register sites in Union County and the only one in the county's northern regions: three of the other six are within Marysville's city limits; the other three are south and west of Marysville.

Ety Habitation Site

The Ety Habitation Site is an archaeological site in the central part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located northeast of the village of Carroll in Fairfield County, it encompasses an area of about 4 acres (1.6 ha), which is covered by a group of hillocks. Here have been found large numbers of artifacts of prehistoric man; the nature of the material found suggests that the Habitation Site was a substantial settlement for a long period, most likely from the Hopewellian period, two thousand years ago. Few Hopewellian sites have been discovered that both yielded such valuable information and were so little damaged by the passage of time; as a result, the Ety Habitation Site is a leading archaeological site.Contributing to the rarity of the Ety Habitation Site is its proximity to one of the culture's monumental geometric earthworks. Few village sites have been found near Hopewell earthworks; as late as 1939, no Hopewell village sites had ever been excavated. Known as the Ety Enclosure, these earthworks are also an unusually well-preserved archaeological site.Because of its archaeological value, the Ety Habitation Site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Two other archaeological sites near Carroll are also on the Register: the Ety Enclosure, and the Coon Hunters Mound, which was built by the earlier Adena culture.

Fortified Hill Works

Fortified Hill Works is a registered historic site near Hamilton, Ohio, listed in the National Register on July 12, 1974.

Goodall Focus

The Goodall Focus was a Hopewellian culture from the Middle Woodland period peoples that occupied Western Michigan and northern Indiana from around 200 BCE to 500 CE. Extensive trade networks existed at this time, particularly among the many local cultural expressions of the Hopewell communities. The Goodall pattern stretched from the southern tip of Lake Michigan, east across northern Indiana, to the Ohio border, then northward, covering central Michigan, almost reaching to Saginaw Bay on the east and Grand Traverse Bay to the north. The culture is named for the Goodall Site in northwest Indiana.

Havana Hopewell culture

The Havana Hopewell culture were a Hopewellian people who lived in the Illinois River and Mississippi River valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri from 200 BCE to 400 CE.

Hopewell pottery

Hopewell pottery is the ceramic tradition of the various local cultures involved in the Hopewell tradition (ca. 200 BCE to 400 CE) and are found as artifacts in archeological sites in the American Midwest and Southeast. The Hopewell were located around the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers during the Middle Woodland Period, and the Hopewell Interaction Sphere spanned from the Gulf of Mexico to Ontario, Canada.

Kansas City Hopewell

The Kansas City Hopewell were the farthest west regional variation of the Hopewell tradition of the Middle Woodland period (100 BCE – 700 CE). Sites were located in Kansas and Missouri around the mouth of the Kansas River where it enters the Missouri River. There are 30 recorded Kansas City Hopewell sites.The sites are made up of distinctive pottery styles and impressive burial mounds containing stone vault tombs. It is however uncertain whether this culture developed locally when people adopted Hopewell traits, or if westward migrating Hopewell people brought it all with them.

Keiter Mound

The Keiter Mound (designated 33-Cn-15) is a Native American mound in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located north of the city of Wilmington, it sits on a wooded hill above the stream bottom of a small secondary creek, the Anderson Fork. About 5.5 feet (1.7 m) tall at its highest point, the mound measures 58 feet (18 m) from north to south and 65 feet (20 m) from east to west.

Due to its location, the Keiter Mound is believed to be a work of Hopewellian peoples. Unlike many Hopewell sites, such as the Newark Earthworks or Mound City, the Keiter Mound is isolated: no other mounds and no large geometric earthworks are located nearby. As such, it is likely to have been created by small groups of transient hunters who camped in the valley below. This identification is based on the mound's location and comparison with similar mounds: as the mound has never been substantially excavated, it likely holds the same grave goods as it did when it was constructed thousands of years ago. The top is flat and slightly scarred, possibly from an early excavation, but for all practical purposes the mound is in pristine condition. For this reason, it is a significant archaeological site: it is an unusually well preserved example of isolate Hopewell construction and might be able to yield important information about the Hopewell way of life. In recognition of its archaeological significance, the Keiter Mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

Laurel Complex

The Laurel Complex was a Native American culture in southern Quebec, southern and northwestern Ontario and east-central Manitoba in Canada and northern Michigan, northwestern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota in the United States. They were the first pottery using people of Ontario north of the Trent-Severn Waterway. The complex is named after the former unincorporated community of Laurel, Minnesota.

Lewiston Mound

Lewiston Mound is a prehistoric burial mound built by the indigenous peoples of the Hopewell tradition. It is located on the grounds of the Earl W. Brydges Artpark State Park, at Lewiston in Niagara County, New York.

Lewiston Mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.

Norton Mound Group

Norton Mound Group, (also known as Norton Mound Site (20KT1) and Hopewell Indian Mounds Park), is a prehistoric Goodall Focus mounds site near Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Oak Mounds

The Oak Mounds is a large prehistoric earthwork mound, and a smaller mound to the west. They are located outside Clarksburg, in Harrison County, West Virginia.

Ogden-Fettie Site

The Ogden-Fettie Site is a prehistoric mound site located south of Lewistown in Fulton County, Illinois. The site was built during the Woodland period and is associated with the Havana Hopewell culture; it dates from roughly 100 B.C. to 400 A.D. The site consists of thirty-five mounds arranged in a crescent-shaped enclosure; the principal mound, located near the center, is 15 feet (4.6 m) high. A village site is located near the principal mound; it and four of the smaller mounds form a pentagonal-shaped enclosure. While such enclosures were common among the Ohio Hopewell, the Ogden-Fettie Site has the only known one west of Ohio.The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 31, 1972.

Orators Mound

The Orators Mound is a Native American mound in the western part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Although its cultural affiliation is disputed, it is an important archaeological site.

Saugeen Complex

The Saugeen Complex was a Native American culture located around the southeast shores of Lake Huron and the Bruce Peninsula, around the London area, and possibly as far east as the Grand River. They were active in the period 200BCE to 500CE. There is archeological evidence that the Saugeen complex people of the Bruce Peninsula may have evolved into the Odawa people (Ottawa).

Third Gulf Breeze

The Third Gulf Breeze, (8SR8), is a Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture archaeological site near Gulf Breeze, Florida. On September 28, 1998, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.

Wilson Mounds and Village Site

The Wilson Mounds and Village Site is a prehistoric archaeological site located in and around the Marshall Ferry Cemetery in Rising Sun, White County, Illinois. The site includes twelve burial mounds and a village site. The site was inhabited by Hopewell peoples from approximately 400 B.C. to 400 A.D. Excavations at the site began in the 1940s; the first formal investigations were conducted the following decade by the Illinois State Museum and the University of Chicago. The site was part of a trade network which spanned much of the eastern United States, as resources from as far away as North Carolina and the Lake Superior region have been found at the site. Two different skeletal types have been recovered from the site, indicating the presence of multiple cultures at the village. The site also includes a prehistoric cemetery in addition to burial mounds, suggesting that burials were organized based on social status.The site was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 16, 1977.

Ohio Hopewell
Crab Orchard culture
Goodall Focus
Havana Hopewell culture
Kansas City Hopewell
Marksville culture
Miller culture
Point Peninsula Complex
Swift Creek culture
Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture
Other Hopewellian peoples
Exotic trade items
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