William Rufus Day (April 17, 1849 – July 9, 1923) was an American diplomat and jurist, who served for nineteen years as a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Prior to his service on the Supreme Court, Day served as the 36th United States Secretary of State during the administration of William McKinley.
|Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States|
February 23, 1903 – November 13, 1922
|Nominated by||Theodore Roosevelt|
|Preceded by||George Shiras|
|Succeeded by||Pierce Butler|
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit|
February 28, 1899 – February 23, 1903
|Nominated by||William McKinley|
|Preceded by||Seat established|
|Succeeded by||John Richards|
|36th United States Secretary of State|
April 28, 1898 – September 16, 1898
|Preceded by||John Sherman|
|Succeeded by||John Hay|
|United States Assistant Secretary of State|
May 11, 1897 – April 27, 1898
|Preceded by||William Rockhill|
|Succeeded by||John Moore|
William Rufus Day
April 17, 1849
Ravenna, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||July 9, 1923 (aged 74)|
Mackinac Island, Michigan, U.S.
|Children||4, including William and Stephen|
|Education||University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (BS)|
Day was born in Ravenna, Ohio, son of Luther Day of the Ohio Supreme Court. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1870, spent a year studying law with attorney and judge George F. Robinson, and then a year at the University of Michigan Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1872 and settled in Canton, Ohio, where he began practicing law in partnership with William A. Lynch. For twenty-five years, Day worked as a criminal defense and corporate lawyer in the growing industrial town while participating in Republican politics.
During these years, Day became a good friend of William McKinley. Day became McKinley's legal and political adviser during McKinley's candidacies for the Congress, the governorship of Ohio, and the presidency of the United States. After he won the presidency, McKinley appointed Day to be Assistant Secretary of State under Secretary of State John Sherman. Sherman was considered to be ineffective because of declining health and failing memory, and in 1898, President McKinley replaced Sherman with Day.
Five months later, Day vacated his cabinet position to helm the United States Peace Commission formed to negotiate an end to the Spanish–American War with Spain. After the Spanish–American War was declared, Day had argued that the Spanish colonies, other than Cuba, should be returned to Spain, contrary to McKinley's decision that the United States should take over from Spain control of the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Day, however, negotiated peace with Spain on McKinley's harsher terms. His final diplomatic effort was to lead the United States Peace Commission into Paris, France and sign the Treaty of Paris ending the war.
On February 25, 1899, following Day's return from Europe, McKinley nominated Day to a new seat, on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, created by 30 Stat. 803. The Circuit included Day's home state of Ohio. Day was confirmed by the United States Senate very quickly, on February 28, 1899, and received commission the same day. His position as head of the state department was filled by John Hay.
President McKinley was assassinated in September 1901 and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt took his place. On February 19, 1903, Roosevelt nominated Day as an Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, to a seat vacated by George Shiras, Jr. The Senate confirmed the nomination on February 23, 1903, and Day received his commission the same day, thereafter taking his new position on March 2, 1903.
Day wrote 439 opinions during his tenure on the court, of which only 18 were dissents. He distrusted large corporations and voted with antitrust majorities throughout his time on the court. He sided with the government in the Standard Oil, American Tobacco, and Union Pacific cases in 1911 and 1912 and again in the Southern Pacific case in 1922.
He was an avid baseball fan. He is recorded as asking his clerk for "regular updates" during the bench hearing of Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. v. United States about the final game of the 1912 World Series.
Day retired from the court on November 13, 1922, and briefly served as an Umpire of the Mixed Claims Commission to Adjudicate War Claims against Germany. He died in July of the following year on Mackinac Island in Michigan, aged 74. He is buried at West Lawn Cemetery in Canton, Ohio.
| United States Assistant Secretary of State
| United States Secretary of State
|New seat|| Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
| Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Events from the year 1849 in the United States.April 17
April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 258 days remaining until the end of the year.HM LST-405
HMS LST-405 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship that was transferred to the Royal Navy during World War II and served in the Europe-Africa-Middle East Theater. As with many of her class, the ship was never named. Instead, she was referred to by her hull designation.HM LST-407
HMS LST-407 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship that was transferred to the Royal Navy during World War II. As with many of her class, the ship was never named. Instead, she was referred to by her hull designation.HM LST-411
HMS LST-411 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship that was transferred to the Royal Navy during World War II. As with many of her class, the ship was never named. Instead, she was referred to by her hull designation.HM LST-414
HMS LST-414 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship that was transferred to the Royal Navy during World War II. As with many of her class, the ship was never named. Instead, she was referred to by her hull designation.Leser v. Garnett
Leser v. Garnett, 258 U.S. 130 (1922), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had been constitutionally established.List of Secretaries of State of the United States
This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.List of federal judges appointed by Theodore Roosevelt
Following is a list of all Article III United States federal judges appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt during his presidency. In total Roosevelt appointed 80 Article III federal judges, a record for his day surpassing the 46 appointed by Ulysses S. Grant. These included 3 Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States, 19 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 58 judges to the United States district courts.
Five of Roosevelt's appointees - George Bethune Adams, Thomas H. Anderson, and Robert W. Archbald, Andrew McConnell January Cochran, and Benjamin Franklin Keller, were originally placed on their respective courts as recess appointments by President William McKinley. Following the assassination which resulted in McKinley's death on September 14, 1901, Roosevelt chose to formally nominate those judges for confirmation by the United States Senate, and all were confirmed.
Additionally, 8 Article I appointments are listed, including 4 judges to the United States Court of Claims and 4 members to the Board of General Appraisers (later the United States Customs Court).
From the establishment of the United States courts of appeals on June 16, 1891, until the abolition of the United States circuit courts on December 31, 1911, all United States Circuit Judges where jointly appointed to both the United States court of appeal and the United States circuit court for their respective circuit. Starting January 1, 1912, United States Circuit Judges served only on the United States court of appeal for their respective circuit.List of federal judges appointed by William McKinley
Following is a list of all Article III United States federal judges appointed by President William McKinley during his presidency. In total McKinley appointed 35 Article III federal judges, including 1 Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States, 6 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 28 judges to the United States district courts.
Additionally, McKinley appointed 3 members of the Article I tribunal Board of General Appraisers (later the United States Customs Court).
From the establishment of the United States courts of appeals on June 16, 1891, until the abolition of the United States circuit courts on December 31, 1911, all United States Circuit Judges where jointly appointed to both the United States court of appeal and the United States circuit court for their respective circuit. Starting January 1, 1912, United States Circuit Judges served only on the United States court of appeal for their respective circuit.McKinley National Memorial
The McKinley National Memorial in Canton, Ohio, United States, is the final resting place of William McKinley, who served as the 25th President of the United States from 1897 to his assassination in 1901. Canton was a significant place in McKinley's life; he lived there, practiced as an attorney, and conducted his political campaigns from the town.Northern Securities Co. v. United States
Northern Securities Co. v. United States, 193 U.S. 197 (1904), was a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1903. The Court ruled 5 to 4 against the stockholders of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroad companies, who had essentially formed a monopoly, and to dissolve the Northern Securities Company.Stephen A. Day
Stephen Albion Day (July 13, 1882 – January 5, 1950) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.
Day was born in Canton, Ohio, the son of Mary Elizabeth (Schaefer) and William R. Day, who was a diplomat and jurist. Day attended the public schools at Canton, the University School at Cleveland, Ohio, and Asheville (North Carolina) School. He graduated from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1905, and subsequently served as secretary to Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1905 to 1907.
He studied law at the University of Michigan Law School. He was admitted to the bar in 1907 and commenced practice in Cleveland, Ohio. He moved to Evanston, Illinois, in 1908 and continued the practice of law in Chicago, Illinois. He served as special counsel to the Comptroller of the Currency from 1926 to 1928.
Day was elected as a Republican to the Seventy-seventh and Seventy-eighth Congresses (January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1945). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1944 to the Seventy-ninth Congress. He resumed the practice of law in Evanston, Illinois, where he died on January 5, 1950. He was interred in Memorial Park, Skokie, Illinois.Taft Court
The Taft Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States from 1921 to 1930, when William Howard Taft served as Chief Justice of the United States. Taft succeeded Edward Douglass White as Chief Justice after the latter's death, and Taft served as Chief Justice until his resignation, at which point Charles Evans Hughes was nominated and confirmed as Taft's replacement. Taft was also the nation's 27th president (1909–13); he is the only person to serve as both President of the United States and Chief Justice.
The Taft Court continued the Lochner era and largely reflected the conservatism of the 1920s. The Taft Court is also notable for being the first court able to exert some control over its own docket, as the Judiciary Act of 1925 instituted the requirement that almost all cases receive a writ of certiorari from four justices before appearing before the Supreme Court.Treaty of Paris (1898)
The Treaty of Paris of 1898 (Filipino: Kasunduan sa Paris ng 1898; Spanish: Tratado de París (1898)) was a treaty signed by Spain and the United States on December 10, 1898, that ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain relinquished all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. The cession of the Philippines involved a compensation of $20 million from the United States to Spain. The Treaty of Paris came into effect on April 11, 1899, when the documents of ratification were exchanged.The Treaty of Paris marked the end of the Spanish Empire (apart from some small holdings in Northern Africa as well as several islands and territories around the Gulf of Guinea, also in Africa). It marked the beginning of the age of the United States as a world power. Many supporters of the war opposed the treaty, and it became one of the major issues in the election of 1900 when it was opposed by Democrat William Jennings Bryan because he opposed imperialism. Republican President William McKinley upheld the treaty and was easily reelected.USS Protector (AGR-11)
USS Protector (AGR-11/YAGR-11) was a Guardian-class radar picket ship acquired by the U.S. Navy in 1957 from the "mothballed" reserve fleet. She was reconfigured as a radar picket ship and assigned to radar picket duty in the North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Distant Early Warning Line.United States Assistant Secretary of State
Assistant Secretary of State (A/S) is a title used for many executive positions in the United States Department of State, ranking below the Under Secretaries. A set of six Assistant Secretaries reporting to the Under Secretary for Political Affairs manage diplomatic missions within their designated geographic regions, plus one Assistant Secretary dealing with international organizations. Assistant Secretaries usually manage individual bureaus of the Department of State. When the manager of a bureau or another agency holds a title other than Assistant Secretary, such as "Director," it can be said to be of "Assistant Secretary equivalent rank." Assistant Secretaries typically have a set of deputies, referred to as Deputy Assistant Secretaries (DAS).
From 1853 until 1913, the Assistant Secretary of State was the second-ranking official within the U.S. Department of State. Prior to 1853, the Chief Clerk was the second-ranking officer, and after 1913, the Counselor was the second-ranking position, though the Assistant Secretary continued to be a position until 1924. From 1867, the Assistant Secretary of State was assisted by a Second Assistant Secretary of State, and from 1875, by a Third Assistant Secretary of State. Specific duties of the incumbents varied over the years and included such responsibilities as supervising the Diplomatic and Consular Bureaus, general supervision of correspondence, consular appointments, administration of the Department, and supervision of economic matters and various geographic divisions.
Today, the title of the second-ranking position is the Deputy Secretary of State, with the next tier of State Department officials bearing the rank of Under Secretary of State.
The following is a list of current offices bearing the title of "Assistant Secretary of State":
Reporting directly to the United States Secretary of State:
Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research
Assistant Secretary of State for Legislative Affairs
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs:
Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Management:
Assistant Secretary of State for Administration
Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Diplomatic Security
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment:
Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Energy Resources
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs:
Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for International Information Programs
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs:
Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation
Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance
Reporting to the Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights:
Assistant Secretary of State for Conflict and Stabilization Operations
Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees, and MigrationThe following roles also possess a rank equivalent to Assistant Secretary:
Chief of Protocol of the United States
Coordinator for Counterterrorism
Executive Secretary of the Department of State
Inspector General of the Department of State
Legal Adviser of the Department of State
Director General of the Foreign Service
Director of Policy Planning
United States Ambassador-at-Large for Global Women's Issues
United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues
United States Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
United States Global AIDS CoordinatorUnited States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (in case citations, 6th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts:
Eastern District of Kentucky
Western District of Kentucky
Eastern District of Michigan
Western District of Michigan
Northern District of Ohio
Southern District of Ohio
Eastern District of Tennessee
Middle District of Tennessee
Western District of TennesseeThe court is composed of sixteen judges and is based at the Potter Stewart U.S. Courthouse in Cincinnati, Ohio. It is one of thirteen United States courts of appeals.
William Howard Taft, the only person ever to serve as both President and Chief Justice of the United States, once served on the circuit. Four other judges of the Sixth Circuit have been elevated to serve on the Supreme Court.
Decisions issued by the Sixth Circuit were reversed by the United States Supreme Court 24 out of the 25 times that they were reviewed in the five annual terms starting in October 2008 and ending in June 2013, a higher rate of reversal than for any other federal appellate court during that time period.William A. Lynch
William Arnold Lynch (August 4, 1844 – February 6, 1907) was an Ohio lawyer and politician.
Lynch was born in Canton, Ohio, USA in 1844, the son of Arnold Lynch and Frances (Horan) Lynch. Lynch's parents, both Irish immigrants, had moved to Ohio in their young adulthood. Arnold Lynch was employed as a surveyor and later held office as county surveyor and recorder of deeds. Arnold Lynch died in 1857, when his son was thirteen years old. William Lynch attended the public schools in Canton and graduated at the age of sixteen. He studied the law at a local attorney's office and was admitted to the bar in 1865. The next year, Lynch ran as a Democrat for the office of prosecuting attorney of the county and was elected. Lynch was appointed city solicitor of Canton the same year, holding both offices simultaneously. After completing a two-year term, he was defeated for reelection by his Republican opponent, future U.S. President William McKinley. Lynch was renominated in 1870, facing off again against McKinley, and was narrowly elected.Lynch did not seek reelection in 1872, instead starting a private practice with William R. Day, the future Supreme Court justice. In 1874, he married Eliza Underhill, with whom he had three daughters. The next year, 1875, Day and Lynch faced off against McKinley in court, the two partners representing a group of coal mine owners, and McKinley representing a group of striking miners. The case involved charges the miners rioted when confronted with strikebreakers, but only one man was convicted. Lynch's brother, Austin, joined the firm in 1878, which then became known as Lynch, Day, and Lynch. William Lynch resigned from the partnership in 1882, but the firm continued and is the predecessor of the Canton, Ohio firm Day Ketterer, which still exists.After leaving private practice, Lynch was exclusively employed working for railroad interests, including the Connotton Valley Railroad and the Pittsburgh, Akron & Western Railroad. He also was among the owners of the Canton and Massilon Electric Railway, an intercity line. After McKinley's assassination in 1901, Lynch was one of the founders of the McKinley National Memorial Association, which was responsible for the construction of the McKinley National Memorial. From 1903 to 1906, he served as a city councilman in Canton. He practiced law up to his final day, February 6, 1907, when he died in the middle of a trial in Lisbon, Ohio.
|Secretary of Foreign Affairs|
|Secretary of State|
|Secretary of State|
|Secretary of the Treasury|
|Secretary of War|
|Secretary of the Navy|
|Secretary of the Interior|
|Secretary of Agriculture|