William McKendree Springer

William McKendree Springer (May 30, 1836 – December 4, 1903) was a United States Representative from Illinois.

He was born near New Lebanon, Sullivan County, Indiana, May 30, 1836; moved to Jacksonville, Illinois, with his parents in 1848; attended the public schools in New Lebanon and Jacksonville and the Illinois College at Jacksonville where he was a member of Phi Alpha Literary Society;[1] graduated from Indiana University in 1858; studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1859 and practiced in Lincoln, Illinois and Springfield, Illinois; was secretary of the State constitutional convention in 1862 at the young age of 26 and briefly served as assistant secretary of the state’s senate;[2] traveled in Europe 1868-1871; was member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1871 and 1872; elected as a Democrat to the Forty-fourth and to the nine succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1895).

During his service in Congress, he was involved in the investigation of election frauds during the Hayes-Tilden campaign. He was chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State (Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses), Committee on Elections (Forty-sixth Congress), Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Justice (Forty-eighth Congress), Committee on Claims (Forty-ninth Congress), Committee on Territories (Fiftieth Congress), Committee on Ways and Means (Fifty-second Congress), Committee on Banking and Currency (Fifty-third Congress). While on the Committee on Territories Springer framed the bills that organized Oklahoma Territory and also created a federal judicial system for the Indian Territory. Springer created an Amendment as a "rider" to the Indian Appropriations Act for 1890. The Springer Amendment began the process of placing the Unassigned Lands of Indian Territory within the federal public domain and open to homesteaders.[3] He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1894 to the Fifty-fourth Congress. He again resumed the practice of law in Washington, D.C., in 1895. He was appointed by President Grover Cleveland as a United States judge for the northern district of Indian Territory and chief justice of the United States Court of Appeals of Indian Territory.

In 1900 Springer left his judicial post to establish law offices in both Chicago and Washington, D.C. He also worked for the National Livestock Association as their lobbyist, where he became exposed to the Kiowa reserve grasslands.[4]

Though the Springer Amendment helped to open up Indian lands to homesteaders, in 1901 William Springer was hired by two Kiowa Indians (later to include numerous other Indians from the KCA tribes) from the Kiowa, Comanche, Apache Reservation to represent them in what became the court case of Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock, 187 U.S. 553 (1903). Springer had aided in the writing of a memorial to the President protesting the 1900 Act that resulted from the Jerome Agreement between the Indians from the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Reservation and the members of the Jerome Commission. In the Jerome Agreement, the tribes of the KCA Reservation ceded most of their lands to the United States who would then open it up for allotment to white settlers. Lone Wolf asserted and Springer argued on his behalf in court that 1.)

The Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Indians were fraudulently induced to sign the Jerome Agreement and those that did sign did not fully understand its provisions vastly because, like Lone Wolf, most of the Indians did not speak English and relied on interpreters. 2.) The Jerome Agreement was not signed by three-fourths of the adult male members of the tribes as required by the Medicine Lodge Treaty. Lone Wolf alleged that the total number of Indian males exceeded the number claimed by the Indian Agent and that the census of 1900 showed there were 639 adult male members of the KCA tribes on the reservation. Thus the Jerome Agreement was twenty-three signatures short of the required amount. 3.) The KCA’s had protested the agreement from the beginning. 4.) The version that was ratified by Congress had been significantly altered and amended and the changes made had not been submitted to the KCA for their approval. Springer argued for Lone Wolf that Congress should not be able to unilaterally alter the provisions of the agreement without the Indians’ consent and thus the Act should be rejected.

On July 22, 1901, Springer, who was also aided by attorneys Hays McMeehan, William C. Reeves, and Charles Porter Johnson, filed for a temporary restraining order and a permanent injunction halting the cession and the opening of surplus lands after the members of the KCA tribes had been given their individual allotments. The request for the restraining order was denied by Judge Clinton F. Irwin. Springer and his colleagues appeal to The Supreme Court for the District of Columbia where on June 21, 1901, Justice A. C. Bradley denied the KCA’s application for a temporary injunction. Springer appealed the District Court’s decision to the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia where the decision in the lower courts was upheld on December 4, 1901, by Chief Justice Alvey.

Finally, Springer, now aided by attorney Hampton Carson who was hired by the Indian Rights Association, appealed to the United States Supreme Court and where once again he was unsuccessful in his appeal. On January 5, 1903, in a unanimous decision, the Court affirmed the Court of Appeals and upheld the Congressional action. The Court rejected the Indians' argument that Congress' action was a taking under the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Justice Edward D. White described the Indians as the wards of the nation and matters involving Indian lands were the sole jurisdiction of Congress. Congress, therefore, had the power to abrogate the provisions of an Indian treaty, including the two million acre change.[5] Justice John M. Harlan concurred in the judgment. This case maintained that the federal government had always had plenary power over tribes and could unilaterally abrogate Indian treaty rights despite the protests of the tribes.[6]

Springer unsuccessfully challenged the federal income tax levied during the Civil War in the case of Springer v. United States.

William Springer died on December 4, 1903; and was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois.

William McKendree Springer
William McKendree Springer - Brady-Handy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 13th district
In office
March 4, 1883 – March 3, 1895
Preceded byDietrich C. Smith
Succeeded byVespasian Warner
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 12th district
In office
March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1883
Preceded byJames Carroll Robinson
Succeeded byJames M. Riggs
Member of the Illinois House of Representatives
In office
1871-1872
Personal details
BornMay 30, 1836
New Lebanon, Indiana
DiedDecember 4, 1903 (aged 67)
Washington, D.C.
Political partyDemocratic

References

  1. ^ 1845-1890. Catalogue of Phi Alpha Society p. 47
  2. ^ Clark, Blue. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock: Treaty Rights and Indian Law at the End of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
  3. ^ http://digital.library.okstate.edu/encyclopedia/entries/S/SP016.html
  4. ^ Clark, Blue. Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock: Treaty Rights and Indian Law at the End of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
  5. ^ https://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1902/1902_275
  6. ^ Wilkins, David. Reviews the book ‘Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock: Treaty Rights and Indian Law at the End of the Nineteenth Century,’ by Blue Clark. American Indian Quarterly; Fall 1998, Vol. 22 Issue 4, p 528, 5p.

External links

  • United States Congress. "William McKendree Springer (id: S000757)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • William McKendree Springer at Find a Grave
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
James C. Robinson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 12th congressional district

1875-1883
Succeeded by
James M. Riggs
Preceded by
Dietrich C. Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 13th congressional district

1883-1895
Succeeded by
Vespasian Warner
1892 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1892 for members of the 53rd Congress, taking place at the same time as the election of Grover Cleveland as President for the second, non-continuous, time, defeating incumbent Benjamin Harrison.

In spite of the presidential results, Harrison's Republican Party gained back some of the seats that had been lost in 1890 to the Democratic Party, but was still deep in the minority. The Republican pickups were a result of a number of Republican-friendly Northern districts reverting to form after voting Democratic in the previous election cycle. The third party Populists, who had high support among farmers and laborers in the South and West, also gained two seats.

Dietrich C. Smith

Dietrich Conrad Smith (April 4, 1840 – April 18, 1914) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.

Illinois College

Illinois College is a private liberal arts college in Jacksonville, Illinois. It is affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the Presbyterian Church (USA). It was the second college founded in Illinois, but the first to grant a degree (in 1835). It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to found new colleges. It briefly served as the state's first medical school, from 1843 to 1848, and became co-educational in 1903.

James Carroll Robinson

James Carroll Robinson (August 19, 1823 – November 3, 1886) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.

Born near Paris, Illinois, Robinson moved to Clark County, Illinois, with his parents in 1825.

He received a limited schooling.

He engaged in agricultural pursuits.

He served as a corporal during the Mexican War. He studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1850 and commenced practice in Marshall, Illinois.

Robinson was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-sixth, Thirty-seventh, and Thirty-eighth Congresses (March 4, 1859 – March 3, 1865). His vote on the Thirteenth Amendment is recorded as nay.

He did not seek renomination in 1864, but was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Illinois.

He resumed the practice of law in Marshall.

He moved to Sangamon County, Illinois, in 1869 and continued the practice of law in Springfield.

Robinson was elected to the Forty-second and Forty-third Congresses (March 4, 1871 – March 3, 1875).

He served as chairman of the Committee on Mileage (Thirty-seventh and Thirty-eighth Congresses).

He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1874 to the Forty-fourth Congress.

He resumed the practice of law.

He was appointed a member of the Illinois Board of Livestock Commissioners in 1886.

He died in Springfield, Illinois, on November 3, 1886, and was interred in Oak Ridge Cemetery.

James M. Riggs

James Milton Riggs (April 17, 1839 – November 18, 1933) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois, United States.

Born on a farm near Winchester, Illinois, Riggs attended the common schools and Eureka College (Illinois) in 1862 and 1863.

He engaged in agricultural pursuits and taught school.

Sheriff of Scott County from December 1, 1864, to December 1, 1866.

He studied law.

He was admitted to the bar December 28, 1867, and commenced practice in Winchester, Illinois.

Secretary of the Winchester School Board 1868-1884 and served as president 1889-1892. (That district is now part of Winchester Community Unit School District 1.)

He served as member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1871 and 1872.

State's attorney for Scott County 1872-1876.

He served as mayor of Winchester in 1876 and 1877.

He was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Congresses (March 4, 1883-March 3, 1887).

He was not a candidate for renomination in 1886.

He resumed the practice of law in Winchester, Illinois.

He served as president of the Illinois State Bar Association in 1891.

He served as delegate to several State conventions.

He was elected judge of Scott County in 1922.

He was reelected in 1926 and served until 1930 when he retired from active pursuits.

He died in Winchester, Illinois, November 18, 1933.

He was interred in Winchester Cemetery.

John L. Stevens

John Leavitt Stevens (August 1, 1820 – February 8, 1895) was the United States Minister to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 when he was accused of conspiring to overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in association with the Committee of Safety, led by Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole – the first Americans attempting to overthrow a foreign government under the auspices of a United States government officer. John L. Stevens, journalist, author, minister, newspaper publisher and diplomat, was also a Maine State Senator who was a founder of the Republican Party in Maine.

Justice Springer

Justice Springer may refer to:

Charles E. Springer, a Justice of the Supreme Court of Nevada

William McKendree Springer, a chief justice of the United States Court of Appeals of Indian Territory

Land Rush of 1889

The Oklahoma Land Rush of 1889 was the first land rush into the Unassigned Lands. The area that was opened to settlement included all or part of the Canadian, Cleveland, Kingfisher, Logan, Oklahoma, and Payne counties of the US state of Oklahoma. The land run started at high noon on April 22, 1889, with an estimated 50,000 people lined up for their piece of the available two million acres (8,000 km2).The Unassigned Lands were considered some of the best unoccupied public land in the United States. The Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 was passed and signed into law with an amendment by Illinois Representative William McKendree Springer that authorized President Benjamin Harrison to open the two million acres (8,000 km²) for settlement. President Abraham Lincoln signed the Homestead Act of 1862 which allowed settlers to claim lots of up to 160 acres (0.65 km2), provided that they lived on the land and improved it.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 49th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 49th United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 49th Congress (March 4, 1885 – March 3, 1887). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 51st Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 51st United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 51st Congress (March 4, 1889 – March 3, 1891). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 52nd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 52nd United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 52nd Congress (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1893). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 53rd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 53rd United States Congress listed by seniority.

As a historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 53rd Congress (March 4, 1893 – March 3, 1895). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Phi Alpha Literary Society

Phi Alpha (ΦΑ) is a men's Literary Society founded in 1845 at Illinois College in Jacksonville, Illinois. It conducts business meetings, literary productions, and other activities in Beecher Hall, the oldest college building in the state of Illinois.

Rebecca Ruter Springer

Rebecca Ruter Springer (November 8, 1832 – September 7, 1904) was an American author. She began to publish verses shortly after finishing school, and thereafter contributed to leading periodicals. Among her works is the Christian book Intra Muros, better known today as My Dream of Heaven. As the modern name implies, Springer claimed to have a vision of a Christian heaven, and she recounts this vision in her book as well as some personal insights.

The Woman's Building (Chicago)

The Woman's Building was designed and built for the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. It had exhibition space as well as an assembly room, a library, and a Hall of Honor. The History of the World's Fair states "It will be a long time before such an aggregation of woman's work, as may now be seen in the Woman's Building, can be gathered from all parts of the world again."

Vespasian Warner

Vespasian Warner (April 23, 1842 – March 31, 1925) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois.

William McKendree

William McKendree (July 6, 1757 – March 5, 1835) was an Evangelist and the fourth Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the first Methodist bishop born in the United States. He was elected in 1808.

William Springer

William Springer may refer to:

William McKendree Springer (1836–1903), United States Representative from Illinois

William L. Springer (1909–1992), U.S. Representative from Illinois

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