William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim

Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, DSO, MC, KStJ (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim,[1] was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.

Slim saw active service in both the First and Second World Wars and was wounded in action three times. During the Second World War he led the 14th Army, the so-called "forgotten army" in the Burma campaign. After the war he became the first British officer who had served in the Indian Army to be appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff. From 1953 to 1959 he was Governor-General of Australia and is regarded by many Australians as an authentic war hero who had fought with the Anzacs at Gallipoli.

In the early 1930s, Slim also wrote novels, short stories, and other publications under the pen name Anthony Mills.


The Viscount Slim

William Slim, 1950
William Slim in 1950
13th Governor-General of Australia
In office
8 May 1953 – 2 February 1960
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime MinisterRobert Menzies
Preceded bySir William McKell
Succeeded byThe Viscount Dunrossil
Personal details
Born
William Joseph Slim

6 August 1891
Bishopston, England
Died14 December 1970 (aged 79)
London, England
Resting placeMemorial plaque in St Paul's Cathedral
Spouse(s)Aileen Robertson
(1926–70, his death) (1901-1993)
Children2nd Viscount Slim
Una Mary Slim
Alma materIndian Staff College, Quetta
Military service
Nickname(s)Uncle Bill
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Branch/serviceBritish Army
British Indian Army
Years of service1914–1948
1949–1952
RankField Marshal
CommandsChief of the Imperial General Staff
Commandant of the Imperial Defence College
Allied Land Forces South East Asia
Fourteenth Army
XV Corps
Burma Corps
10th Indian Infantry Division
10th Indian Infantry Brigade
2nd Bn 7th Gurkha Rifles
Battles/warsFirst World War

Second World War

AwardsKnight of the Order of the Garter
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire
Distinguished Service Order
Military Cross
Knight of the Order of St John
Mentioned in Despatches
Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States)

Early years

William Slim was born at 72 Belmont Road, St Andrews, Bristol, the son of John Slim by his marriage to Charlotte Tucker, and was baptised there at St Bonaventure's Roman Catholic church, Bishopston. He was brought up first in Bristol, attending St Bonaventure's Primary School, then St Brendan's College, before moving to Birmingham in his teens. In Birmingham, he attended St Philip's Grammar School, Edgbaston.[2]

After leaving school, his father's failure in business as a wholesale ironmonger meant that the family could afford to send only one son, Slim's older brother, to the University of Birmingham, so between 1910 and 1914 Slim taught in a primary school and worked as a clerk in Stewarts & Lloyds, a metal-tube maker.[2]

First World War

Despite having no other connection to the university,[2] in 1912 Slim joined the Birmingham University Officers' Training Corps, and he was thus able to be commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant into the Royal Warwickshire Regiment on 22 August 1914, on the outbreak of the First World War; in later life, as a result of his modest social origins and his unpretentious manner, he was sometimes wrongly supposed to have risen from the ranks. He was badly wounded at Gallipoli. On return to England, he was granted a regular commission as a second lieutenant in the West India Regiment.[2]

In October 1916, he rejoined the Royal Warwickshire Regiment in Mesopotamia. On 4 March 1917, he was promoted to lieutenant (with seniority back-dated to October 1915).[3] He was wounded a second time in 1917. Having been previously given the temporary rank of captain, he was awarded the Military Cross on 7 February 1918 for actions in Mesopotamia.[4]

Evacuated to India, he was given the temporary rank of major in the 6th Gurkha Rifles on 2 November 1918.[5] He was formally promoted to captain and transferred to the Indian Army on 22 May 1919.[6]

Interwar career

Slim became battalion adjutant with the 6th Gurkha Rifles in 1921.[7]

On 1 January 1926, he married Aileen Robertson, daughter of Rev John Anderson Robertson (d.1941) minister of Cramond near Edinburgh.[8] They had one son and one daughter.[7] Later that year Slim was sent to the Staff College, Quetta. On 5 June 1929, he was appointed a General Staff Officer, Second Grade.[9]

On 1 January 1930, he was given the brevet rank of major,[10] with formal promotion to this rank made on 19 May 1933.[11] His performance at Staff College resulted in his appointment first to Army Headquarters India in Delhi and then to Staff College, Camberley in England (as a General Staff Officer, Second Grade),[12] where he taught from 1934 to 1937. During this period, he also wrote novels, short stories, and other publications under the pen name of Anthony Mills, in order to further his literary interests, as well as to supplement his then modest army salary.[13]

Attending the Imperial Defence College in 1937,[14] the following year he was promoted to lieutenant colonel[15] and given command of the 2nd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles. In 1939 he was briefly given the temporary rank of brigadier as commander of his battalion.[16] On 8 June 1939, he was promoted to colonel (again with temporary rank of brigadier)[17] and appointed head of the Senior Officers' School, Belgaum in India.[18]

Second World War

East African Campaign

On the outbreak of the Second World War, Slim was given command of the 10th Indian Infantry Brigade of the 5th Indian Infantry Division and was sent to Sudan. He took part in the East African Campaign to liberate Ethiopia from the Italians. Slim was wounded again during the fighting in Eritrea. On 21 January 1941, Slim was hit when his position was strafed during the advance on Agordat.[19]

Middle East

Recovering from his wounds but still unfit for active service, Slim was temporarily employed on the General Staff at GHQ in Delhi. He was involved in the planning for potential operations in Iraq where trouble was expected. By early May 1941 Slim had been appointed Brigadier General Staff (chief staff officer) to Edward Quinan the commander designate for operations in Iraq, arriving in Basra on 7 May.[20] Not long afterwards, Major-General Fraser, commanding Indian 10th Infantry Division, fell ill and was relieved of his command, and Slim was promoted to take his place on the 15 May 1941[21] in the acting rank of major-general.[22] He led the Indian 10th Infantry Division as part of Iraqforce during the Anglo-Iraqi War, the Syria-Lebanon Campaign (where the division advanced up the river Euphrates to capture Deir ez-Zor), and the invasion of Persia. He was twice mentioned in despatches during 1941.[23]

Burma campaign

Field Marshal Sir William Slim, General Officer Commanding Fourteenth Army in Burma, 5 March 1945. SE3310
Field Marshal Sir William Slim, General Officer Commanding Fourteenth Army in Burma, 5 March 1945.
TNA INF3-5 General William Slim 1939-1946
Portrait of General Slim as commander of the Fourteenth Army, commissioned by the Ministry of Information.

In March 1942, Slim was given command of Burma Corps, also known as BurCorps, consisting of the 17th Indian Infantry Division and 1st Burma Division. Slim was made acting lieutenant general on 8 May 1942.[24] The corps was under attack in Burma by the Japanese and, heavily outclassed by the more mobile and flexible Japanese, was soon forced to withdraw to India. On 28 October 1942, Slim was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE).[25]

Slim then took over XV Corps under the command of the Eastern Army. His command covered the coastal approaches from Burma to India, east of Chittagong. He had a series of disputes with Noel Irwin, commander of Eastern Army and, as a result, Irwin (although an army commander) took personal control of the initial advance by XV Corps into the Arakan Peninsula. The operations ended in disaster, during which Slim was restored to command of XV Corps, albeit too late to salvage the situation. General Irwin and Slim blamed each other for the result, but in the end Irwin was removed from his command, and Slim was promoted to command the new Fourteenth Army—formed from IV Corps (United Kingdom) (Imphal), XV Corps (Arakan) and XXXIII Corps (reserve) – later joined by XXXIV Corps. On 14 January 1943, Slim was awarded the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) for his actions in the Middle East during 1941.[26] The American historians Alan Millet and Williamson Murray described Slim as:

A hardened field soldier who had learned his trade on the Western Front and in the Indian Army, Slim combined troop-leading and training skills with personal and moral courage as well as charm, a sound grasp of soldiering, and a solid appreciation of Asian warfare and the excellence of the Japanese Army. He had experienced the catastrophe of the 1942 retreat from Burma and the abortive attack on the Arakan. His honesty and character made him the obvious choice to reshape the Fourteenth Army, a force built on the Indian Army but including the ever-dependable Gurkha Rifles of Nepal, unproven infantry battalions from East and West Africa, and infantry battalions and supporting arms from the British Army.[27]

Slim quickly got on with the task of training his new army to take the fight to the enemy. His basic premise was that off-road mobility was paramount: much heavy equipment was exchanged for mule- or air-transported equipment, and motor transport was kept to a minimum and restricted to vehicles that could cope with some of the worst combat terrain on Earth. The new doctrine dictated that if the Japanese had cut the lines of communication, then they too were surrounded. All units were to form defensive 'boxes', to be resupplied by air and assisted by integrated close air support and armour. The boxes were designed as an effective response to the tactics of infiltration practised by the Japanese in the war. Slim also supported increased offensive patrolling and night training, to encourage his soldiers to lose both their fear of the jungle and their belief that Japanese soldiers were better jungle fighters. He also instructed them to hold their positions once outflanked.[19]

The Chin hills formed a natural defensive barrier into Burma, which Slim would have preferred to outflank by an amphibious operation by landing further down the coast of Burma, but demands of the war in Europe meant the necessary landing craft were not available, forcing Slim to devise plans for advancing into Burma the hard way through the Chin hills.[28] At the same time, the Japanese 15th Army, which formed the main striking force of the Burma Area Army, had grown from four divisions at the beginning of 1943 to eight divisions by the end of 1943 as the Japanese made preparations for invading India, which increased the difficulties of an overland advance into Burma.[29] By 1943, the Burma Death Railway, which cost the lives of thousands of slaves who built it, was finished; this allowed the Japanese to reinforce the Burma Area Army, and made invading India barely possible.[30]

As Slim went about training his men for the rigours of jungle warfare, he clashed with Brigadier Orde Wingate, who took away some of Slim's best Gurkha, British and African units for his Chindit raiding group.[31] Slim argued against the loss of his better units to Wingate, and maintained that though Wingate had a successful career in Palestine and Ethiopia he would discover that the Japanese were a considerably tougher foe than the Palestinians and the Italians that Wingate had hitherto been fighting.[31] However, Slim did approve of Wingate's plans for aid to the hill tribes of Burma.[32] The various hill peoples of Burma such as the Kachins, Karens, Chin, Nagas and the Shan collectively amounted to about 7 million of Burma's 17 million people, and unlike the Bamars, who had welcomed the Japanese as liberators, had stayed loyal to the British when the Japanese invaded.[32] The hill peoples of Burma had suffered under Japanese rule, and were more than willing to wage guerrilla warfare against them.[32] Slim approved of the plans of the SOE and OSS to provide arms and training to the hill tribes as a way to tie down Japanese forces that would otherwise be deployed against him.[32]

At the start of 1944, Slim held the official rank of colonel with a war-time rank of major-general and the temporary rank of lieutenant-general.[33] In January 1944, when the Second Arakan Offensive was met by a Japanese counter-offensive, the Indian 7th Infantry Division was quickly surrounded along with parts of the Indian 5th Infantry Division and the 81st (West Africa) Division. The 7th Indian Division's defence was based largely on the "Admin Box" formed initially from drivers, cooks and suppliers. They were supplied by air, thus negating the importance of their lost supply lines. The Japanese forces were able to halt the offensive into Arakan but were unable to decisively defeat the allied forces or advance beyond the surrounded formations.[34]

In early 1944, the Japanese Prime Minister General Hideki Tojo approved of plans for victory in Asia, calling for two operations, Operation U-Go as the invasion of India was code-named and Operation Ichi-Go which was intended to defeat China once and for all.[35] The two operations in India and China were closely linked given that American supplies for China were flown over "the Hump" of the Himalayas and the Japanese wanted to take the Indian province of Assam in part to close the American air bases in India that sustained China at the same time that they were launching Operation Ichi-Go, the biggest Japanese offensive of all time, involving 2 million men.[35] The Japanese knew that they lacked the logistics to invade India, and the plans for U-Go were based on the assumption that the British 14th Army would just collapse, allowing the Japanese 15th Army to capture enough food to prevent its men from starving to death.[30] Following the Japanese 15th Army into India was the Indian National Army commanded by Subhas Chandra Bose, an ardent nationalist. The Japanese believed that the mere presence of Bose in India would inspire the men of the Indian Army to mutiny and murder their British officers, and set off an anti-British revolution that would allow the Japanese 15th Army to take all of India.[30]

Slim was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in the 1944 New Year Honours.[36] On 12 March 1944 the Japanese launched an invasion of India aimed at Imphal, hundreds of miles to the north.[30] General Renya Mutaguchi of the Burma Area Army announced the invasion of India was "The March into Delhi" as he expected the invasion to end with him marching into triumph into New Delhi. Slim knew from signals intelligence that Japanese were going to invade in March 1944, but as Murray and Millet wrote "...he had little choice, but to meet it with the forces on hand-the IV Corps of three Anglo-Indian divisions-or surrender his own plans to take the general offensive into Burma in 1944."[37] Slim chose to fight a defensive campaign to break the Japanese before launching his offensive into Burma, believing that superior British tanks, logistics and air power would allow him to inflict a decisive defeat on Mutaguchi.[37] However, the Japanese advanced more swiftly than Slim had expected up the mud roads of Burma into India, leading to a period of crisis as the fate of India hung in balance.[37] Slim airlifted two entire veteran divisions (5th and 7th Indian) from battle in the Arakan, straight into battle in the north. Desperate defensive actions were fought at places such as Imphal, Sangshak and Kohima, while the RAF and USAAF kept the forces supplied from the air.[30] Slim ordered his men to hold their ground, forbade any retreat, and informed his men that were surrounded by the Japanese that supplies would be flown in from the air to allow them to hold out.[30] Slim decided to send the IV Corps to relieve Imphal while gambling that the 5th Indian Division could hold out at Kohima, through Slim knew that if Kohima fell, then the Japanese could be able to sever the Assam railroad at Dimapur, which could cut off the British 14th Army from its main supply line.[37] The Battle of Kohima was a fiercely fought battle as Murray and Millet wrote: "Nowhere in World War II-even on the Eastern Front-did the combatants fight with more mindless savagery", but Kohima held.[37] As late as 1 June 1944, Field Marshal Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, wrote in his diary that he saw "disaster staring us in the face" in Assam, but Slim was more self-confident, believing he could smash the Japanese attempt to take India.[38] While the Japanese were able to advance and encircle the formations of British 14th Army, they were unable to defeat those same forces or break out of the jungles along the Indian frontier. The Japanese advance stalled. The Japanese, who had a contempt for British and Indian troops based on their performance in 1941–42, refused to give up even after the monsoon started and large parts of their army were wrecked by conducting operations in impossible conditions. The initial Japanese plan was to capture Allied stocks of food, medicine and fuel to sustain their advance, but they failed to capture any stockpiles. As a result, their units took unsupportable casualties and were finally forced to retreat in total disorder in July 1944, leaving behind many dead from hunger and disease as well as their injured. Of the 150,000 Japanese soldiers who invaded India in March 1944, almost all of them were dead by July 1944 as Slim had inflicted the largest defeats that the Japanese had suffered up to this point in the war.[38] The Indian Army remained loyal, and under its British officers fought much better than the Indian National Army.[38] After Imphal and Kohima, the American historian Gerhard Weinberg noted for the Japanese their "...only hope in the area was propaganda by Bose, not much of a substitute for their lost Japanese 15th Army".[38]

Unlike the Japanese, who killed their own wounded, Slim went out of his way to ensure good medical care for his wounded and to evacuate via the air his wounded to hospitals in India.[39] Slim knew his men would fight better if they knew that they would receive the best possible medical care under the conditions if they were wounded. On 8 August 1944, Slim was promoted to lieutenant general,[40] and, on 28 September 1944, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB).[41] In December 1944, during a ceremony at Imphal in front of the Scottish, Gurkha and Punjabi regiments, Slim and three of his corps commanders (Christison, Scoones and Stopford) were knighted by the viceroy Lord Wavell and invested with honours. Slim was presented with his insignia as KCB, and the others with their KBEs. Slim was also mentioned in despatches.[42] By the end of 1944, the majority of the men serving in the British 14th Army were in fact not British as of the 12 divisions that made up the British 14th Army, 2 were British, 7 were Indian and 3 came from Britain's African colonies.[43] In addition, there were 6 Chinese divisions, 2 regiments from the U.S. Army and various tribal militias made up of Shan, Chin, Naga, Kachin and Karen peoples raised by the OSS and the SOE fighting on the Allied side in Burma, requiring Slim to play the role of the diplomat as much as a general to hold these disparate forces made up of so many different peoples together.[43]

In 1945, Slim launched an offensive into Burma, with supply lines stretching almost to the breaking point across hundreds of miles of trackless jungle.[43] In the aftermath of Kohima and Imphal, Slim inspected the battlefields, seeing the bodies of wounded Japanese soldiers who had been killed by their comrades as under the code of Bushido, it was considered shameful to surrender and it was the highest honour for a Japanese soldier to die for the Emperor, which graphically showed to Slim how far the Japanese were willing to take Bushido.[43] Slim realized that Japanese logistics had broken down, but that Japanese soldiers, motivated by Bushido, were still prepared to fight to the death as the Japanese preferred to die for the Emperor rather than surrender, which led him to the conclusion that it was better to outflank and bypass the Japanese positions, leaving the main pockets of the Japanese to starve to death rather than engaging them in combat as much possible.[43] The Burma Area Army had about 100,000 men while the British 14th Army had only about 21,000 men, but Slim decided with superior mobility backed by proper supply lines that he could defeat the Burma Area Army, whose logistics were poor.[44] The superior Japanese numbers together with the fact that the Indian Army was an all-volunteer force, with only so many Indians willing to volunteer and the fact that sending fresh British troops to Burma was not a priority in London, made it imperative for Slim to save the lives of his men as much as possible.[45] Slim was painfully aware that it would to be difficult to replace whatever losses his men took, and had no intention of having his army being ground down by fighting the Japanese in every single place that they were.[45] The differences between Slim, who was determined to save the lives of his men as much as possible vs. the fanatical desire of Japanese officers motivated by Bushido to have every man under their command die for the Emperor led Slim to estimate that for every man killed under his command, the Japanese lost a hundred men.[46] Slim had a close rapport with the officers and soldiers under his command, and always trusted his officers to make the correct decisions without referring to him as Slim later wrote: "I was, like other generals before me, to be saved...by the resourcefulness and the stubborn valour of my troops".[47] Murray and Millet wrote that Slim's willingness to delegate authority down to his officers on the spot played a key role in sustaining his advance into Burma as officers did not have to wait for a decision from him.[47]

Slim employed Billy Williams and his corps of elephants, led by Bandoola, to build bridges and rescue refugees.[48] He faced the same problems that the Japanese had faced in their failed 1944 offensive in the opposite direction. He made the supply of his armies the central issue in the plan of the campaign. The Chindwin River was spanned with the longest Bailey bridge in the world at the time. To distract the Japanese from his campaign in central and southern Burma, Slim ordered the Chinese in northern Burma to begin an offensive, which for a time led the Japanese to the erroneous conclusion that the main goal of the Allies was to open the Burma Road to China.[45] Slim began his advance by sending two corps towards Mandalay and another corps along the coast towards Rangoon, but changed his plans when he learned from intelligence that the Japanese were planning on defending Mandalay from the eastern banks of the Irrawaddy River.[47] Slim had one corps cross the Irrawaddy south of Mandalay at Meiktila while another corps staged a feint attack on Mandalay from the north to distract the Japanese from the main blow coming up from the south.[47] The swift flowing Irrawaddy is a wider river than the Rhine, making it into a natural defensive barrier that the Japanese believed could halt the British advance.[47] However, much of the countryside around the Irrawaddy consists of plains that favored the offensive, and in his operations in the Irrawaddy river valley, Slim used combined arms offensives with artillery and tanks working closely with the infantry to bring down overwhelming firepower when the Japanese tried to block the British 14th Army's advance. In March 1945, after crossing the Irrawaddy, the town of Meiktila was taken, followed by Burma's second city, Mandalay.[49]

The Japanese garrison in Mandalay chose not to surrender, using the forts built by the British and the maze of pagodas in downtown Mandalay to fight to the death in an urban battle that destroyed much of the city, which finally fell to the British 14th Army on 20 March 1945.[47] Slim's plan was a masterpiece of operational art, and the capture of Meiktila left most of Japan's troops stranded in Burma without supplies. The Allies had reached the open plains of central Burma, sallying out and breaking Japanese attacking forces in isolation, maintaining the initiative at all times, backed up by air-land cooperation, including resupply by air and close air support, performed by both RAF and USAAF units.[50] Slim followed up this victory by ordering his coastal corps to seize the mouth of the Irrawaddy where it flowed into the Bay of Bengal.[47]

In combination with these attacks, Force 136 helped initiate a countrywide uprising of the Bamar people against the Japanese. In addition to fighting the allied advance south, the Japanese were faced with heavy attacks from behind their own lines. As he advanced into Burma, Slim discovered gruesome evidence of the nature of Japanese rule in Burma, finding in village after village, Burmese peasants who had been tied to trees and bayoneted to death as the Japanese preferred bayonet practice with people rather than sandbags as normally is the case.[51] Toward the end of the campaign, the army raced south to capture Rangoon before the start of the monsoon.[47] It was considered necessary to capture the port because of the length of the supply lines overland from India and the impossibility of supply by air or land during the monsoon. Rangoon was eventually taken by a combined attack from the land (Slim's army), the air (parachute operations south of the city) and a seaborne invasion. Also assisting in the capture of Rangoon was the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League led by Thakin Soe, with Aung San (the future Prime Minister of Burma and father of Aung San Suu Kyi) as one of its military commanders.[52]

As the Burma campaign came to an end, Slim was informed in May by Oliver Leese, the commander of Allied Land Forces South-East Asia (ALFSEA) that he would not be commanding Fourteenth Army in the forthcoming invasion planned for Malaya but would take command of the new Twelfth Army being formed to mop up in Burma.[53] Slim refused the appointment, saying he would prefer to retire. As the news spread, Fourteenth Army fell into turmoil and Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, furious at not having been consulted by Leese, and Claude Auchinleck, the C-in-C India who was at the time in London, brought pressure to bear.[54] The Supreme Allied Commander of the Southeast Asia Theatre, Louis Mountbatten was obliged to order Leese to undo the damage. On 1 July 1945, Slim was promoted to general[55] and was informed that he was to succeed Leese as C-in-C ALFSEA. However, by the time he took up the post, having taken some leave, the war was at an end.[53]

Relations with troops

Slim had an excellent relationship with his troops – the "Forgotten Army", as they called themselves. In his book, Defeat into Victory, he tells of the malaria rates among his units being 70%, largely due to noncompliance by his soldiers with the foul-tasting mepacrine they refused to take. Slim did not blame his medics for this problem, but placed the responsibility on his officers. "Good doctors are no use without good discipline. More than half the battle against disease is fought not by the doctors, but by the regimental officers".[56] After Slim dismissed a few officers for high unit malaria rates, the others realised he was serious and malaria treatment was enforced, dropping the rate to less than five percent. The combat effectiveness of his army was thus greatly enhanced. This physical and mental turnaround in the army under him was a contributing factor to the eventual defeat of the Japanese in Burma.

George MacDonald Fraser, later author of The Flashman Papers series of novels, then a nineteen-year-old lance corporal, recalled:

But the biggest boost to morale was the burly man who came to talk to the assembled battalion … it was unforgettable. Slim was like that: the only man I've ever seen who had a force that came out of him...[57] British soldiers don't love their commanders much less worship them; Fourteenth Army trusted Slim and thought of him as one of themselves, and perhaps his real secret was that the feeling was mutual.[58]

and:

...I see him clear, with that robber-baron face under that Gurkha hat, and his carbine slung, looking like a rather scruffy private with a general's tabs, which of course is what he was.[59]

Postwar career

Initial retirement from the army

At the end of 1945 Slim returned to the UK. On 1 January 1946, he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE).[60] and took the post of Commandant of the Imperial Defence College for its first course since 1939. On 7 February 1947 he was made an Aide-de-camp (ADC) to the King.[61] At the end of his two-year appointment at the Imperial Defence College Slim retired as ADC and from the army on 11 May 1948.[62] He had been approached by both India and Pakistan to become C-in-C of their respective armies post independence but refused and instead became Deputy Chairman of the Railway Executive.[63]

Return to the army

However, in November 1948 the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee rejected the proposal by Viscount Montgomery that he should be succeeded as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) by John Crocker and instead brought back Slim from retirement in the rank of field marshal in January 1949[64] with formal appointment to the Army Council from 1 January 1949.[65] Slim thus became the first Indian Army officer to become CIGS.[63]

On 2 January 1950, he was promoted to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB)[66] and later that year was made a Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit by the United States[67] having previously, in 1948, been awarded the lower ranking Commander of the Legion of Merit.[68] On 1 November 1952, he relinquished the position of Chief of the Imperial General Staff.[69]

Governor-General of Australia

On 10 December 1952 Slim was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) on his appointment as Governor-General of Australia[70] which post he took up on 8 May 1953. On 2 January 1953, he was appointed a Knight of the Order of St. John (KStJ).[71] Slim was a popular choice for Governor-General since he was an authentic war hero who had fought alongside Australians at Gallipoli and in the Middle East. In 1954 he was able to welcome Queen Elizabeth II on the first visit by a reigning monarch to Australia. For his services to the Queen during the tour, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) on 27 April 1954.[72] Liberal leader Robert Menzies held office throughout Slim's time in Australia. His Official Secretary throughout his term was Murray Tyrrell.[73]

Retirement

Coat of Arms of William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, GBE, DSO, MC, KStJ
Garter-encircled arms of William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, KG

In 1959, Slim retired and returned to Britain, where he published his memoirs, Unofficial History. He had already published his personal narrative of the Burma Campaign, Defeat into Victory, in 1956. On 24 April 1959, he was appointed a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter (KG).[74] On 15 July 1960, he was created "Viscount Slim of Yarralumla in the Capital Territory of Australia and of Bishopston in the City and County of Bristol".[75]

After a successful further career on the boards of major UK companies, he was appointed Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle on 18 June 1964.[76] He died in London on 14 December 1970, aged 79 and was given a full military funeral at St. George's Chapel, Windsor and was afterwards cremated.[2]

Allegations of child sexual abuse

During his tenure as Governor-General of Australia, Slim was patron of the Fairbridge Farm child migration to Australia, which has been subject to scrutiny in recent years both in the United Kingdom and Australia. Since 2007, three former child migrants allege Slim sexually assaulted them during visits to the farms.[77] These allegations were dismissed at that time by those who had served under Slim in the army and by his son John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim.[78] The allegations were aired again on ABC television in the programme The Long Journey Home, broadcast on 17 November 2009.[79]

In 2014, the Daily Mail reported that an alleged victim was pursuing the matter in an Australian court and at the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.[80] On 27 February 2017, ABC aired another programme detailing the allegations against Slim and Fairbridge Farm. According to one estimate by a former pupil and journalist, David Hill, some 60 percent of children who went to Fairbridge were abused.[81]

Somehow or another, I was sat on his [Slim's] knee and, ah, um, these silky white hands were right up, because I was wearing shorts, right up my trousers and yeah, it was not, not very nice.

— Robert Stephens recounting a drive in Governor-General Slim's car, 2017[81]

In June 2019, the government of the Australian Capital Territory announced that, after considering allegations made to the Government, submissions by the Slim family and the royal commission into child sexual abuse, it had decided to change the name of William Slim Drive, which connects the town centres of Belconnen and Gungahlin. The government had asked for advice from the ACT Place Names Committee about new naming options.[82]

Eponyms

Historical assessment

General W Slim statue
Statue of General Slim on Whitehall.

Lieutenant General Sir John Kiszely has recommended Slim's memoirs (Defeat into Victory) (1956) describing Slim as "perhaps the Greatest Commander of the 20th Century" and commenting on Slim's "self-deprecating style"[89] Military historian Max Hastings stated:

In contrast to almost every other outstanding commander of the war, Slim was a disarmingly normal human being, possessed of notable self-knowledge. He was without pretension, devoted to his wife, Aileen, their family and the Indian Army. His calm, robust style of leadership and concern for the interests of his men won the admiration of all who served under him ... His blunt honesty, lack of bombast and unwillingness to play courtier did him few favours in the corridors of power. Only his soldiers never wavered in their devotion.[90]

The spirit of comradeship Slim created within 14th Army lived on after the war in the Burma Star Association, of which Slim was a co-founder and first President.[91]

A statue of Slim on Whitehall, outside the Ministry of Defence, was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in 1990. Designed by Ivor Roberts-Jones, the statue is one of three British Second World War military leaders (the others being Alan Brooke and Bernard Montgomery).[92]

Slim's papers were collected by his biographer, Ronald Lewin, and given to the Churchill Archives Centre by Slim's wife, Aileen, Viscountess Slim, and son, John Slim, 2nd Viscount Slim, and other donors, 1977–2001.[93] Lewin's biography, Slim: The Standardbearer, was awarded the 1977 WH Smith Literary Award.[94]

List of honours

Order of the Garter UK ribbon Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) 24 April 1959[74]
Order of the Bath UK ribbon Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) 2 January 1950[66]
Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) 28 September 1944[41]
Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) 1 January 1944[36]
Ord.St.Michele-Giorgio Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) 10 December 1952[70]
Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) 16 February 1954[72]
Order of the British Empire (Military) Ribbon Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) 1 January 1946[60]
Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) 28 October 1942[25]
Order of St John (UK) ribbon Knight of the Order of St John (KStJ) 2 January 1953[95]
Dso-ribbon Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO) 14 January 1943[26]
Military cross BAR Military Cross (MC) 7 February 1918[4]
US Legion of Merit Chief Commander ribbon Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit (United States)[67]

Bibliography

  • Defeat into Victory by Field Marshal Sir William Slim; Originally published 1956. More recent editions are NY: Buccaneer Books ISBN 1-56849-077-1, Cooper Square Press ISBN 0-8154-1022-0; London: Cassell ISBN 0-304-29114-5, Pan ISBN 0-330-39066-X.
  • Other publications include Courage and Other Broadcasts (1957); and Unofficial History (1959).

Footnotes

  1. ^ "No one called him William" (Hastings 2008, p. 68).
  2. ^ a b c d e Heathcote 1999, p. 259.
  3. ^ "No. 30183". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 July 1917. p. 7076.
  4. ^ a b "No. 30514". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 February 1918. pp. 1800–1802.
  5. ^ "No. 31993". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 July 1920. p. 7835.
  6. ^ "No. 31574". The London Gazette. 30 September 1919. p. 12035.
  7. ^ a b Heathcote 1999, p. 260.
  8. ^ "The succession of ministers in the Church of Scotland from the reformation". Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  9. ^ "No. 33544". The London Gazette. 18 October 1929. p. 6620.
  10. ^ "No. 33576". The London Gazette. 4 February 1930. pp. 726–727.
  11. ^ "No. 33952". The London Gazette. 23 June 1933. p. 4205.
  12. ^ "No. 34017". The London Gazette. 23 January 1934. p. 541.
  13. ^ Lewin 1976, p. 50.
  14. ^ Smart, p. 288
  15. ^ "No. 34527". The London Gazette. 1 July 1938. p. 4249.
    "No. 34547". The London Gazette. 2 September 1938. p. 5610.
  16. ^ "No. 34625". The London Gazette. 12 May 1939. p. 3194.
    "No. 34647". The London Gazette. 21 July 1939. p. 5036.
  17. ^ "No. 34656". The London Gazette. 18 August 1939. p. 5676.
  18. ^ "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. pp. 5408–5409.
  19. ^ a b Heathcote 1999, p. 261.
  20. ^ Mead 2007, p. 418.
  21. ^ Mead 2007, p. 419.
  22. ^ "No. 35183". The London Gazette. 6 June 1941. p. 3243.
  23. ^ "No. 35120". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 April 1941. p. 1871.
    "No. 35396". The London Gazette. 30 December 1941. p. 7353.
  24. ^ "No. 35550". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 May 1942. p. 2021.
  25. ^ a b "No. 35763". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 October 1942. p. 4687.
  26. ^ a b "No. 35862". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 January 1943. p. 321.
  27. ^ Murray & Millet 2000, p. 227-228.
  28. ^ Murray & Millet 2000, pp. 227-229.
  29. ^ Murray & Millet 2000, p. 228.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Weinberg 2005, p. 641.
  31. ^ a b Murray & Millet 2000, p. 229.
  32. ^ a b c d Murray & Millet 2000, p. 230.
  33. ^ "No. 36331". The London Gazette. 14 January 1944. p. 319.
  34. ^ Heathcote 1999, p. 262.
  35. ^ a b Weinberg 2005, p. 640-641.
  36. ^ a b "No. 36309". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 31 December 1943. p. 4.
  37. ^ a b c d e Murray & Millet 2000, p. 350.
  38. ^ a b c d Weinberg 2005, p. 642.
  39. ^ Murray & Millet 2000, p. 351.
  40. ^ "No. 36642". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 August 1944. p. 3659.
  41. ^ a b "No. 36720". The London Gazette. 28 September 1944. p. 4473.
  42. ^ "No. 36753". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 October 1944. p. 4794.
  43. ^ a b c d e Murray & Millet 2000, p. 489.
  44. ^ Murray & Millet 2000, pp. 489-491.
  45. ^ a b c Murray & Millet 2000, p. 492.
  46. ^ Dower 1986, p. 53.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Murray & Millet 2000, p. 491.
  48. ^ Croke 2015, p. 255-276.
  49. ^ Ford 2005, p. 470.
  50. ^ McLynn 2011, p. 379.
  51. ^ Dower 1986, p. 44.
  52. ^ "The Burma Campaign 1941 – 1945". BBC. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  53. ^ a b Mead 2007, p. 425.
  54. ^ Alanbrook in his diary entry of 17 May wrote "...(met) with Auk about appointment of Slim to Burma Command. Leese is going quite wild and doing mad things, prepared a fair rap on the knuckles for him!"
  55. ^ "No. 37239". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 August 1945. p. 4319.
  56. ^ Slim 1961, p. 153.
  57. ^ Fraser 1995, pp. 35–36.
  58. ^ Fraser 1995, p. 37.
  59. ^ Fraser 1995, pp. xiv.
  60. ^ a b "No. 37407". The London Gazette. 28 December 1945. p. 17.
  61. ^ "No. 37875". The London Gazette. 4 February 1947. p. 662.
  62. ^ "No. 38289". The London Gazette. 14 May 1948. p. 2935.
    "No. 38321". The London Gazette. 11 June 1948. p. 3470.
  63. ^ a b Mead 2007, p. 426.
  64. ^ "No. 38500". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1948. p. 49.
  65. ^ "No. 38553". The London Gazette. 4 March 1949. p. 1127.
  66. ^ a b "No. 38797". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1950. p. 2.
  67. ^ a b "No. 38973". The London Gazette (Supplement). 21 July 1950. p. 3741.
  68. ^ "No. 38359". The London Gazette. 20 July 1948. p. 4189.
  69. ^ "No. 39706". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 November 1952. p. 6331.
  70. ^ a b "No. 39716". The London Gazette. 12 December 1952. p. 6544.
  71. ^ "No. 39743". The London Gazette. 2 January 1953. p. 94.
  72. ^ a b "No. 40159". The London Gazette. 27 April 1954. p. 2500.
  73. ^ "National Library of Australia". Nla.gov.au. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  74. ^ a b "No. 41691". The London Gazette. 24 May 1959. p. 2687.
  75. ^ "No. 42094". The London Gazette. 15 July 1960. p. 4925.
  76. ^ "No. 43360". The London Gazette. 19 June 1964. p. 5337.
  77. ^ Hill 2007, p. .
  78. ^ Leech & Box 2007.
  79. ^ ABC staff 2009.
  80. ^ Parry, Lizzie. "British military commander Viscount William Slim accused of molesting children | Daily Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  81. ^ a b "Inquiry to expose sexual abuse of British child migrants - 27/02/2017". Abc.net.au. 27 February 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  82. ^ Hayne, Jordan; Scott, Elise (6 June 2019). "William Slim Drive to be renamed over sexual abuse allegations against former governor-general". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  83. ^ Groch, Sherryn (6 June 2019). "William Slim Drive in Canberra to be renamed in wake of sexual abuse claims". Canberra Times. Retrieved 7 June 2019.
  84. ^ Home from home Defence Management Journal, Issue 32
  85. ^ Plaque in Slim's honour unveiled at Bristol cenotaph on 7 September 2008
  86. ^ "Salvation Army". Where it is. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  87. ^ "A student's guide to Shrivenham" (PDF). Cranfield University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  88. ^ "Slim School". Slim School. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
  89. ^ The Defence Academy: The Director's Reading List
  90. ^ Hastings 2008, p. 69.
  91. ^ Burma Star Association history Archived 11 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  92. ^ "UK attractions: Statue of Viscount Slim". Archived from the original on 11 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
  93. ^ Churchill Archives Centre in Cambridge
  94. ^ "WH Smith Literary Award Winners". Good Reads. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  95. ^ "Governors-General". Retrieved 13 March 2014.

References

Further reading

  • Owen, Frank. "General Bill Slim". Burma Star Association. Archived from the original on 12 September 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
  • Calvert, Mike (1973). Slim, War Leader. London: Pan. ISBN 0-345-09788-2.
  • Evans, Sir Geoffrey (1969). Slim as Military Commander. London: Batsford. ISBN 81-8158-099-0. OCLC 43432.
  • Keegan, John, ed. (1991). Churchill's Generals. New York: Grove Weidenfeld Press. ISBN 0-8021-1309-5.
  • Latimer, John (2004). Burma: The Forgotten War. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-6575-8.
  • Lyman, Robert (2004). Slim, Master of War: Burma and the Birth of Modern Warfare. London: Constable and Robinson. ISBN 1-84119-811-0.
  • Lyman, Robert (2011). Bill Slim. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84908-528-1.
  • Smart, Nick (2005). Biographical Dictionary of British Generals of the Second World War. Barnesley: Pen & Sword. ISBN 1844150496.
  • Miller, Russell (2013). Uncle Bill: The Authorised Biography of Field Marshal Viscount Slim. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-86584-1.

External links

Military offices
Preceded by
Daril Watson
Commandant of the Senior Officers' School, Belgaum
June−September 1939
School closed for the war
Preceded by
William Fraser
GOC 10th Indian Infantry Division
1941–1942
Succeeded by
Thomas Rees
Preceded by
Noel Beresford-Peirse
GOC XV Indian Corps
1942–1943
Succeeded by
Philip Christison
New title GOC Fourteenth Army
1943–1945
Succeeded by
Sir Miles Dempsey
Vacant
Title last held by
Hugh Binney
Commandant of the Imperial Defence College
1946–1948
Succeeded by
Sir John Slessor
Preceded by
The Viscount Montgomery of Alamein
Chief of the Imperial General Staff
1948–1952
Succeeded by
Sir John Harding
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir William McKell
Governor-General of Australia
1953–1960
Succeeded by
The Viscount Dunrossil
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
The Earl of Athlone
Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle
1964–1970
Succeeded by
The Lord Elworthy
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Slim
1960–1970
Succeeded by
John Douglas Slim
August 6

August 6 is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 147 days remain until the end of the year.

Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)

Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964. The CGS is a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Army Board. Prior to 1964 the title was Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS). Since 1959, the post has been immediately subordinate to the Chief of the Defence Staff, the post held by the professional head of the British Armed Forces.

The current Chief of the General Staff is General Sir Mark Carleton-Smith – having succeeded his predecessor, General Sir Nick Carter in June 2018.

Defeat into Victory

Defeat into Victory is an account of the retaking of Burma by Allied forces during the Second World War by the British Field Marshal William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim and published in the UK by Cassell in 1956. It was published in the United States as Defeat into Victory: Battling Japan in Burma and India, 1942–1945 by David McKay of New York in 1961.

Slim was the commander of the British 14th Army which, in concert with American and Chinese forces, defeated the Imperial Japanese Army during the Burma Campaign. Defeat into Victory is widely regarded as a classic memoir of high command.

Dogra Regiment

The Dogra Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Indian Army. The regiment traces its roots directly from the 17th Dogra Regiment of the British Indian Army. When transferred to the Indian Army like its sister regiments, the numeral prefix (in the case of the Dogra Regiment, 17) was removed. Units of the Dogra Regiment have fought in all conflicts that independent India has been engaged in, making it one of the most prestigious and most decorated regiments of the Indian Army.

Edgbaston

Edgbaston is an affluent suburban area of central Birmingham, England, curved around the southwest of the city centre. It is bordered by Moseley to the south east and by Smethwick and Winson Green to the north west.

In the 19th century, the area was under the control of the Gough-Calthorpe family and the Gillott family who refused to allow factories or warehouses to be built in Edgbaston, thus making it attractive for the wealthier residents of the city. Thus it was known as "where the trees begin". Edgbaston is home to Edgbaston Cricket Ground, a Test match venue, the University of Birmingham, established as Birmingham Medical School in 1825, eight out of the nine independent schools within the city, Edgbaston Golf Club, one of the most exclusive private members clubs in the Midlands, as well as the Priory Club, which boasts world class sporting facilities.

In addition, the area also boasts the Birmingham Botanical Gardens as well as the Edgbaston Archery and Lawn Tennis Society, which is the oldest lawn tennis club in the world that is still in use today. The first game of lawn tennis was incidentally also played in Edgbaston, in a garden of a house known as "Fairlawn".

The area is also home to a Michelin star restaurant, Simpsons, as well as a host of renowned pubs such as The Highfield, The Physician and the Edgbaston.

The parliamentary constituency of Edgbaston includes the smaller Edgbaston ward and the wards of Bartley Green, Harborne and Quinton. Edgbaston is also a local government district, managed by its own district committee.

Index of World War II articles (W)

W, or the Memory of Childhood

W. Andersen

W. Browning

W. D. Workman, Jr.

W. G. E. Luddington

W. G. G. Duncan Smith

W. George Bowdon, Jr.

W. H. Murray

W. Jason Morgan

W. L. Rambo

W. M. W. Fowler

W. Marvin Watson

W. N. T. Beckett

W. Somerset Maugham

W. Stanley Moss

W. T. Attrill

W. W. Behrens, Jr.

Władysław Ślebodziński

Władysław Anders

Władysław Bartoszewski

Władysław Bortnowski

Władysław Dobrzaniecki

Władysław Dworaczek

Władysław Filipkowski

Władysław Galica

Władysław Gnyś

Władysław Grydziuszko

Władysław Langner

Władysław Ogrodziński

Władysław Sikorski

Władysław Tempka

Włodzimierz Arlamowski

Włodzimierz Dąbrowski

Włodzimierz Kryszewski

Włodzimierz Stożek

Wöbbelin concentration camp

WAAC

Wacław Krzeptowski

Wacław Przeździecki

Wacław Sierpiński

Wachlarz

Waco CG-15

Waco CG-3

Waco CG-4

Waddy Young

Wade H. Haislip

Wade H. McCree

Waffen-SS divisions

Waffen-SS

Waffenamt codes

Waffenamt

Waggoner Carr

Wagner-Rogers Bill

Wagram (Paris Métro)

Wah Kau Kong

Waichirō Sonobe

Wait for me (poem)

Wakako Yamauchi

Wake Island (1942 film)

Wake Island Device

Wake Island

Wake Me When the War Is Over

Wal Handley

Waldemar Hoven

Waldemar Kaminski

Waldemar Kophamel

Waldemar Levy Cardoso

Waldemar Steffen

Waldemar Tietgens

Waldemar von Gazen

Walden L. Ainsworth

Walerian Czuma

Walker Army Airfield (Kansas)

Wall of the Farmers-General

Wallace fountain

Wallace McIntosh

Wallace O'Connor

Wallace William Wade

Wallgrove Aerodrome

Wallgrove Army Base

Wally Dunn

Wally Floody

Wally Judnich

Wally Kinnan

Wally Millies

Wally Phillips

Wally Schirra

Wally Shaner

Wally Wood

Walnut Ridge Regional Airport

Walsh-Kaiser Co., Inc.

Walt Barnes

Walt Disney's World War II propaganda production

Walt Disney Studios Park

Walt Masterson

Walt Whitman Rostow

Walter Arndt

Walter Audisio

Walter Bradel

Walter Bricht

Walter Bromley-Davenport

Walter Buch

Walter Buckmaster

Walter C. Dornez

Walter C. Langer

Walter C. Wetzel

Walter Carl Wann, Jr.

Walter Cowan

Walter Cramer

Walter D. Ehlers

Walter David Alexander Lentaigne

Walter de Coventre

Walter Demel

Walter Dietrich

Walter Dornberger

Walter Drumheller

Walter E. Hussman, Sr.

Walter E. Truemper

Walter Ernest Brown

Walter Frank

Walter Frentz

Walter Fries

Walter G. Roman

Walter Gerlach

Walter Gorn

Walter Graf

Walter Gross (politician)

Walter Guinness, 1st Baron Moyne

Walter H. Thompson

Walter Harold Mosley

Walter Hartmann

Walter Harzer

Walter Henry Zinn

Walter Huddleston

Walter HWK 109-509

Walter J. Will

Walter Jakob Gehring

Walter Jenkins

Walter John Raymond

Walter Katzenstein

Walter Kaufmann (philosopher)

Walter Kauzmann

Walter Klingenbeck

Walter Krüger (SS officer)

Walter Krueger

Walter Krupinski

Walter Laqueur

Walter Leigh

Walter Long, 2nd Viscount Long

Walter Lord

Walter Luttrell

Walter M. Miller, Jr.

Walter Matthau

Walter Mervyn St George Kirke

Walter Middelberg

Walter Model

Walter Nowotny

Walter Oesau

Walter Poppe

Walter Rangeley

Walter Rauff

Walter Reder

Walter Schellenberg

Walter Schimana

Walter Schreiber

Walter Schroder

Walter Schuck

Walter Serner

Walter Short

Walter Spies

Walter Stauffer McIlhenny

Walter Stokes

Walter Stratton Anderson

Walter T. Kerwin, Jr.

Walter Taieb

Walter Taylor

Walter Tewksbury

Walter Thijssen

Walter von Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt

Walter W. Coolbaugh

Walter Wagner (notary)

Walter Walker (British Army officer)

Walter Wardlaw

Walter Warlimont

Walter Weiß

Walter Wolfrum

Walter X. Young

Walterina Markova

Walther Dahl

Walther Forstmann

Walther Funk

Walther Hewel

Walther Nehring

Walther P38

Walther PP

Walther Schwieger

Walther von Brauchitsch

Walther von Reichenau

Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach

Walther Wenck

Walther Wever (general)

Walther Wever

Walton Walker

Wan Fulin

Wan Rong

Wanda Gertz

Wanda Jakubowska

Wanda Klaff

Wanda Krahelska-Filipowicz

Wanda Radio Station

Wanda Sieradzka de Ruig

Wanda Tomczykowska

Wang Delin

Wang Fengge

Wang Jingguo

Wang Jingjiu

Wang Jingwei Government

Wang Jingwei

Wang Kemin

Wang Lingji

Wang Mingzhang

Wang Yaowu

Wang Ying (hanjian)

Wang Zhen

Wang Zhonglian

Wang Zuanxu

Wannsee Conference

Wanshan Archipelago Campaign

War Activities Committee of the Motion Pictures Industry

War and Destiny

War and Remembrance

War at Sea

War bond

War bride

War children

War Comes to America

War correspondents 1942-43

War crimes in Manchukuo

War crimes of the Wehrmacht

War Damage Commission

War Division

War Eagle Field

War Emergency Programme destroyers

War Front: Turning Point

War in Europe (game)

War in the Pacific National Historical Park

War Manpower Commission

War Merit Cross

War of the Raven

War Order No. 154

War Plan Orange

War Production Board

War Refugee Board

War Relocation Authority

War Research Service

War savings stamps

War Shipping Administration

War

Warbird

Warren A. Croll, Jr.

Warren Allen Smith

Warren B. Woodson

Warren Kealoha

Warren Lewis

Warren Magnuson

Warren Mitchell

Warren Snyder

Warren Spahn

Warrior Woman

Warsaw Armoured Motorized Brigade

Warsaw concentration camp

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Warsaw Ghetto

Warsaw Insurgents Cemetery

Warsaw Uprising Museum

Warsaw Uprising

Warschauer Kniefall

Warszawa Army

Wartime Nutrition

Wartime perception of the Chinese Communists

Warwick Farm Racecourse

Washington Conference (1943)

Washington Naval Treaty

Wasserfall

Watch on the Rhine

Waterloo Road (film)

WATO (AM)

WAVES

Waydelich

Wayne Blackburn

Wayne E. Meyer

Wayne Millner

Wayne Mixson

Wayne Morris (American actor)

We'll Meet Again (1939 song)

We've Never Been Licked

We Dive at Dawn

We shall fight on the beaches

We Shall Never Die

We Wept Without Tears

Weapon Alpha

Weapons Cache Case

Weapons of Choice

Weather Station Kurt

Webley Revolver

WebMuseum

Wehrmacht

Wehrmachtbericht

Wehrmachtsausstellung

Wehrwolf

Wei Huang Gong

Wei Lihuang

Weingut I

Weixian-Guangling-Nuanquan Campaign

Welbike

Welland Phipps

Wells

Welrod

Welthauptstadt Germania

Welton Ralph Abell

Wend von Wietersheim

Wendell Fertig

Wendell H. Ford

Wendell Nedderman

Wendy Yoshimura

Went the Day Well?

Wereth 11

Werner Baumbach

Werner Best

Werner Blankenburg

Werner Catel

Werner Drechsler

Werner Ekman

Werner Fürbringer

Werner Goldberg

Werner Grothmann

Werner Haase

Werner Hartmann

Werner Henke

Werner Heyde

Werner Junck

Werner Klemperer

Werner Lička

Werner Lorenz

Werner Lott

Werner Lucas

Werner Mölders

Werner March

Werner Mummert

Werner Naumann

Werner Pluskat

Werner Schroer

Werner Seelenbinder

Werner Streib

Werner Stuber

Werner Villinger

Werner von Blomberg

Werner von Fritsch

Werner von Haeften

Werner von Strucker

Werner von Trapp

Werner Voss

Werner Ziegler

Wernher von Braun

Werwolf

Wes Livengood

Weserflug We 271

Wesford

Wesley Phelps

Wespe

Wessel von Freytag-Loringhoven

West Africa Campaign (World War II)

West Berlin Air Corridor

West Coast Memorial to the Missing of World War II

West Sussex County Division

West Wall Medal

West Woodward Airport

Westboro Baptist Church

Westerbork (camp)

Western Allied invasion of Germany

Western Allies

Western Army (Russia)

Western betrayal

Western Canada for Us

Western Desert Campaign

Western Desert Force

Western Escort Force W-6

Western Front (Frankreich) Area (Luftflotte 3, France)

Western Front (Soviet Union)

Western Front (World War II)

Western Front

Western Guard Party

Western Hopei Operation

Western Nebraska Regional Airport

Western New Guinea campaign

Western Tai'an Campaign

Western use of the Swastika in the early 20th century

Westland Lysander

Westland New Post

Westland Welkin

Westover Air Reserve Base - Westover Metropolitan Airport

Wewelsburg

Whampoa Military Academy

What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?

What Makes a Battle

Wheat, Tennessee

When Trumpets Fade

When Willie Comes Marching Home

Where Eagles Dare

Where Once We Walked

Which Way to the War

While Waiting for the Red Spectacles

Whiskey-class submarine

Whistle (novel)

Whistler's Mother

White Aryan Resistance (Sweden)

White Aryan Resistance

White Buses

White Citizens' Council

White Citizens Parties

White Defence League

White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan

White League

White Light/Black Rain: The Destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

White Nationalist Party

White Order of Thule

White Patriot Party

White Rose

Whitecapping

Whitney Straight

Who's That Singing Over There

Who me?

Why We Fight

Wide boy

Wiedergutmachung

Wielkopolska Cavalry Brigade

Wiesław Chrzanowski

Wiesław Wernic

Wiesel Commission

Wiking-Jugend

Wiktor Michałowski

Wiktor Ormicki

Wiktor Thommée

Wilbur Bestwick

Wilbur Crane Eveland

Wilbur J. Peterkin

Wilbur Snapp

Wilburn Cartwright

Wilburn K. Ross

Wilde Sau

Wilebaldo Solano

Wilenska Cavalry Brigade

Wilf Mannion

Wilfred "Chicken" Smallhorn

Wilfred Arthur

Wilfred Baker (veteran)

Wilfred Bion

Wilfred Dunderdale

Wilfred Edwards

Wilfred Gordon Bigelow

Wilfred Stamp, 2nd Baron Stamp

Wilfred von Oven

Wilfrid B. Israel

Wilfrid Derome

Wilfrid Lewis Lloyd

Wilfried Dalmat

Wilhelm Adam (politician)

Wilhelm Adam (soldier)

Wilhelm Balthasar

Wilhelm Batz

Wilhelm Beiglböck

Wilhelm Bichl

Wilhelm Bittrich

Wilhelm Brückner

Wilhelm Burgdorf

Wilhelm Canaris

Wilhelm Carstens

Wilhelm Crinius

Wilhelm Falley

Wilhelm Filderman

Wilhelm Frick

Wilhelm Friedrich Loeper

Wilhelm Góra

Wilhelm Grebe

Wilhelm Guddorf

Wilhelm Gustloff (ship)

Wilhelm Gustloff

Wilhelm Höttl

Wilhelm Hoffman

Wilhelm Kaisen

Wilhelm Keitel

Wilhelm Kling

Wilhelm Koppe

Wilhelm Kreis

Wilhelm Krueger

Wilhelm Kube

Wilhelm Leichum

Wilhelm Leuschner

Wilhelm List

Wilhelm Mohnke

Wilhelm Murr

Wilhelm Ohnesorge

Wilhelm Rediess

Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reinhard (SS)

Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb

Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma

Wilhelm Ruppert

Wilhelm Schepmann

Wilhelm Siegmund Frei

Wilhelm Steinmann

Wilhelm Stepper-Tristis

Wilhelm Stuckart

Wilhelm Stäglich

Wilhelm Traube

Wilhelm von Tangen Hansteen

Wilhelm Wegener

Wilhelm Weiss

Wilhelm Wolf

Wilhelm Zander

Wilhelmina of the Netherlands

Wilk-class submarine

Will Decker

Will Eisner

Will Rogers World Airport

Will Rogers, Jr.

Willard Bowsky

Willard G. Wyman

Willard Keith

Willard Tibbetts

Willard Van Orman Quine

Willem Arondeus

Willem Sassen

Willem Schermerhorn

Willem Ter Braak

Willi Bredel

Willi Graf

Willi Hofmann

Willi Jutzi

Willi Lindner

Willi Schmid

Willi Stöhr

Willi Stoph

Willi Tiefel

William "Willie" McKnight

William A. Earle

William A. Foster

William A. Knowlton

William A. Matheny

William A. McWhorter

William A. Shomo

William A. Soderman

William Abercrombie

William Addison

William Alfred Dimoline

William Alfred Savage

William Anderson (naval officer)

William Anstruther-Gray, Baron Kilmany

William Antrobus Griesbach

William Archibald Kenneth Fraser

William AS Ouderland

William Ash (pilot)

William Ayache

William B. Rosson

William B. Saxbe

William B. Spong, Jr.

William Basil Weston

William Boyle, 12th Earl of Cork

William Bradford Huie

William Brantley Aycock

William Breeze

William C. Gribble, Jr.

William C. Lawe

William C. Lee

William C. Marshall

William Carr (rower)

William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington

William Clay Ford, Sr.

William Colby

William Colepaugh

William Conolly-Carew, 6th Baron Carew

William Conrad

William Cox (athlete)

William Craig (Northern Ireland politician)

William D. Browne

William D. Ford

William D. Halyburton, Jr.

William D. Hawkins

William D. Houser

William D. Leahy

William D. McGee

William Davidson Bissett

William Demko

William Dickson (RAF officer)

William Diehl

William Dobbie

William Donald Schaefer

William Donne

William Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside

William E. Dyess

William E. Barber

William E. DePuy

William E. Fairbairn

William E. Hall

William E. Metzger, Jr.

William Ecker

William Edwin Minshall, Jr.

William Ehrlich

William Ellis Newton

William Ellison Pennewill

William Elphinstone

William Evan Allan

William Ewart Hiscock

William F. Barnes

William F. Buckley, Jr.

William F. Cassidy

William F. Friedman

William F. Knowland

William F. Quinn

William F. Train

William Fechteler

William Findlay (soccer)

William Finnic Cates

William Fitts Ryan

William Frank Seiverling, Jr.

William G. Bainbridge

William G. East

William G. Fournier

William G. Harrell

William G. Sebold

William G. Thrash

William G. Walsh

William G. Windrich

William Jackson (British Army officer)

William Gaines

William Garfield Thomas, Jr.

William George Foster

William George Nicholas Manley

William Gerard Barry

William Gordon (bishop)

William Gosling (footballer)

William Gosling (VC)

William Gott

William Grover-Williams

William Guarnere

William Guy Carr

William H. Bates

William H. Blanchard

William H. Brockman, Jr.

William H. Gass

William H. Gates, Sr.

William H. Nation

William H. P. Blandy

William H. Rupertus

William H. Smith (boxer)

William H. Thomas (Medal of Honor recipient)

William H. Tunner

William H. Wilbur

William Halsey, Jr.

William Hamling

William Hanes Ayres

William Hartnell

William Havelock Ramsden

William Henry Johnson (VC)

William Henry Kibby

William Herskovic

William Higinbotham

William Holden

William Holland (athlete)

William Holmes (British Army officer)

William Holmes Crosby, Jr.

William Hood Simpson

William Hopper

William Howard Livens

William Hutt (actor)

William J. Bordelon

William J. Brennan, Jr.

William J. Casey

William J. Crawford

William J. Crow

William J. Grabiarz

William J. Johnston

William J. O'Brien (Medal of Honor recipient)

William J. Simmons

William Jason Maxwell Borthwick

William Jefferson Blythe, Jr.

William Jennings Bryan Dorn

William John Lyon

William John Wolfgram

William John Yendell

William Joseph Donovan

William Joyce

William K. Nakamura

William King (Royal Navy officer)

William Kingsmill (MP)

William Kirschbaum

William Kunstler

William L. Calhoun (admiral)

William L. Clayton

William L. Dickinson

William L. Eagleton

William L. Hungate

William L. Laurence

William L. Nelson (Medal of Honor recipient)

William L. Shirer

William Lederer

William Lewis (athlete)

William Lyon Mackenzie King

William M. Callaghan

William M. Hoge

William M. Miley

William Madocks

William Manchester

William Marsden Eastman

William McGonagle

William McIntyre

William Menster

William Milbourne James

William Modell

William Moloney

William Moore Benidickson

William Moore McCulloch

William Murray-Wood

William Napier, 13th Lord Napier

William Neil McKechnie

William O. Brice

William O. Eareckson

William O. Gallery

William O. Wooldridge

William of Paris (saint)

William Onslow, 6th Earl of Onslow

William Orlando Darby

William Oswald Mills

William Parr (footballer)

William P. Rogers

William P. Yarborough

William Patrick Hitler

William Penney, Baron Penney

William Perl

William Perry

William Pershing Benedict

William Platt

William Quash

William R. Caddy

William R. Dunn

William R. Lawley, Jr.

William R. Lloyd

William R. Lucas

William R. Peers

William R. Shockley

William R. Snodgrass

William Raborn

William Rehnquist

William Reid (VC)

William Remington (athlete)

William Rogers (rugby player)

William Rose (screenwriter)

William S. Mailliard

William S. Massey

William S. Morris

William S. Stone

William Salcer

William Saward

William Scranton

William Seagrove

William Seawell

William Shakespeare (football)

William Shepherd

William Sheridan Allen

William Sidney Smith

William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle

William Silkworth

William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim

William Staveley (Royal Navy officer)

William Steger

William Steinberg

William Sterling Parsons

William Joseph Stern

William Stewart Simkins

William Strang, 1st Baron Strang

William T Y'Blood

William T. Clement

William T. Hanna

William T. Ingram

William T. Owen

William T. Young

William Tubman

William Usery, Jr.

William W. Momyer

William Wallace (rower)

William Walter Kouts

William Wasbrough Foster

William Welsh (RAF officer)

William Westmoreland

William Whipple Jr.

William Winter (politician)

William Wolfe Wileman

William Wood (rower)

William Wylie Galt

William Yates (politician)

Williamis de Souza Silva

Willibald C. Bianchi

Willie Crilley

Willie Edwards

Willie Gillis

Willis A. Lee

Willis Carto

Willis D. Crittenberger

Willis Lent

Willis Ricketts

Williston B. Palmer

Williston Municipal Airport

Willward Alexander Sandys-Clarke

Willy F. James, Jr.

Willy Favre

Willy Grondin

Willy Lages

Willy Rösingh

Willy Schärer

Willys MB

Wilm Hosenfeld

Wilma Leona Jackson

Wilmeth Sidat-Singh

Wilson D. Watson

Wincenty Kowalski

Winchester Model 1897

Winchester Model 1912

Windfall Indiana WWII POW Camp

Window (radar countermeasure)

Winds Code

Windsor-class attack transport

Windtalkers

Winfield S. Cunningham

Winged Victory (play)

Winged Victory of Samothrace

Wingmen (The Boondocks)

Wings for This Man

Wings of Fury

Wings of Power II: WWII Fighters

Wings of Power: WWII Heavy Bombers and Jets

Wings Up

Winkler County Airport

Winnie Gibson

Winning Your Wings

Winrich Behr

Winston's Hiccup

Winston's War

Winston & Strawn

Winston Churchill as historian

Winston Churchill as writer

Winston Churchill High School (Eugene, Oregon)

Winston Churchill High School (Lethbridge)

Winston Churchill High School (Montgomery County, Maryland)

Winston Churchill in politics: 1900-1939

Winston Churchill Memorial Trust

Winston Churchill

Winter Haven's Gilbert Airport

Winter Line

Winter Offensive of 1947 in Northeast China

Winter War

Winterhilfswerk

Winthrop Rockefeller

Winton M. Blount

Wirbelwind

Wireless Experimental Centre

Wireless Set No. 19

Wirtschaftswunder

Wish Me Luck

Wishes: A Magical Gathering of Disney Dreams

Wissem Ben Yahia

Witalis Wieder

With the Marines at Tarawa

With the Old Breed

Withers A. Burress

Without Love

Witold Łokuciewski

Witold Dzierżykraj-Morawski

Witold Pilecki

Witold Urbanowicz

Witold Zalewski

Wivan Pettersson

WKKK

Wladimir Aïtoff

Wladimir Vogel

WNFZ

Würzburg radar

Wołyńska Cavalry Brigade

Woeste Hoeve

Wojciech Kossak

Wojciech Rostafiński

Wola massacre

Woldemar Brinkmann

Wolei-class minelayer

Wolf-Dietrich Wilcke

Wolf-Heinrich Graf von Helldorf

Wolf Graf von Baudissin

Wolf of Soissons

Wolf pack Blücher

Wolf pack Eisbär

Wolf pack Endrass

Wolf pack Hai

Wolf pack Hecht

Wolf pack Leuthen

Wolf pack Pfadfinder

Wolf pack Steinbrock

Wolf pack Tümmler

Wolf pack Vorwärts

Wolf pack Wolf

Wolf pack

Wolfenstein 3D

Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory

Wolfgang Borchert

Wolfgang Danne

Wolfgang Droege

Wolfgang Falck

Wolfgang Heyda

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky

Wolfgang Lettl

Wolfgang Liebeneiner

Wolfgang Lüth

Wolfgang Mommsen

Wolfgang Muff

Wolfgang Schellmann

Wolfgang Schwarz

Wolfgang Sievers

Wolfgang Späte

Wolfgang Stöhr

Wolfgang Tonne

Wolfram Sievers

Wolfram von Richthofen

Wolfsangel

Wolfsschanze

Wolverine (comics)

Wolves of Paris

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps

Women's Army Corps Service Medal

Women's Army Corps

Women's Auxiliary Air Force

Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force

Women's Auxiliary Service (Burma)

Women's Land Army

Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz

Women's roles in the World Wars

Women's Royal Australian Naval Service

Women's Royal Naval Service

Women Airforce Service Pilots

Women in Bondage

Women in Defense

Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery

Wonder weapons

Wood for War

Woodrow Parfrey

Woodrow W. Keeble

Woodrow Wilson Barr

Woodrow Wyatt

Woody Hayes

Woolenook (Wood Camp)

Woolton pie

Worek Plan

World in Flames

World Jewish Congress lawsuit against Swiss banks

World Union of National Socialists

World War II-era population transfers

World War II aircraft production

World War II casualties

World War II Combat: Iwo Jima

World War II Combat: Road to Berlin

World War II combatives

World War II crimes in Poland

World War II cryptography

World War II evacuation and expulsion

World War II in contemporary culture

World War II in the Basque Country

World War II Online

World War II persecution of Serbs

World War II Victory Medal (United States)

World War II Victory Medal

World War II: Frontline Command

World War II

World war

World War

Worldwar series

Worldwar: In the Balance

Worldwar: Striking the Balance

Worldwar: Tilting the Balance

Worldwar: Upsetting the Balance

Worldwar

Wormhoudt massacre

Wort und Tat

Wound Badge

WRVS

Wu Qiwei

Wu Yicheng

Wuli Campaign

Wunderwaffe

Wurfrahmen 40

WW2 aircraft production

WWII (album)

WWII Postal Acronyms

Wyndham Portal, 1st Viscount Portal

Japanese occupation of Burma

The Japanese occupation of Burma

was the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan. The Japanese had assisted formation of the Burma Independence Army, and trained the Thirty Comrades, who were the founders of the modern Armed Forces (Tatmadaw). The Burmese hoped to gain support of the Japanese in expelling the British, so that Burma could become independent.In 1942 Japan invaded Burma and nominally declared the colony independent as the State of Burma on 1 August 1943. A puppet government led by Ba Maw was installed. However, many Burmese began to believe the Japanese had no intention of giving them real independence.Aung San, father of future opposition leader and State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi, and other nationalist leaders formed the Anti-Fascist Organisation in August 1944, which asked the United Kingdom to form a coalition with the other Allies against the Japanese. By April 1945, the Allies had driven out the Japanese. Subsequently, negotiations began between the Burmese and the British for independence. Under Japanese occupation, 170,000 to 250,000 civilians died.

Lees Knowles Lecture

The Lees Knowles Lectureship was established at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1912 and lectures are given by distinguished experts in military and naval history. Selection for this lectureship is considered one of the highest honours available to specialists in military history and affairs. The lectureship was established by a bequest by Trinity alumnus and military historian Sir Lees Knowles.

List of University of Birmingham people

This is a list of notable people related to the University of Birmingham.

List of public art in Whitehall

This is a list of public art in Whitehall, a district in the City of Westminster, London.

Whitehall is at the centre of the highest concentration of memorials in the City of Westminster, in which 47% of the total number of such works in the borough are located. It includes the eponymous street of Whitehall and Horse Guards Parade, both important ceremonial spaces, and Horse Guards Road, which forms its western boundary with St James's Park. The area's monuments are mainly military in character, foremost among them being the Cenotaph, which is the focal point of the national Remembrance Sunday commemorations held each year.

List of regiments of the Indian Army (1922)

This is a list of regiments of the Indian Army as it was following the reorganisation of the Indian Armed Forces in 1922.

Ruston (engine builder)

Ruston & Hornsby was an industrial equipment manufacturer in Lincoln, England founded in 1918. The company is best known as a manufacturer of narrow and standard gauge diesel locomotives and also of steam shovels. Other products included cars, steam locomotives and a range of internal combustion engines, and later gas turbines. It is now a subsidiary of Siemens.

Senior Officers' School, Belgaum

The Senior Officers' School, Belgaum was a British military establishment established in 1920 for the training of senior officers of all services based in India in inter-service cooperation.

Slim (name)

Slim, Arabic: سليم‎, can be either a given name or a surname. People so named include:

Carlos Slim Helú (born 1940), Mexican businessman and one of the richest people in the world

Carlos Slim Domit (born 1967), Mexican businessman and son of the above

Mongi Slim (1908-1969), Tunisian diplomat and the first African President of the United Nations General Assembly

William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim (1891–1970), British field marshal and thirteenth Governor-General of Australia

Slim Amamou (born 1977), Tunisian blogger and government minister

Slim Barrett (born 1960s), jewellery designer and artist

Slim Belkhodja (born 1962), Tunisian chess Grandmaster

Slim Dziri (1875-1953), Tunisian government minister

Slim Mahfoudh (c. 1942-2017), Tunisian actor

Slim, the protagonist of the 2002 film Enough, played by Jennifer Lopez

Statue of the Viscount Montgomery, London

The statue of Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein is located outside the Ministry of Defence Main Building in Whitehall, London, United Kingdom. It was designed by Oscar Nemon and stands alongside statues of William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim and Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke.

Statue of the Viscount Slim, London

The statue of William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim in Whitehall, London, is a work of 1988–93 by the sculptor Ivor Roberts-Jones. It is one of three memorials to British military leaders of World War II on Raleigh Green, outside the Ministry of Defence's Main Building, the others being Oscar Nemon's 1980 statue of Lord Montgomery and Roberts-Jones's statue of Lord Alanbrooke, erected later in 1993. Slim's bronze statue stands approximately 3 metres (9.8 ft) high on a pedestal of Portland stone.

Viscount Slim

Viscount Slim, of Yarralumla in the Capital Territory of Australia and of Bishopston in the City and County of Bristol, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1960 for Field Marshal Sir William Slim upon the end of his term as Governor-General of Australia.Until 2019 the title was held by his son, the second Viscount, who succeeded in 1970 and was one of the ninety elected hereditary peers that remain in the House of Lords after the passing of the House of Lords Act of 1999, and sat as a cross-bencher.

His son, the 3rd Viscount, is a chartered surveyor and a director of malt suppliers Muntons plc.

Whitehall

Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea. It is the main thoroughfare running south from Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square. The street is recognised as the centre of the Government of the United Kingdom and is lined with numerous departments and ministries, including the Ministry of Defence, Horse Guards and the Cabinet Office. Consequently, the name 'Whitehall' is used as a metonym for the British civil service and government, and as the geographic name for the surrounding area.

The name was taken from the Palace of Whitehall that was the residence of Kings Henry VIII through to William III, before its destruction by fire in 1698; only the Banqueting House survived. Whitehall was originally a wide road that led to the front of the palace; the route to the south was widened in the 18th century following the destruction of the palace.

As well as government buildings, the street is known for its memorial statues and monuments, including Britain's primary war memorial, the Cenotaph. The Whitehall Theatre, now the Trafalgar Studios, has been popular for farce comedies since the mid-20th century.

Commanders-in-Chief of the Forces
Chief of the General Staff
Chiefs of the Imperial General Staff
Chiefs of the General Staff

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